Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-888d5979f-p9qdq Total loading time: 0.217 Render date: 2021-10-27T20:40:37.438Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

9 - The clearing of protoplanetary disks and of the proto-solar nebula

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 February 2010

Dániel Apai
Affiliation:
Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore
Dante S. Lauretta
Affiliation:
University of Arizona
Get access

Summary

Abstract Circumstellar disks are a natural outcome of the star-formation process and the sites where planets form. Gas, mainly hydrogen and helium, accounts for about 99% of the disk's initial mass while dust, in the form of submicron-sized grains, only for about 1%. In the process of forming planets circumstellar disks disperse: submicron dust grains collide and stick together to form larger aggregates; gas accretes onto the star, onto the cores of giant and icy planets, and evaporates from the disk surface. A key question in planet formation is the timescale and physical mechanism for the clearing of protoplanetary disks. How rapidly gas and dust disperse determines what type of planets can form.

In this chapter we compare the evolution of protoplanetary disks to that of the proto-solar nebula. We start by summarizing the observational constraints on the lifetime of protoplanetary disks and discuss four major disk-dispersal mechanisms. Then, we seek constraints on the clearing of gas and dust in the proto-solar nebula from the properties of meteorites, asteroids, and planets. Finally, we try to anchor the evolution of protoplanetary disks to the Solar System chronology and discuss what observations and experiments are needed to understand how common is the history of the Solar System.

The observed lifetime of protoplanetary disks

Observations at different wavelengths trace different disk regions (see e.g. Chapter 3). Therefore, determining when disks disperse requires multi-wavelength observations of disks around stars of different ages. The ages of young stars (younger than ∼100 Myr) are typically estimated by comparing their positions in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram to predictions from pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks.

Type
Chapter
Information
Protoplanetary Dust
Astrophysical and Cosmochemical Perspectives
, pp. 263 - 298
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)
31
Cited by

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×