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Avian malaria (caused by Plasmodium spp.) and avian malaria-like infections (caused by Haemoproteus spp.) are widespread and can seriously affect the health of their bird hosts, especially of immunologically naïve individuals. Therefore, these parasites have long been in the focus of bird-parasite studies. However, the species richness and diversity of these protozoan species have only been revealed since the use of molecular techniques. Diversity and prevalence of these parasites among different bird species and even between populations of a species show a large variation. Here, we investigated prevalence of avian malaria and avian malaria-like parasites in two distant populations of a non-migratory wetland specialist passerine, the bearded reedling (Panurus biarmicus). While previous studies have shown that reed-dwelling bird species often carry various blood parasite lineages and the presence of the vectors transmitting Plasmodium and Haemoproteus species has been confirmed from our study sites, prevalence of these parasites was extremely low in our populations. This may either suggest that bearded reedlings may avoid or quickly clear these infections, or these parasites cause high mortality in this species. The remarkably low prevalence of infection in this species is consistent with earlier studies and makes bearded reedlings a possible model organism for investigating the genetic or behavioural adaptations of parasite resistance.
Throughout his career, Wittgenstein’s philosophical attitude was characteristically non-revisionist: philosophy as he conceives it does not change established concepts or practices, but leaves everything as it is. This essay seeks to understand Wittgenstein’s non-revisionist conception by contrasting it against the views of the two most prominent and self-conscious revisionists in the analytic tradition: Carnap and Quine. This comparison in turn serves to reveal continuities and discontinuities between Wittgenstein’s early and later versions of philosophical non-revisionism, and these continuities and discontinuities are in turn related to some central developments in his thought on language, logic, and the nature of philosophical perspicuity. Finally, it is argued that the revisionist methodologies of Carnap and Quine are fundamentally question-begging.
This chapter argues that Arthur Murphy’s tragic dramaturgy is more radical than has been recognised, notably in its treatment of the classic Enlightenment concerns with religious toleration and the ‘savage’ or indigenous critique of colonial invasion. Murphy’s serious plays are Drydenic in spatial reach, stretching from East Asia (The Orphan of China ) to Peru (Alzuma [1757/1773]) via Syria (Zenobia ) and Greece (The Grecian Daughter ). Murphy’s imperial dramaturgy swerves from his predecessor’s, however, in focusing on female protagonists and reiterating indigenous or non-European literary historical accounts of colonial conquest and resistance. Contextualising Murphy’s tragic writing via his Irish and Catholic origins (partially subsumed by his later metropolitan British and Anglican affiliations), this chapter explores Alzuma’s reiteration of Voltaire’s and Hill’s Alzire/Alzuma, themselves redactions of Garcilaso de la Vega’s Royal Commentaries of Peru. Noting how Murphy’s profound attachment to his devoutly Catholic mother informs his critique of forced conversion, Orr shows how his dramatisation of the black legend topos is linked to other Irish Patriot uses of this trope, by radical politician Charles Lucas and by well-known Patriot author Henry Brooke, in the latter’s Montezuma [undated].
Macklin’s Henry the VII (1746) has received little critical attention. This chapter reads the play as part of a tradition of Irish history plays that were influenced by Joseph Addison’s Cato (1713). Addison’s themes of personal self-sacrifice, love of country and resistance to tyranny proved inspirational for Irish dramatists in the wake of the Declaratory Act (1720) as can be seen in William Philips’s Hibernia Freed (1722) and Henry Brooke’s Gustavus Vasa (1739). History plays then might offer an alternative genealogy of eighteenth-century Irish theatre which is often focused on comedies.
Tolerance – respecting individual choice and differences among people – is a prominent feature of modern European culture. That immigrants embrace this kind of liberal value is arguably important for integration, a central policy goal. We provide a rigorous study of what factors in the ancestral countries of second-generation immigrants – including formal and informal institutions – predict their level of tolerance towards gay people. Using the epidemiological method allows us to rule out reverse causality. Out of the 46 factors examined, one emerges as very robust: a Muslim ancestral background. Tolerance towards gay people is lower the larger the share of Muslims in the country from which the parents emigrated. An instrumental-variable analysis shows that the main mechanism is not through the individual being a Muslim, but through the individual being highly religious. Two additional attitudes among people in the ancestral country (valuing children being tolerant and respectful, and valuing children taking responsibility), as well as impartial institutions in the ancestral country, predict higher individual tolerance. Our findings thus point to an important role for both formal- and informal-institutional background factors in shaping tolerance.
Flower and leaf herbivory might cause relevant and negative impacts on plant fitness. While flower removal or damage by florivores produces direct negative effects on plant fitness, folivores affect plant fitness by reducing resource allocation to reproduction. In this study, we examine the effects of both flower and leaf herbivory by leaf-cutting ants on the reproductive success of the shrub species Miconia nervosa (Smith) Triana (Family Melastomataceae) in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in Northeast Brazil. We conducted a randomized block-designed field experiment with nine replicates (blocks), in which three plants per block were assigned to one of the three following treatments: undamaged plants (ant exclusion), leaf-damaged plants (ant exclusion from reproductive organs, but not from leaves), and flower + leaf-damaged plants (no exclusion of ants). We then measured flower production, fruit set, and fruit production. Our results showed that flower + leaf-damaged plants reduced flower production nearly twofold in relation to undamaged plants, while flower set in leaf-damaged plants remained constant. The number of flowers that turned into fruits (i.e., fruit set), however, increased by 15% in flower + leaf-damaged plants, while it slightly decreased in leaf-damaged compared to undamaged plants. Contrastingly, fruit production was similar between all treatments. Taken together, our results suggest a prominent role of ant floral herbivory across different stages of the reproductive cycle in M. nervosa, with no consequences on final fruit production. The tolerance of M. nervosa to leaf-cutting ant herbivory might explain its high abundance in human-modified landscapes where leaf-cutting ants are hyper-abundant.
Habitat degradation and fragmentation have heightened the importance of understanding human tolerance towards wildlife, as the fate of wildlife in multi-use landscapes depends on people's capacity for coexistence. We applied the wildlife tolerance model to examine drivers of tolerance towards Asian elephants Elephas maximus in rural Bangladesh, interviewing local people in 17 villages. We used structural equation modelling to identify causal pathways in which elephant-related exposure, positive and negative interactions, costs and benefits (tangible and intangible) contributed to tolerance. Contrary to expectations, monetary costs were non-significant in shaping tolerance despite major impacts on livelihoods. Instead, intangible costs and intangible benefits were significant factors determining tolerance. Furthermore, reducing people's exposure to elephants would not necessarily affect tolerance, nor would increasing positive interactions. We discuss how the socio-economic and bio-cultural dynamics of local communities can explain these results, and demonstrate how our model can be used to incorporate such complexities into conservation decision-making. For instance, compensation schemes aim to recompense monetary losses and direct damages, to improve tolerance, whereas our results suggest a more effective approach would be to enhance resilience to non-monetary costs and improve perceived benefits. We conclude that future studies should pay increased attention to intangible costs and consider the less direct drivers of tolerance. Through repeated testing of universal models such as that presented here, broad trends may emerge that will facilitate the application of policies across contexts and landscapes.
Trait-specific characterization of rice landraces has significant potential for germplasm management, varietal identification and mining of novel gene/allele for various traits. In the current study, we have characterized 98 unique rice landraces collected from coastal regions of India, affected by submergence and salinity, based on Sub1 and Saltol quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked microsatellite markers. Among these genotypes, four genotypes (IC536558, IC536559, IC536604 and IC536604-1) collected from Kerala and two genotypes (AC34902 and IC324589) collected from West Bengal were identified with tolerance to submergence and salinity stress. A high level of genetic diversity of He = 0.349 and 0.529 at Sub1 and Saltol QTL region was detected by QTL-linked microsatellite markers, respectively. At Sub1 region one genotype, AC34902, was detected with maximum allelic similarity with FR13A, a known submergence tolerant variety. Besides, five genotypes (IC211188-1, IC536604-1, IC536604, IC536558 and IC536559) showed comparatively close genetic relationship with the salt tolerant variety FL478 for Saltol QTL and were clustered together in the neighbour joining dendrogram. Considering the haplotype structure, five genotypes (IC203801, IC203778, IC324584, IC413608 and IC413638) were identified which did not contain any common allele similar to FR13A but were still tolerant to submergence. These individuals need further characterization for identification of new alleles responsible for their tolerance.
The cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Hem: Aphididae), is an important pest of canola that can considerably limit profitable crop production either through direct feeding or via transmission of plant pathogenic viruses. One of the most effective approaches of pest control is the use of biostimulants. In this study, the effects of humic acid, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), and integrated application of both compounds were investigated on life table parameters of B. brassicae, and the tolerance of canola to this pest. B. brassicae reared on plants treated with these compounds had the lower longevity, fecundity, and reproductive period compared with control treatment. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) were lowest on PGPR treatment (0.181 ± 0.004 day−1 and 1.198 ± 0.004 day−1, respectively) and highest on control (0.202 ± 0.005 day−1 and 1.224 ± 0.006 day−1, respectively). The net reproductive rate (R0) under treatments of humic acid, PGPR and humic acid + PGPR was lower than control. There was no significant difference in generation time (T) of B. brassicae among the tested treatments. In the tolerance test, plants treated with PGPR alone or in integrated with humic acid had the highest tolerance against B. brassicae. The highest values of total phenol, flavonoids, and glucosinolates were observed in treatments of PGPR and humic acid + PGPR. Basing on the antibiosis and tolerance analyses in this study, we concluded that canola plants treated with PGPR are more resistant to B. brassicae. These findings could be useful for integrated pest management of B. brassicae in canola fields.
Living alongside predators can entail substantial costs both in terms of livelihoods and personal safety. Negative interactions with predators can lead to negative attitudes and behavioural intentions such as retaliatory or pre-emptive killing. As a result, conservation strategies are increasingly adopting human–wildlife coexistence approaches aimed at minimizing the costs associated with living with predators by providing direct or indirect benefits. This is done in the hope that people will foster positive attitudes and behavioural intentions towards predators. However, people's attitudes and their behavioural intentions are not necessarily linked, and both need to be understood for conservation actions to be effective. We conducted 747 semi-structured interviews with community members in the Maasai Mara, Kenya, to determine which factors influenced people's attitudes and behavioural intentions towards predators and whether the two were linked. Most interviewees (57.52%) had a positive attitude towards predators as measured by their assertion that people, livestock and predators should coexist. Their attitude was dependent on benefits, occupation, conservancy membership and perceived community ownership of predators, but was not influenced by the costs of livestock depredation. Most respondents who were members of a conservancy had positive attitudes towards predators but this differed by conservancy, suggesting that, in addition to benefits, conservation politics could influence attitudes. In total, 10.3% of respondents said that they would kill a predator if it killed their livestock. This behavioural intention was only influenced by the respondent's attitude. Understanding the factors that influence attitudes and behavioural intentions will aid future management and coexistence strategies.
Benzobicyclon will be the first 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)–inhibiting herbicide available in US rice production pending registration completion. An observation of benzobicyclon controlling weedy rice in two field trials prompted a greenhouse and field evaluation to determine if benzobicyclon would control weedy rice accessions from Arkansas, Mississippi, and southeastern Missouri. A total of 100 accessions were screened in the greenhouse and field. Percentage mortality was determined in the greenhouse, and percentage control was recorded in the field. Benzobicyclon at 371 g ai ha–1 caused at least 80% mortality of 22 accessions in the greenhouse and at least 80% control of 30 accessions in the field. For most accessions, individual plants within the accession varied in response to benzobicyclon. Based on these results, the sensitivity of weedy rice to benzobicyclon varies across accessions collected in the midsouthern United States, and it may provide an additional control option for weedy rice in some fields.
Native forbs are an essential component in the functioning and diversity of prairie communities. Aminocyclopyrachlor (AMCP) will effectively control many noxious weeds that invade prairie communities; however, its efficacy on desirable broadleaf plants is relatively unknown. Few field studies have been reported, and locating adequate populations of native forbs for evaluation of tolerance to herbicides is difficult. The susceptibility of 10 prairie forb species to AMCP was evaluated in the greenhouse. Species were chosen to correlate with a field study of AMCP and a previous greenhouse experiment. AMCP was applied at 0, 35, 70, and 105 g ha−1 with a methylated seed oil (MSO) plus silicone-based non-ionic surfactant (NIS) blend at 0.25% v/v when plants reached the growth stage simulating a spring treatment for weed control. Blueflag iris (Iris versicolor L.) and harebell (Campanula rotundifolia L.) were relatively tolerant and would likely be unharmed following an application of AMCP in the field. Wild licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh), prairie wild rose (Rosa arkansana Porter), purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent.), and wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa L.) were moderately susceptible to AMCP; however, plants might regrow in the field, since some survived at the highest AMCP application rate (105 g ha−1) evaluated. Skyblue aster [Symphyotrichum oolentangiense (Riddell) G. L. Nesom], Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L.), blue cardinal-flower (Lobelia siphilitica L.), and blacksamson echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia DC.) were susceptible to AMCP even when applied at 35 g ha−1. The susceptibility of greenhouse-grown forbs to AMCP was the same or similar to species evaluated in the field and can be used to predict native forb tolerance in the field.
Human–wildlife conflict has been the focus of much research, and incidents of damage caused by wildlife to communities, as well as damage inflicted on wildlife by people, have been studied extensively to determine causes, conditions, impacts and mitigation strategies. However, few studies have explored the coping strategies employed by communities to deal with these stressful events. Understanding coping is important, as effective coping builds tolerance towards wildlife, whereas poor coping erodes tolerance and thus jeopardizes conservation. Interviews conducted with people who had experienced damage caused by wild elephants Elephas maximus in eight villages of Assam, in north-east India, found that the stress experienced by the communities as a result of the damage was eased by their religious beliefs associated with elephants, and their feelings of empathy towards these animals. Belief in the elephant as God and as avenger of wrong-doing further strengthened people's coping capacity. These findings have positive implications for elephant conservation, showing that people's tolerance towards marauding elephants can be based on religious beliefs rather than compensation for losses.
Human–wildlife interactions affect people's livelihoods, attitudes and tolerance towards wildlife and wildlife reserves. To investigate the effect of such interactions on people's attitudes and livelihoods, we surveyed 2,233 households located around four wildlife reserves in Rajasthan, India. We modelled respondents’ attitudes towards wildlife and wildlife reserves, experience of crop damage and livestock predation, and likelihood of mitigation use. Crop damage was reported by 76% of surveyed households, and livestock predation was reported by 15%. Seventy-one percent of households used at least one of eight mitigation measures against crop damage, and 19% used at least one of seven mitigation measures against livestock predation. We found that male respondents and households with a higher level of education valued wildlife and wildlife reserves more. Households at higher elevations and growing a greater variety of crops were more prone to crop damage. Proximity to reserves, elevation and larger livestock herds were associated with a higher incidence of livestock predation. Households in which a member had > 12 years of schooling and households with a history (6–10 years) of interaction with wildlife (i.e. crop damage) were most likely to use mitigation against crop damage. Households that owned more livestock and had a history of interaction (1–5 years and > 10 years) were most likely to mitigate against predation. Our comparative study provides insights into factors that influence interaction and tolerance, which could be used to improve existing management and prevention efforts in Rajasthan.
Chickpea producers currently have no POST applied herbicides labeled for broadleaf weed control and rely heavily on PRE herbicides to manage weeds. Severe crop losses from broadleaf weed competition and harvest losses from weeds impeding harvest can occur when PRE herbicides perform poorly. Chickpea tolerance to POST applications of acifluorfen at 0.42 kg ai ha-1 and fomesafen at 0.28 kg ai ha-1 was tested at two sites in 2015. In 2016, both herbicides were tested on chickpeas when applied alone and in combination with pyridate at three sites. Acifluorfen and fomesafen injured chickpeas from 8 to 25% at 1 week after treatment (WAT) and 3 to 8% at 4 WAT in 2015 and from 16 to 40% at 1 WAT and 2 to 36% at 4 WAT in 2016. Pyridate applied POST at 1.00 kg ai ha-1 did not injure chickpeas or reduce yields. When pyridate was tank mixed with either acifluorfen or fomesafen, chickpea injury increased, but chickpeas recovered and yielded similar to nontreated checks or pyridate-treated plots. A low rate of metribuzin at 0.06 kg ai ha-1 tank mixed with pyridate had little impact on chickpea injury or weed control. In 2015, Russian thistle was controlled 100% by acifluorfen and fomesafen at Prosser at 28 DAT and both herbicides controlled the weed only 63% at Wilbur at 25 DAT. In 2016, all herbicide treatments reduced broadleaf weed densities equally ranging from 95 to 100% at Paterson, 50 to 100% at Prosser, and 78 to 98% at Wilbur. Chickpea yield was similar among POST herbicide treatments in all site-years. Acifluorfen, fomesafen, and pyridate have potential to improve control of susceptible broadleaf weeds that escape PRE herbicides chickpea production, but the potential for crop injury with acifluorfen and fomesafen warrant further evaluation.
Interrow cultivation is a selective, in-crop mechanical weed control tool that has the potential to control weeds later in the growing season with less crop damage compared with other in-crop mechanical weed control tools. To our knowledge, no previous research has been conducted on the tolerance of narrow-row crops to interrow cultivation. The objective of this experiment was to determine the tolerance of field pea and lentil to interrow cultivation. Replicated field experiments were conducted in Saskatchewan, Canada, in 2014 and 2015. Weekly cultivation treatments began at the 4-node stage of each crop, continuing for 6 wk. Field pea and lentil yield linearly declined with later crop stages of cultivation. Cultivating multiple times throughout the growing season reduced yield by 15% to 30% in both crops. Minimal yield loss occurred when interrow cultivation was conducted once at early growth stages of field pea and lentil; however, yield loss increased with delayed and more frequent cultivation events.
Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to investigate the tolerance of limpograss to increasing rates of hexazinone. Dose-response curves were generated using linear and quadratic regression models to determine the hexazinone estimated dose (ED) required to provide 10% (ED10) and 20% (ED20) of visual injury and herbage mass reduction. The ED10 and ED20 for visual estimates of injury were estimated to be 0.05 and 0.14 kg ai ha-1 at 60 d after treatment (DAT). Regarding forage herbage mass reduction, the ED10 and ED20 were estimated to be 0.07 and 0.19 kg ai ha-1 in 2013, whereas in 2014, the ED10 and ED20 were estimated to be 0.03 and 0.06 kg ai ha-1, respectively. The significant difference in herbage mass reduction between 2013 and 2014 was likely due to rainfall patterns, which possibly promoted hexazinone leaching in 2013 and consequently, less activity. Overall, hexazinone resulted in high degrees of limpograss injury across all response variables in both years; therefore, smutgrass control in limpograss pastures with hexazinone may not be a viable option. The presence or absence of smutgrass should be considered before limpograss establishment as there is no viable herbicide to selectively remove smutgrass from limpograss swards.
Arguments against physicians’ claims of a right to refuse to provide tests or treatments to patients based on conscientious objection often depend on two premises that are rarely made explicit. The first is that the protection of religious liberty (broadly construed) should be limited to freedom of worship, assembly, and belief. The second is that because professions are licensed by the state, any citizen who practices a licensed profession is required to provide all the goods and services determined by the profession to fall within the scope of practice of that professional specialty and permitted by the state, regardless of any personal religious, philosophical, or moral objection. In this article, I argue that these premises ought to be rejected, and therefore the arguments that depend on them ought also to be rejected. The first premise is incompatible with Locke’s conception of tolerance, which recognizes that fundamental, self-identifying beliefs affect public as well as private acts and deserve a broad measure of tolerance. The second premise unduly (and unrealistically) narrows the discretionary space of professional practice to an extent that undermines the contributions professions ought to be permitted to make to the common good. Tolerance for conscientious objection in the public sphere of professional practice should not be unlimited, however, and the article proposes several commonsense, Lockean limits to tolerance for physician claims of conscientious objection.
Carnivores are valued by conservationists globally but protecting them can impose direct costs on rural, livestock-dependent communities. Financial incentives are increasingly used with the goal of increasing people's tolerance of predators, but the definition of tolerance has been vague and inconsistent. Empirical correlations between attitudinal and behavioural measures of tolerance imply that attitudes may be a valid proxy for behaviours. However, theoretical differences between the concepts suggest that attitudinal tolerance and behavioural intention to kill cats would have different underlying determinants. We surveyed 112 residents within a forest–farm mosaic in northern Belize inhabited by jaguars Panthera onca and four other species of wild cats. A conservation payment programme pays local landowners when camera traps record cat presence on their land. Results indicated that tolerance was associated with gender and participation in the camera-trapping programme, whereas intention to kill cats was associated with cultural group (Mennonites vs Mestizos), presence of children in the home and, to a lesser extent, tolerance. Neither dependent variable was significantly related to depredation losses or economic factors. Results suggest that monetary payments alone are unlikely to affect attitudes and behaviours towards carnivores. Payment programmes may be enhanced by accentuating non-monetary incentives, leveraging social norms and targeting specific groups with information about risks and benefits associated with carnivores. By empirically separating two concepts commonly conflated as ‘tolerance’ we clarify understanding of how social forces interact with financial incentives to shape people's relationships with predators.
The gut microbiota has been established as an important player influencing many aspects of human physiology. Breast milk, the first diet for an infant, contains human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) that shape the infant’s gut microbiota by selectively stimulating the growth of specific bacteria, especially bifidobacteria. In addition to their bifidogenic activity, the ability of HMO to modulate immune function and the gut barrier makes them prime candidates to restore a beneficial microbiota in dysbiotic adults and provide health benefits. We conducted a parallel, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, HMO-supplementation study in 100 healthy, adult volunteers, consuming chemically produced 2′-O-fucosyllactose (2′FL) and/or lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) at various daily doses and mixes or placebo for 2 weeks. All participants completed the study without premature discontinuation. Supplementation of 2′FL and LNnT at daily doses up to 20 g was shown to be safe and well tolerated, as assessed using the gastrointestinal symptoms rating scale. 16S rRNA sequencing analysis showed that HMO supplementation specifically modified the adult gut microbiota with the primary impact being substantial increases in relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Bifidobacterium in particular and a reduction in relative abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. This study provides the first set of data on safety, tolerance and impact of HMO on the adult gut microbiota. Collectively, the results from this study show that supplementing the diet with HMO is a valuable strategy to shape the human gut microbiota and specifically promote the growth of beneficial bifidobacteria.