Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-x64cq Total loading time: 0.33 Render date: 2022-05-18T23:58:20.624Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

6 - Millimeter wave communications

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2016

Robert Baldemair
Affiliation:
Nokia
Kumar Balachandran
Affiliation:
Ericsson
Lars Sundström
Affiliation:
Ericsson
Dennis Hui
Affiliation:
Ericsson
Afif Osseiran
Affiliation:
Ericsson
Jose F. Monserrat
Affiliation:
Universitat Politècnica de València
Patrick Marsch
Affiliation:
Nokia
Mischa Dohler
Affiliation:
King's College London
Takehiro Nakamura
Affiliation:
NTT DoCoMo Inc.
Get access

Summary

Certain 5G METIS scenarios [1] such as Amazingly Fast, Best Experience Follows You, and Service in a Crowd create extreme requirements on data rate, traffic handling capability, and availability of high capacity transport respectively. These scenarios map to corresponding requirements that will entail support of over 10 Gbps, 10–100 times the number of connected devices, 1000 times the traffic, and 5 times lower end-to-end latency than possible through IMT-Advanced. The peak data rate requirements of these scenarios will entail acquisition of several hundreds of MHz of spectrum. These requirements do not encompass 5G, but instead offer one avenue of stressing system capabilities along a limited set of dimensions. Several traffic forecasts [2][3] also predict a tenfold increase in traffic volume from 2015 to 2020.

The 5G requirements of interest to this chapter relate mainly to data rates and traffic volumes and can be met using techniques that are tried and tested in past generations of mobile networks. These are to (1) gain access to new spectrum, (2) improve spectral efficiency, and (3) densify the networks using small cells. In the case of 5G, these techniques are given new life using two means: the use of millimeter Wave (mmW) spectrum for the availability of large blocks of contiguous spectrum, and the subsequent adoption of beamforming as an enabler for high spectrum efficiency. The propagation of millimeter waves is naturally affected by physics to reduce coverage to shorter ranges. Ultra-Dense Network (UDN) deployments are therefore a consequence of the choice of frequency band, and will lead to a tremendous increase in capacity over the covered area. The increase in spectral efficiency arises out of the drastic reduction of interference in relation to signal power due to the high gain beamforming.

Spectrum and regulations

The primary motivation for using millimeter waves is the promise of abundant spectrum above 30 GHz. While mmW spectrum spans the range from 30 GHz–300 GHz, it is widely believed that the reach of mass market semiconductor technology extends up to around 100 GHz and will inevitably surpass that limit with time. Microwave bands from 3 GHz–30 GHz are just as relevant to meeting extreme requirements for 5G, and much of the discussion in this chapter is relevant to those parts of the centimeter Wave (cmW) band outside of the reach of existing systems as well, namely the region 10 GHz–30 GHz (see Figure 6.1).

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2016

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

[1] ICT-317669 METIS project, “Scenarios, requirements and KPIs for 5G mobile and wireless system,” Deliverable D1.1, April 2013, www.metis2020.com/documents/deliverables/
[2] Ericsson, , Ericsson Mobility Report, Report No. EAB-15:037849, November 2015, www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2015/mobility-report/ericsson-mobility-report-nov-2015.pdf
[3] Cisco, Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update 2014–2019, White Paper, February 2015, www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/visual-networking-index-vni/white_paper_c11-520862.html
[4] IEEE 802.11ad, “IEEE Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications Amendment 3: Enhancements for Very High Throughput in the 60 GHz Band,” IEEE Standard 802.11ad-2012 Part 11, 2012.
[5] IEEE, “Next Generation 802.11ad: 30+ Gbps WLAN,” Document IEEE 11–14/0606r0, May 2014, https://mentor.ieee.org/802.11/dcn/14/11-14-0606-00-0wng-next-generation-802-11ad.pptx
[6] FCC, “NOI to examine use of bands above 24 GHz for mobile broadband,” FCC 14–154, October 2014, www.fcc.gov/document/noi-examine-use-bands-above-24-ghz-mobile-broadband
[7] Ofcom, “Call for Input: Spectrum above 6 GHz for future mobile communications,” January 2015.
[8] FCC, “47 CFR 2.1093 – Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: portable devices,” Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), title 47, vol. 1, section 2.1093, 2010, 47 CFR 2.1093 – Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: portable devices
[9] International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz),” Health Physics, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 494–522, October 1998.
[10] Colombi, D., Thors, B., and Törnevik, C., “Implications of EMF exposure limits on output power levels for 5G devices above 6 GHz,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 14, pp. 1247–1249, 2015.Google Scholar
[11] FCC, “Millimeter Wave Propagation: Spectrum Management Implications,” Bulletin no. 70, July 1997.
[12] Rappaport, T. S., Sun, S., Mayzus, R., Zhao, H., Azar, Y., Wang, K., Wong, G. N., Schulz, J. K., Samimi, M., and Gutierrez, F., “Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5G cellular: It will work!,” IEEE Access, vol. 1, pp. 335–349, 2013.Google Scholar
[13] MacCartney, G. R. and Rappaport, T. S, “73 GHz millimeter wave propagation measurements for outdoor urban mobile and backhaul communications in New York City,” in IEEE International Conf. on Communications, Sydney, June 2014, pp. 4862–4867.
[14] Johnson, E., “Physical limitations on frequency and power parameters of transistors,” in 1958 IRE International Convention Record, vol. 13, pp. 27–34, 1966.Google Scholar
[15] Murmann, B., “ADC Performance Survey 1997–2015,” [Online] http://web.stanford.edu/~murmann/adcsurvey.html
[16] Vardhan, H., Thomas, N., Ryu, S.-R., Banerjee, B., and Prakash, R., “Wireless data center with millimeter wave network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, Miami, December 2010, pp. 1–6.
[17] Silva, I. Da, Mildh, G., Rune, J., Wallentin, P., Fan, Rui, Vikberg, J., and Schliwa-Bertling, P., “Tight integration of new 5G Air Interface and LTE to fulfil 5G requirements,” in IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Glasgow, May 2015.
[18] Ishii, H., Kishiyama, Y., and Takahashi, H., “A novel architecture for LTE-B: C-plane, U-plane split and the phantom cell concept,” in IEEE International workshop on emerging technologies for LTE Advanced and Beyond-4G, Anaheim, December 2012.
[19] Nakamura, T., Nagata, S., Benjebbour, A., Kishiyama, Y., Hai, Tang, Xiaodong, Shen, Ning, Yang, and Nan, Li, “Trends in small cell enhancements in LTE Advanced,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 98–105, February 2013.Google Scholar
[20] Hui, D., “Distributed precoding with local power negotiation for coordinated multi-point transmission,” in IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Yokohama, May 2011, pp. 1–5.
[21] Sun, S., Rappaport, T. S., Heath, R. W. Jr., Nix, A, and Rangan, S., “MIMO for millimeter-wave wireless communications: Beamforming, spatial multiplexing, or both?,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 32–33, December 2014.Google Scholar
[22] Alkhateeb, A., Mo, J., González-Prelcic, N., and Heath, R. W. Jr., “MIMO precoding and combining solutions for millimeter-wave systems,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 122–131, December 2014.Google Scholar
[23] Zhou, L. and Ohashi, Y., “Efficient codebook-based MIMO beamforming for millimeter-wave WLANs,” in IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Sydney, 2012, pp. 1885–1889.
[24] Bajwa, W. U., Haupt, J., Sayeed, A. M., and Nowak, R., “Compressed channel sensing: A new approach to estimating sparse multipath channels,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 1058–1076, 2010.Google Scholar
[25] Baldemair, R., Irnich, T., Balachandran, K., Dahlman, E., Mildh, G., Selén, Y., Parkvall, S., Meyer, M., and Osseiran, A., “Ultra-dense networks in millimeter-wave frequencies,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 202–208, January 2015.Google Scholar
[26] Ghosh, A., Thomas, T. A., Cudak, M. C., Ratasuk, R., Moorut, P., Vook, F. W., Rappaport, T. S., MacCartney, G. R. Jr., Sun, S., and Nie, S., “Millimeter-wave enhanced local area systems: A high-data-rate approach for future wireless networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1152–1163, June 2014.Google Scholar
[27] ICT-317669 METIS project, “Proposed solutions for new radio access,” Deliverable D2.4, February 2015, https://www.metis2020.com/documents/deliverables/
[28] Rappaport, T. S., Heath, R. W. Jr., Daniels, R. C., and Murdock, J. N., Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2014.

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×