Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-t5pn6 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-22T14:06:44.164Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

34 - Imagination Is the Seed of Creativity

from Manifestations of Creativity

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 April 2019

James C. Kaufman
Affiliation:
University of Connecticut
Robert J. Sternberg
Affiliation:
Cornell University, New York
Get access

Summary

Imagination – the ability to mentally simulate situations and ideas not perceived by the physical senses – lays the foundation for creativity. Yet imagination alone is insufficient to produce creativity. We define two types of imagination important for creativity: social-emotional and temporal. Social-emotional imagination is the ability to conceive of and reflect on multiple social perspectives and scenarios and the implications of these for one’s own and others’ lives. It promotes creativity by helping individuals understand multiplicities of identity and experience within themselves and others, reason ethically, and appreciate human diversity and potential. Temporal imagination is the ability to engage in mental time travel, counterfactual thinking, and mind-wandering. It can lead to creativity by allowing individuals to engage in the kind of nonliteral, divergent, and future-oriented thought creativity necessitates. For creativity to happen, imaginative thought is infused into mental simulations that are regulated, evaluated, and integrated to conjure new ideas and concepts. As such, in the brain, creativity relies heavily on the default mode network, which is known to be involved in mental simulations across time and especially about social content. Creativity also relies on organized interactions between the default mode network and the executive attention and salience networks, in order for imaginings to be strategically organized into coherent, meaningful plans and actionable ideas. To harness the potential of imagination, individuals need conducive personal qualities, including openness to experience and intrinsic motivation, as well as a supportive context. To better support individuals in developing their creative potential, for example in schools and in the workplace, we must continue to explore the mechanisms by which imagination leads to creativity and the biological, mental, and cultural constraints and affordances.
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abraham, A. (2016). The imaginative mind. Human Brain Mapping, 37(11), 41974211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Andrews-Hanna, J.R., Smallwood, J., & Spreng, R.N. (2014). The default network and self-generated thought: Component processes, dynamic control, and clinical relevance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1316, 2952.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baird, B., Smallwood, J., Mrazek, M. D., Kam, J. W., Franklin, M. S., & Schooler, J. W. (2012). Inspired by distraction mind wandering facilitates creative incubation. Psychological Science, 23(10), 11171122.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baird, B., Smallwood, J., & Schooler, J. W. (2011). Back to the future: Autobiographical planning and the functionality of mind-wandering. Conscious Cognition, 20, 16041611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barron, F. & Harrington, D.M. (1981). Creativity, intelligence, and personality. Annual Review of Psychology, 32, 439476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Batson, C. D. (2009). Two forms of perspective taking: Imagining how another feels and imagining how you would feel. In Markman, K. D., Klein, W. M. P., & Suhr, J. A. (eds.), Handbook of imagination and mental simulation. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Beaussart, M. L., Andrews, C. J., & Kaufman, J. C. (2013). Creative liars: The relationship between creativity and integrity. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 9, 129134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beaty, R. E., Benedek, M., Kaufman, S. B., & Silvia, P. J. (2015). Default and executive network coupling supports creative idea production. Nature Scientific Reports, 5, 10964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beaty, R. E., Benedek, M., Wilkins, R. W., Jauk, E., Fink, A., Silvia, P. J., … & Neubauer, A. C. (2014). Creativity and the default network: A functional connectivity analysis of the creative brain at rest. Neuropsychologia, 64, 9298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beaty, R. E., Silvia, P. J., Nusbaum, E. C., Jauk, E., & Benedek, M. (2014). The roles of associative and executive processes in creative cognition. Memory and Cognition, 42, 11861197.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beghetto, R. A. & Dilley, A. E. (2016). Creative aspirations or pipe dreams? Toward understanding creative mortification in children and adolescents. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2016(151), 8595.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berk, L. E., Mann, T. D., & Ogan, A. T. (2006). Make-believe play: Wellspring for the development of self-regulation. In Singer, D. G., Golinkoff, R., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (eds.), Play=learning: How play motivates and enhances young children’s cognitive and social-emotional growth (pp. 74110). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Binning, K. R., Unzueta, M. M., Huo, Y. J., & Molina, L. E. (2009). The interpretation of multiracial status and its relation to social engagement and psychological well-being. Journal of Social Issues, 65(1), 3549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonnelle, V., Ham, T. E., Leech, R., Kinnunen, K. M., Mehta, M. A., Greenwood, R. J., & Sharp, D. J. (2012). Salience network integrity predicts default mode network function after traumatic brain injury. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 109, 46904695.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Briazu, R. A., Walsh, C. R., Deeprose, C., & Ganis, G. (2017). Undoing the past in order to lie in the present: Counterfactual thinking and deceptive communication. Cognition, 161, 6673.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buckner, R. L., Andrews-Hanna, J. R., & Schacter, D. L. (2008). The brain’s default network: Anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124, 138.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buckner, R. L. & Carroll, D. C. (2007). Self-projection and the brain. Trends in Cognitive Science, 11, 4957.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carson, S. H. (2011). Creativity and psychopathology: A shared vulnerability model. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56(3), 144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carson, S. H., Peterson, J. B., & Higgins, D. M. (2003). Decreased latent inhibition is associated with increased creative achievement in high-functioning individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(3), 499506.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chang, A. F., Berger, S. E., & Chang, B. (1981). The relationship of student self-esteem and teacher empathy to classroom learning. Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior, 18 (4) 2125.Google Scholar
Cooney, G., Gilbert, D. T., & Wilson, T. D. (2017). The novelty penalty: Why do people like talking about new experiences but hearing about old ones?. Psychological Science, 28(3), 380394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cropley, D. H., Kaufman, J. C., & Cropley, A. J. (2008). Malevolent creativity: A functional model of creativity in terrorism and crime. Creativity Research Journal, 20(2), 105115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Brigard, F., Spreng, R. N., Mitchell, J. P., & Schacter, D. L. (2015). Neural activity associated with self, other, and object-based counterfactual thinking. Neuroimage, 109, 1226.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeYoung, C. G. (2013). The neuromodulator of exploration: A unifying theory of the role of dopamine in personality. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 762.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeYoung, C. G., Quilty, L. C., & Peterson, J. B. (2007). Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the Big Five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(5), 880896.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doron, E. (2017). Fostering creativity in school aged children through perspective taking and visual media based short term intervention program. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 23, 150160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunlop, W. L., Guo, J., & McAdams, D. P. (2016). The autobiographical author through time: Examining the degree of stability and change in redemptive and contaminated personal narratives. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(5), 428436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fan, Y., Duncan, N. W., Greck, M. De, & Northoff, G. (2011). Is there a core neural network in empathy? An fMRI based quantitative meta-analysis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35(3), 903911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fein, G. G. (1987). Pretend play: Creativity and consciousness. In Görlitz, D. & Wohlwill, J. F. (eds.), Curiosity, imagination, and play: On the development of spontaneous cognitive motivational processes (pp. 281304). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Finke, R. (1995). Creative realism. In Smith, S., Ward, T., & Finke, R. (eds.), The creative cognition approach. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Finke, R. A., Ward, T. B., & Smith, S. M. (1992). Creative cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Fiorella, L. & Mayer, R. E. (2014). Role of expectations and explanations in learning by teaching. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39(2), 7585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fong, C. T. (2006). The effects of emotional ambivalence on creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 49(5), 10161030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Förster, J., Friedman, R.S., & Liberman, N. (2004). Temporal construal effects on abstract and concrete thinking: Consequences for insight and creative cognition. Journal of Personality Psychology and Social Psychology, 87, 177189.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frankl, V. (1946). Man’s search for meaning. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
Galinsky, A. D., Maddux, W. W., Gilin, D., & White, J. B. (2008). Why it pays to get inside the head of your opponent: The differential effects of perspective taking and empathy in negotiations. Psychological Science, 19(4), 378384.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galinsky, A. D. & Moskowitz, G. B. (2000). Perspective-taking: Decreasing stereotype expression, stereotype accessibility, and in-group favoritism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(4), 708.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gilbert, D. & Wilson, T. (2007). Prospection: Experiencing the future. Science, 351, 13511354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glăveanu, V. P. (2010). Principles for a cultural psychology of creativity. Culture and Psychology, 16(2), 147163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldstein, T. R., Wu, K., & Winner, E. (2009). Actors are skilled in theory of mind but not empathy. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 29(2), 115133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gotlieb, R., Hyde, E., Immordino-Yang, M. H., & Kaufman, S. B. (2016). Cultivating the social–emotional imagination in gifted education: Insights from educational neuroscience. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1377(1), 2231.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gotlieb, R., Jahner, E., Immordino-Yang, M. H., & Kaufman, S. B. (2016). How social–emotional imagination facilitates deep learning and creativity in the classroom. In Beghetto, R. A. & Kaufman, J. C (eds.). Nurturing creativity in the classroom (2nd edn). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Gresky, D. M., Eyck, L. L. T., Lord, C. G., & McIntyre, R. B. (2005). Effects of salient multiple identities on women’s performance under mathematics stereotype threat. Sex Roles, 53(9), 703716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirsh-Pasek, K., Golinkoff, R., Berk, L., & Singer, D. (2009). A mandate for playful learning in preschool: Presenting the evidence. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hoever, I. J., Van Knippenberg, D., Van Ginkel, W. P., & Barkema, H. G. (2012). Fostering team creativity: Perspective taking as key to unlocking diversity’s potential. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(5), 982.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoff, E. V. (2005). Imaginary companions, creativity, and self-image in middle childhood. Creativity Research Journal, 17(2–3), 167180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, F. P. (1999). Children, play, and development (3rd edn). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
Hurtado, S. (2005). The next generation of diversity and intergroup relations research. Journal of Social Issues, 61(3), 595610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Immordino-Yang, M. H. (2011). Me, my “self” and you: Neuropsychological relations between social emotion, self-awareness, and morality. Emotion Review, 3(3), 313315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Immordino-Yang, M. H., Christodoulou, J. A., & Singh, V. (2012). Rest is not idleness: Implications of the brain’s default mode for human development and education. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(4), 352364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Immordino-Yang, M. H. & Gotlieb, R. (2017) Embodied brains, social minds, cultural meaning: Integrating neuroscientific and educational research on social-affective development. American Educational Research Journal, Centennial Issue, 54(1), 344367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Immordino-Yang, M. H., McColl, A., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. (2009). Neural correlates of admiration and compassion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(19), 80218026.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Immordino-Yang, M. H., Yang, X. & Damasio, H. (2014) Correlations between social-emotional feelings and anterior insula activity are independent from visceral states but influenced by culture. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 728.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jack, A. I., Dawson, A. J., Begany, K. L., Leckie, R. L., Barry, K. P., Ciccia, A. H., & Snyder, A. Z. (2013). fMRI reveals reciprocal inhibition between social and physical cognitive domains. NeuroImage, 66, 385401.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jackson, J. D., Weinstein, Y., & Balota, D. A. (2013). Can mind-wandering be timeless? Atemporal focus and aging in mind-wandering paradigms. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 742.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jung, R. E., Mead, B. S., Carrasco, J., & Flores, R. A. (2013). The structure of creative cognition in the human brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7(330), 113.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kam, J. W., Dao, E., Stanciulescu, M., Tildesley, H., & Handy, T.C. (2013). Mind wandering and the adaptive control of attentional resources. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25, 952960.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kang, S. K. & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2015). Multiple identities in social perception and interaction: Challenges and opportunities. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 547574.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaufman, J. C. (2006). Self‐reported differences in creativity by ethnicity and gender. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20(8), 10651082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, J. C. (2010). Using creativity to reduce ethnic bias in college admissions. Review of General Psychology, 14(3), 189203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, J. C. & Beghetto, R. A. (2009). Beyond big and little: The four c model of creativity. Review of General Psychology, 13(1), 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, J. C., Waterstreet, M. A., Ailabouni, H. S., Whitcomb, H. J., Roe, A. K. et al. (2010). Personality and self-perceptions of creativity across domains. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 29 (3), 193209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, S. B. (2012). The need for pretend play in child development. Psychology Today. www.psychologytoday.com/blog/beautiful-minds/201203/the-need-pretend-play-in-child-developmentGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, S. B. (2013). Opening up openness to experience: A four‐factor model and relations to creative achievement in the arts and sciences. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 47(4), 233255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, S. B. (2015). The emotions that make us more creative. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2015/08/the-emotions-that-make-us-more-creativeGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, S. B., DeYoung, C. G., Gray, J. R., Jimenez, L., Brown, J. B., & Mackintosh, N. (2010). Implicit learning as an ability. Cognition, 116, 321340.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaufman, S. B. & Duckworth, A. L. (2015). World-class expertise: A developmental model. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science. https://doi.org/10.1002/wcs.1365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, S. B. & Gregoire, C. (2015). Wired to create: Unraveling the mysteries of the creative mind. New York: Perigee, Penguin Random House.Google Scholar
Kaufman, S. B., Quilty, L. C., Grazioplene, R. G., Hirsh, J. B., Gray, J. R., Peterson, J. B., & De Young, C. G. (2016). Openness to experience and intellect differentially predict creative achievement in the arts and sciences. Journal of Personality, 84, 248258.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lamm, C., Decety, J., & Singer, T. (2011). Meta-analytic evidence for common and distinct neural networks associated with directly experienced pain and empathy for pain. NeuroImage, 54(3), 24922502.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liberman, N., Sagristano, M. D., & Trope, Y. (2002). The effect of temporal distance on level of mental construal. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 523534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liberman, N. & Trope, Y. (1998). The role of feasibility and desirability considerations in near and distant future decisions: A test of temporal construal theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liberman, N. & Trope, Y. (2008). The psychology of transcending the here and now. Science, 322, 12011205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liberman, N., Trope, Y., & Stephan, E. (2007). Psychological distance. Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles, 2, 353383.Google Scholar
Lubow, R. E. (1989). Latent inhibition and conditioned attention theory (Vol. 9). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lubow, R. E., Ingberg-Sachs, Y., Zalstein-Orda, N., & Gewirtz, J. C. (1992). Latent inhibition in low and high “psychotic-prone” normal subjects. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(5),563572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madore, K. P., Addis, D. R., & Schacter, D. L. (2015). Creativity and memory effects of an episodic-specificity induction on divergent thinking. Psychological Science, 26(9), 14611468.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Madore, K. P., Jing, H. G., & Schacter, D. L. (2016). Divergent creative thinking in young and older adults: Extending the effects of an episodic specificity induction. Memory and Cognition, 44(6), 974988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Markman, K. D., Klein, W. M., & Suhr, J. A. (2009). Overview. In Markman, K. D., Klein, W. M., & Suhr, J. A. (eds.), Handbook of imagination and mental simulation (pp. viixvi). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
Mason, R. A. & Just, M. A. (2016). Neural representations of physics concepts. Psychological Science, 27(6), 904913.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McAdams, D. P. & Guo, J. (2015). Narrating the generative life. Psychological Science, 26(4), 475483.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCrae, R. R. (1987). Creativity, divergent thinking, and openness to experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 12581263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McMillan, R., Kaufman, S. B., & Singer, J. L. (2013). Ode to positive constructive daydreaming. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 626.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mischel, W. (2014). The marshmallow test: Mastering self-control (1st edn). New York: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Rodriguez, M. L. (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science, 244(4907), 933938.Google Scholar
Mitchell, J. P., Schirmer, J., Ames, D.L., & Gilbert., D.T. (2011). Medial prefrontal cortex predicts intertemporal choice. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 23(4), 857866.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Montessori, M. (1948). From childhood to adolescence: Including erdkinder and the function of the university (1st English edn 1973). Amsterdam: Montessori-Pierson Publishing Company.Google Scholar
Mooneyham, B. W. & Schooler, J. W. (2013). The costs and benefits of mind-wandering: a review. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67(1), 1118.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morris, M., Chiu, C.Y., & Liu, Z. (2015). Polycultural psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 631659.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nestojko, J. F., Bui, D. C., Kornell, N., & Bjork, E. L. (2014). Expecting to teach enhances learning and organization of knowledge in free recall of text passages. Memory and Cognition, 42(7), 10381048.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 504.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O’Connor, E., McCormack, T., Beck, S. R., & Feeney, A. (2015). Regret and adaptive decision making in young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 135, 8692.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O’Hearn, C. C. (2008). Half and half: Writers on growing up biracial and bicultural. Pantheon.Google Scholar
Oleynick, V. C., DeYoung, C. G., Hyde, E., Kaufman, S. B., Beaty, R. E., & Silvia, P. J. (2017). Openness/Intellect: The core of the creative personality. In Feist, G. J., Reiter-Palmon, R., & Kaufman, J. C. (eds.), The Cambridge handbook of creativity and personality research. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Oleynick, V. C., Thrash, T. M., LeFew, M. C., Moldovan, E. G., & Kieffaber, P. D. (2014). The scientific study of inspiration in the creative process: Challenges and opportunities. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Østby, Y., Walhovd, K. B., Tamnes, C. K., Grydeland, H., Westlye, L. T., & Fjell, A. M. (2012). Mental time travel and default-mode network functional connectivity in the developing brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(42), 1680016804.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oyserman, D. & Lee, S. W. (2008). Does culture influence what and how we think? Effects of priming individualism and collectivism. Psychological Bulletin, 134(2), 311342.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peterson, J. B., Smith, K. W., & Carson, S. (2002). Openness and extraversion are associated with reduced latent inhibition: Replication and commentary. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 11371147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Preiss, D. D., Cosmelli, D., Grau, V., & Ortiz, D. (2016). Examining the influence of mind wandering and metacognition on creativity in university and vocational students. Learning and Individual Differences, 51, 417426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raichle, M. E. & Snyder, A. Z. (2007). A default mode of brain function: A brief history of an evolving idea. Neuroimage, 37(4), 10831090.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roese, N. J. & Olson, J. M. (2014). What might have been: The social psychology of counterfactual thinking. Psychology Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rumble, A. C., Van Lange, P. A., & Parks, C. D. (2010). The benefits of empathy: When empathy may sustain cooperation in social dilemmas. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40(5), 856866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Runco, M. A. (2006 ). Creativity: Theories and themes: Research, development, and practice. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Runco, M. A. & Pina, J. (2013). Imagination and personal creativity. In Taylor, M. (ed.), Oxford handbook of the development of imagination (pp. 379386). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Russ, S. W. (2014). Pretend play in childhood: Foundations of adult creativity. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russ, S. W., Robins, A., & Christiano, B. (1999). Pretend play: longitudinal prediction of creativity and affect in fantasy in children. Creativity Research Journal, 12, 129139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rydell, R. J. & Boucher, K. L. (2010). Capitalizing on multiple social identities to prevent stereotype threat: The moderating role of self-esteem. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(2), 239250.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rydell, R. J., McConnell, A. R., & Beilock, S. L. (2009). Multiple social identities and stereotype threat: Imbalance, accessibility, and working memory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(5), 949.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sachet, A. B. & Mottweiler, C.M. (2013). The distinction between role-play and object substitution in pretend play. In Taylor, M. (ed.), Oxford handbook of the development of imagination (pp. 175185). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Sawyer, R. K. (2007). Group genius: The creative power of collaboration (1st edn). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Sawyer, R. K. (2017). Group genius: The creative power of collaboration (2nd edn). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Schacter, D. L. (1996). Searching for memory: The brain, the mind, and the past. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Schacter, D. L., Addis, D. R., & Buckner, R. L. (2007). Remembering the past to imagine the future: The prospective brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8, 657661.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schooler, J. W., Smallwood, J., Christoff, K., Handy, T. C., Reichle, E. D., & Sayette, M. A. (2011). Meta-awareness, perceptual decoupling, and the wandering mind. Trends Cognitive Science, 15, 319326.Google ScholarPubMed
Schurz, M., Radua, J., Aichhorn, M., Richlan, F., & Perner, J. (2014). Fractionating theory of mind: A meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seligman, M. E. P., Forgeard, M., & Kaufman, S. B. (2016). Creativity and aging: What we can make with what we have left. In Seligman, M. E. P., Railton, P., Baumeister, R. F., & Sripada, C. (eds.), Homo Prospectus. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Seligman, M. E. P., Railton, P., Baumeister, R. F., & Sripada, C. (2013). Navigating into the future or driven by the past. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8(2), 119141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shenk, J. W. (2014). Powers of two: Finding the essence of innovation in creative pairs. New York: Eamon Dolan and Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.Google Scholar
Shweder, R. A. & Bourne, E. J. (1982). Does the concept of the person vary cross-culturally?. In Marsella, A. & White, G. (eds.), Cultural conceptions of mental health and therapy. Dordrecht: Reidel.Google Scholar
Smallwood, J., Ruby, F. J., & Singer, T. (2013). Letting go of the present: Mind-wandering is associated with reduced delay discounting. Conscious Cognition, 22, 17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smallwood, J., Schooler, J. W., Turk, D. J., Cunningham, S. J., Burns, P., & Macrae, C. N. (2011). Self-reflection and the temporal focus of the wandering mind. Conscious Cognition. 20, 11201126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spreng, R. N. & Andrews-Hanna, J. R. (2015). The default network and social cognition. Brain mapping: An encyclopedic reference. Academic Press, 165169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spreng, R. N. & Grady, C. L. (2010). Patterns of brain activity supporting autobiographical memory, prospection, and theory of mind, and their relationship to the default mode network. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22(6), 11121123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sternberg, R. J. & Lubart, T. I. (1991). An investment theory of creativity and its development. Human Development, 34, 131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sternberg, R. J. & Lubart, T. I. (1999). The concept of creativity: Prospects and paradigms. In Sternberg, R. J. (ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 315). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Taillandier-Schmitt, A., Esnard, C., & Mokounkolo, R. (2012). Self-affirmation in occupational training: Effects on the math performance of French women nurses under stereotype threat. Sex Roles, 67(1–2), 4357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tamir, D. I. & Mitchell, J. P. (2011). The default network distinguishes construals of proximal versus distal events. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23(10), 29452955.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, M., Hodges, S. D., & Kohányi, A. (2003). The illusion of independent agency: Do adult fiction writers experience their characters as having minds of their own?. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 22(4), 361380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tetlock, P. E. & Gardner, D. (2016). Superforecasting: The art and science of prediction. New York: Broadway Books.Google Scholar
Thrash, T. M., Maruskin, L. A., Cassidy, S. E., Fryer, J. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). Mediating between the muse and the masses: Inspiration and the actualization of creative ideas. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(3), 469.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trope, Y. & Liberman, N. (2003). Temporal construal. Psychological Review, 110, 403421.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tulving, E. (1985). Memory and consciousness. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 26(1), 112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tulving, E. (2002). Chronesthesia: Conscious awareness of subjective time. In Stuss, D. T. & Knight, R. T. (eds.). Principles of frontal lobe function. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Vezzali, L., Gocłowska, M. A., Crisp, R. J., & Stathi, S. (2016). On the relationship between cultural diversity and creativity in education: The moderating role of communal versus divisional mindset. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 21, 152157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vygotsky, L. S. (1931/2004). Imagination and creativity in childhood (Trans. M. E. Sharpe). Journal of Russian and East European Psychology, 42(1), 797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ward, T. B. (1995). What’s old about new ideas? In Smith, S. M., Ward, T. B., & Finke, R. A. (eds.), The creative cognition approach (pp. 157178). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Waytz, A. G., Hershfield, H. E., & Tamir, D. I. (2015). Mental simulation and meaning in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108(2), 336–335.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zabelina, D. L. & Andrews-Hanna, J. R. (2016). Dynamic network interactions supporting internally-oriented cognition. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 40, 8693.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×