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Previously conducted space missions revealed the presence of perchlorates, which are known to have a high oxidizing potential in Martian regolith, at the level of 0.5%. Due to hygroscopic properties and crystallization features of perchlorate-containing solutions, assumptions leading to the possibility of the existence of liquid water in the form of brines, which can contribute to the vital activity of microorganisms, have been made. At the same time, high concentrations of perchlorates can inhibit the growth of microorganisms and cause their death. Previously performed studies have discovered the presence of highly diverse microbial communities in terrestrial perchlorate-containing soils and have also demonstrated the stability and activity of some prokaryotes cultured on highly concentrated perchlorates media (over 10%). Nevertheless, the limits of microbial tolerance to perchlorates and whether microbial communities are able to withstand the effects of high concentrations of perchlorates remain uncertain. The aim of this research was to study the reaction of microbial communities of hot-arid and cryo-arid soils and sedimentary rocks to the adding of a highly concentrated solution of sodium perchlorate (5%) in situ. An increase in the total number of prokaryotes, the number of metabolically active Bacteria and Archaea, and the variety of the consumed substrates were revealed. It was observed that in samples incubated with sodium perchlorate, a high taxonomic diversity of the microbial community is preserved at a level comparable to control sample. The study shows that the presence of high concentrations of sodium perchlorate (5%) in the soil does not lead to the death or significant inhibition of microbial communities.
We examine how variation in antisemitism across countries can be explained by economic freedom. We propose two mechanisms. First, the more economic freedom, the greater the scope of market activities. If people perceive Jews as particularly skilful at doing business at the expense of others, a greater reliance on markets can increase antisemitism. Second, a key type of institution undergirding the market is an effective and fair legal system, or the rule of law. The stronger the rule of law, the smaller the risk for exploitative behaviour, and the less hostile people will be towards groups seen as exploiters. If Jews are seen as such, more economic freedom reduces antisemitism. We use the ADL Global 100 survey of antisemitic attitudes and relate them, for up to 106 countries, to the Economic Freedom of the World index and its five areas. Our empirical findings confirm the two predictions: The more economic openness, the more antisemitism; and the stronger the rule of law, the less antisemitism. These findings indicate a complex relationship between markets and attitudes towards Jews.
In the wake of 9/11, postsecularism has emerged as a capacious critical perspective that challenges the historical narrative of Enlightenment secularization. Postsecular critique observes the persistence of religion in modernity and connects its persistence to historical religion as a longer and unbroken narrative of national, cultural, and legal discourses. Drawing on intellectual history, the anthropology of religion, and New England colonial historiography, this essay argues that our contemporary understanding of the United States is deepened by rereading the nation’s puritan past from a postsecular perspective. The essay considers the travails of Roger Williams, the Antinomian Controversy, and the puritan treatment of the early Quakers as important contributions to American perspectives on the separation of church and state, the role of spirituality in the secular, and the legal and procedural application of “tolerance.”
This essay explores the possibility of universal values. Universal values do not exist as Platonic ideals nor do they exist in clearly defined lists of rules or laws. Rather, universal ethical claims are constructed through the actions of individual political leaders, scholars, and activists. This essay explores how such normative constructions take place. It uses an initiative undertaken by the UN Office of Drugs and Crime to further education around corruption as an example of how such universal values come into existence. The initiative focused on developing teaching materials for higher education. The essay focuses on two particular modules, both their content and the process by which they were written.
Psychoactive drugs act by altering communication among neurons. Drugs can facilitate or interfere with neurotransmitter actions to cause pleasure or reduce pain, effects that can result in addiction. Drug actions occur as neurotransmitter is released into the synapse, at postsynaptic receptors, or at other locations. Of the 80 known neurotransmitters, only a few, including dopamine and glutamate, are closely involved in the development of addiction. Neurons adapt to and counteract drug actions by increasing or decreasing neurotransmitter release, and by changing the density of receptors. This neuroadaptation produces tolerance, and is responsible for the withdrawal syndrome, with effects that are opposite to the initial drug action. Lipid-soluble drugs, and drugs administered via inhalation or intravenous injection, rapidly enter the brain and produce stronger effects than water-soluble drugs or those administered by other routes, such as by oral ingestion. Non-pharmacological factors – such as expectation and environment – also influence the effects of drug use and are important in the development of addiction, as well as in benign uses of psychoactive drugs
How did people understand those with whom they disagreed? How was that disagreement handled? And how was that process affected by the heightened political climate of the 1790s? More especially, how did literary radicals such as Godwin, who believed in the communicability of truth, understand his developing disagreements with a range of men who, by the end of the decade, were willing to denounce his ideas from the lectern and pulpit? This chapter charts the breakdown of several of Godwin’s friendships, including Samul Parr, James Mackintosh and Francis Burdett, and looks at the wider problems faced for his understanding of his deliberative aspirations as repression and financial hardship increasingly undermined the social world he had been able to take for granted earlier in the decade. It also looks at evidence of decreasing confidence among radicals, and others, in the light of this reaction and the intrusion of loyalism into people’s sense of their private concerns.
Chapter 2 develops a policy-based theory of public support for Court-curbing, which represents an alternative to process-based perspectives popular in the literature. The chapter distinguishes “broadly targeted Court-curbing,” or support for attacks on the institution’s powers and independence, from “narrowly targeted Court-curbing,” or support for attacks on the Court’s specific rulings. While disagreement with the general ideological direction of the Supreme Court strongly impacts support for broadly targeted Court-curbing, disagreement with specific rulings has a larger effect on narrowly targeted curbing. The theory also explains how and why partisan polarization reduces citizens’ willingness to defend the Court and discusses competing perspectives for how citizens’ level of political engagement moderates the effect of policy disagreement.
Although there are many ways of describing nonlinear relationships among variables, this chapter focuses primarily on the polynomial regression, which is related to the multiple linear regression model. We pay particular attention to models using the second-order polynomial. These models are often employed in the field of community ecology to describe unimodal changes of species abundances along environmental gradients. The downsides of using polynomial regression are also addressed. We bring this chapter to a close by touching on the non-linear least-squares regression models and the appropriate context in which they should be applied. The methods described in this chapter are accompanied by a carefully-explained guide to the R code needed for their use, including the nlme package.
When adjudicating religious disputes, constitutional courts often resort to a particular discursive register. The notions ‘tolerance’ and ‘respect’ are an integral part of this religion-specific constitutional register. But what do judges mean when they deploy the language of tolerance and respect? And what substantive role, if any, do both notions play in the constitutional interpretation of religious freedom? This article seeks to answer these conceptual and substantive questions by comparing constitutional case law on religious freedom from India, Israel and the United States. It also provides linkages to ongoing processes of (alleged) constitutional retrogression in the three jurisdictions.
A non-GMO trait called Inzen™ was recently commercialized in grain sorghum to combat weedy grasses, allowing the use of nicosulfuron POST in the crop. Inzen™ grain sorghum carries a double mutation in the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene Val560Ile and Trp574Leu, which potentially results in cross-resistance to a wide assortment of ALS-inhibiting herbicides. To evaluate the scope of cross-resistance to Weed Science Society of America Group 2 herbicides in addition to nicosulfuron, tests were conducted in 2016 and 2017 at the Lon Mann Cotton Research Station near Marianna, AR, the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Fayetteville, AR, and in 2016 at the Pine Tree Research Station near Colt, AR. The tests included ALS-inhibiting herbicides from all five families: sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, pyrimidinylthiobenzoics, triazolinones, and triazolopyrimidines. Treatments were made PRE or POST to grain sorghum at a 1× rate for crops in which each herbicide is labeled. Grain sorghum planted in the PRE trial were Inzen™ and a conventional cultivar. Visible estimates of injury and sorghum heights were recorded at 2 and 4 wk after herbicide application, and yield data were collected at crop maturity. In the PRE trial, no visible injury, sorghum height reduction, or yield loss were observed in plots containing the Inzen™ cultivar. Applications made POST to the Inzen™ grain sorghum caused visible injury, sorghum height reduction, and yield loss of 20%, 13%, and 35%, respectively, only in plots where bispyribac-Na was applied. There was no impact on the crop from other POST-applied ALS-inhibiting herbicides. These results demonstrate that the Inzen™ trait confers cross-resistance to most ALS-inhibiting herbicides and could offer promising new alternatives for weed control and protection from carryover of residual ALS-inhibiting herbicides in grain sorghum.
Humans are contributing to large carnivore declines around the globe, and conservation interventions should focus on increasing local stakeholder tolerance of carnivores and be informed by both biological and social considerations. In the Okavango Delta (Botswana), we tested new conservation strategies alongside a pre-existing government compensation programme. The new strategies included the construction of predator-proof livestock enclosures, the establishment of an early warning system linked to GPS satellite lion collars, depredation event investigations and educational programmes. We conducted pre- and post-assessments of villagers’ livestock management practices, attitudes towards carnivores and conservation, perceptions of human–carnivore coexistence and attitudes towards established conservation programmes. Livestock management levels were low and 50% of farmers lost livestock to carnivores, while 5–10% of owned stock was lost. Respondents had strong negative attitudes towards lions, which kill most depredated livestock. Following new management interventions, tolerance of carnivores significantly increased, although tolerance of lions near villages did not. The number of respondents who believed that coexistence with carnivores was possible significantly increased. Respondents had negative attitudes towards the government-run compensation programme, citing low and late payments, but were supportive of the new management interventions. These efforts show that targeted, intensive management can increase stakeholder tolerance of carnivores.
Pigeonpea has great potential as a profitable summer legume rotational crop in cereal farming systems of subtropical Australia. Pigeonpea requires season-long weed control, but options for controlling broadleaf weeds in pigeonpea with POST herbicides are limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of different herbicides (PRE: pendimethalin; POST: acifluorfen, bentazon, and imazapic) applied singly or in sequence for horse purslane control in pigeonpea and their impact on pigeonpea yield. Field experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018 at Gatton, Australia. Pendimethalin applied PRE at 1.14 kg ai ha−1 reduced horse purslane biomass by 87% and 92% and produced 32% and 105% higher grain yield compared with the nontreated control in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Imazapic applied POST at 0.10 kg ai ha−1 reduced horse purslane biomass by 79% and 82% and increased grain yield by 60% and 88% compared with the nontreated control in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Acifluorfen applied POST (0.34 and 0.42 kg ai ha−1) caused 16% to 48% injury to pigeonpea at 45 d after treatment. Control of horse purslane ranged from 87% to 92% (biomass reduction) with pendimethalin applied PRE at 1.14 kg ai ha−1 and was comparable with pendimethalin applied PRE at 0.91 kg ai ha−1 in the sequential application, and imazapic at 0.08 kg ai ha−1 or bentazon at 0.96 kg ai ha−1. The study findings suggest if farmers miss the PRE application of pendimethalin or are unable to achieve season-long weed control, POST application of imazapic is an alternate. This research provided herbicide options for control of horse purslane in pigeonpea that could be used in rotations for reducing the selection pressure of weeds.
The different aspects of general safety of zolpidem are reviewed after analysing the safety data obtained in adults as well as in elderly patients. The low incidence of reported adverse events during the first three years of utilisation of zolpidem have corroborated the results of the clinical studies. The most frequent adverse effects are central nervous system (CNS) related but they can be largely prevented by respecting the recommended doses and prescription rules. In cases of acute overdoses, no severe complications have been attributed to zolpidem taken alone. In most of the studies carried out within the recommended treatment duration, abrupt treatment discontinuation was not associated with clinically significant rebound insomnia, and the available pre-clinical and clinical data indicate that the risk of abuse or dependence is minimal when prescribed according to the recommended doses of 10 mg in adults and 5 mg in elderly. Thus, with now well-established arguments on a large patient basis going in the same direction, the safety of zolpidem can authorise and justify its wide prescription in the short-term treatment of insomnia.
We report the case of a patient with a history of zolpidem dependence. The patient, after a stressful life event, started using zolpidem. She rapidly developed tolerance and dependence, taking 50-100 mg, and sometimes up to 300 mg, of zolpidem daily. Also, our patient suffered episodes of altered consciousness, accompanied by visual hallucinations.
The stereotype of the ‘terrible Turk’ has long existed alongside the romantic view of a multicultural, cosmopolitan Ottoman Empire. Assertions of Ottoman ‘tolerance’ have been very enduring even in the academic literature. In recent decades Ottoman historians have worked hard to historicise both violence and more peaceful relations, between both state and society and within society itself. Tolerance is now better understood as a strategy of rule rather than a value in and of itself. In addition, this was a far-flung empire that lasted for over 600 years, and no one model can hold for all places and all times within the sultan’s domains. Beginning with the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans in the fourteenth century, this chapter considers not only more familiar topics, such as non-Muslim conversion to Islam, but also highlights the fact that most religious persecution in the empire, when it occurred, was directed at non-conforming Muslims, however defined. The rise of the Shi’a Safavid Empire in the east and the ruling elite’s close relationship to Sufi Islam were both major sources of tension and, at times, outright violence. At the same time, communal elites usually shared a strong interest in the maintenance of religious boundaries; this attitude contributed to social peace.
Plant cyclophilin (CYP) is related to chloroplast photoprotection, redox and other growth and developmental regulatory processes and responds to stress and improves tolerance to saline–alkali stress. Besides, it exerts peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity to participate in protein synthesis and folding. In this study, Northern blot was used to analyse the CsCYP1A gene (a CYP gene isolated from a Chlorella species) (accession number: KY207381) of tolerant Chlorella vulgaris in soda saline–alkali soil. The result showed that the expression of the CsCYP1A gene was induced by NaHCO3, NaCl and sorbitol. Additionally, Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used to infect the callus of rice (Oryza sativa var. Longjing11) for genetic transformation. Molecular detection confirmed that transgenic seedlings overexpressing CsCYP1A were obtained by hygromycin selection. Treatment with NaCl and NaHCO3 at the five-leaf stage was performed in the seedlings, and the results showed that there were significant differences between the CsCYP1A overexpressed rice lines and non-transgenic (NT) Longjing11 in terms of plant height, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content and ascorbate peroxidase activity. The CsCYP1A overexpression rice lines had higher tolerance to NaCl and NaHCO3 than NT. The current findings indicate that CsCYP1A can enhance the tolerance of rice to saline–alkali stress possibly through its involvement in reactive oxygen scavenging pathways.
Coexistence of people and large carnivores depends on a complex combination of factors that vary geographically. Both the number and range of the Asiatic lion Panthera leo leo in the Greater Gir landscape, India, has increased since the 1990s. The challenge has been managing the success of conservation, with a particular focus on the spillover population ranging extensively in human-dominated landscapes. To understand the factors conducive to lion survival in this landscape, we undertook an interview-based survey. Overall, people expressed positive, tolerant attitudes towards lions. There was a distinct contrast between people's liking for lions (76.9% of respondents) compared to leopards (27.7%) in spite of greater depredation of livestock by lions (82.6%) than by leopards (17.4%). Younger people and respondents having greater awareness regarding lions expressed positive attitudes. Although community discussions on lions had a positive effect, there was no evidence that land-holding, management interventions, personal encounters with lions, or association of lions with religion affected attitudes. Respondents who had experienced livestock depredation tended to express negative attitudes. Respondents with positive attitudes towards lions favoured non-interventionist strategies for managing lions in the village areas. We advocate consideration of varied factors influencing tolerance of wildlife in conservation planning. We emphasize that site-specific human–wildlife conflict issues such as crop-foraging by wild ungulates and variation in attitudes towards different species should also be considered. Specifically, improved livestock management, motivation of local youth and their participation in awareness campaigns could all further strengthen the prevalent positive attitudes towards lions.
Globally, little is known about the dispersal abilities of carnivores, their survival in non-protected areas, and the connectivity between protected and non-protected populations. More than a decade of sighting data for 496 known African lions Panthera leo, with 189 individuals engaging in dispersing activities plus an exchange of cross-site information, has provided unique insight into connectivity and survival in unprotected and protected areas in Kenya. In particular, three individuals, across two generations residing solely in unprotected landscapes, demonstrated connectivity between three protected areas that, to our knowledge, have not previously been recognized as harbouring connected populations. These observations suggest that unprotected areas and the human communities that reside in them may successfully create corridors of tolerance that facilitate connectivity and the long-term persistence of lion populations, both within and outside protected areas.
Mobilisant un sondage avec un devis expérimental, cet article cherche à comprendre l'effet que peuvent avoir les heuristiques numériques d'acceptabilité sociale sur la capacité de convaincre. L'expérience expose les répondants à un article de nouvelle sur les réfugiés syriens et irakiens et, selon le traitement, à un fil de discussion comprenant différentes heuristiques numériques d'acceptabilité sociale. L’étude démontre que la présence d'un fil de discussion modifie l'effet à court terme que peut avoir l'article d'actualité initial et démontre également et surtout la façon dont les heuristiques numériques d'acceptabilité sociale ont un effet d'amplification sur la capacité de convaincre et les émotions évoquées par les commentaires. Chaque unité d'heuristique ou chaque recommandation n'augmente pas nécessairement d'autant le pouvoir de convaincre des commentaires associés et, pour les commentaires que les individus ne sont pas prédisposés à appuyer, servent plutôt à consolider les attitudes préexistantes et à polariser.
Often viewed with distaste as politically conservative, Borges’s engagement with the Malvinas/Falklands conflict provides evidence of a more progressive politics in his work. The poem, ’Juan Lopez and John Ward’ is set within a national tradition of writing that, as early as 1954, rejected the Argentine obsession with recovering the Malvinas; the same poem calls up key aspects of Wilfred Owen’s ’Strange Meeting’. For its part, ’Dead Man’s Milonga’ laments the sacrifices of war and contributes to a profile of Borges as a man of individual rebellion and mutual tolerance.