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The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is documented as a major pest on soybean. It was reported that whitefly response towards its hosts and their cultivars varies, and is mediated through various host-related factors. Considering the significance of leaf morphological characteristics in influencing the host–whitefly responses, the present investigation was conducted in screen-house conditions to study the prevailing variations in leaf morphological characteristics of soybean genotypes and their role in governing the adult whitefly attractiveness and oviposition preference. In the multiple-choice test, the whitefly population (eggs, nymphs and adults) was found to be lowest in moderately resistant genotypes (SL 1028 and SL 1074) compared to highly susceptible (DS 3105) and susceptible genotypes (SL 688, SL 958 and SL 1113). The foliar trichomes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and leaf area, leaf lamina thickness and leaf shape data were acquired using standard procedures. To determine the factors involved in the resistance/susceptible responses towards whitefly, Pearson correlation was applied between the morphological characteristics and the whitefly population. The results show that the leaf area, trichome density, trichome length and trichome angle showed a significant positive correlation with the whitefly population, whereas leaf lamina thickness was negatively correlated. Thus, for developing whitefly-resistant germplasm, breeders should choose genotypes having narrow and thick leaves with sparse, short and flat trichomes.
The development of glufosinate-resistant soybean cultivars has created opportunities for use of glufosinate applied postemergence for weed control. Four field experiments were conducted in 2021 and 2022 to ascertain the effect of glufosinate rate and the addition of ammonium sulfate on annual weed control in glyphosate/glufosinate/2,4-D–resistant soybean. An increased glufosinate rate of 500 from 300 g ai ha−1 improved control of common ragweed, common lambsquarters, redroot pigweed, and foxtail species and resulted in decreased density and dry biomass of common lambsquarters and foxtail species. The addition of ammonium sulfate to glufosinate increased control of common lambsquarters, 2 and 8 wk after application (WAA), and of foxtail species, 2, 4, and 8 WAA, but did not improve control of common ragweed and redroot pigweed. Increasing the dose of glufosinate from 300 to 500 g ai ha−1 improves control of common ragweed, redroot pigweed, common lambsquarters, and foxtail species; however, the benefit of the addition of ammonium sulfate to glufosinate is weed species-specific.
Region- and system-specific research is needed to understand the viability of delayed cover-crop termination (i.e., planting green) as an integrated weed management (IWM) tactic in no-till soybean. In a 3-yr field experiment, we evaluated the potential for planting green to facilitate elimination of soil-applied, preemergence residual herbicides within a soybean phase of a 6-yr grain–forage cropping systems experiment in Pennsylvania. This IWM tactic was contrasted with a Standard treatment, which included 14 to 21 d pre-plant termination of cereal rye and a two-pass herbicide program with preemergence herbicides. A 63% increase in cereal rye biomass production was observed within the IWM treatment in 2019, but only a 22% and 33% increase in 2020 and 2021, respectively. In 2020, significantly lower volumetric water content (%VWC) was observed within the IWM treatment in dates closest to planting and greater %VWC at multiple dates in June and July compared to the Standard treatment. No differences occurred in soybean populations, but soybean biomass at the V4 growth stage was reduced in the Standard treatment compared to the IWM treatment, which we attribute to injury from preemergence applications. The Standard treatment resulted in greater soybean yield (2,590 kg ha–1) than the IWM treatment (1,870 kg ha–1) in 2020, but yields were similar in other years. The IWM treatment resulted in 58% fewer herbicide inputs, as measured by the number of active ingredients applied, compared to the Standard over the 3-yr study. Yet, peak weed biomass did not differ between treatments. However, the IWM treatment resulted in greater total horseweed density and the number of horseweed plants that exceeded recommended size-based height thresholds (10 cm) compared to the Standard treatment just prior to postemergence applications (35–42 d after planting) in 2020 and 2021, underscoring the importance of integrating surface mulch residues with effective herbicide sites of action.
Profitability, yield, and fertilizer use are compared across three different potassium (K) fertilizer rate recommendation ideologies. Existing agronomic, “build and maintain” rate recommendations (KE) are compared to profit-maximizing rates with and without taking long-run soil-test K (STK) implications into account. Regardless of starting STK, K use equilibrated over the course of 3 years irrespective of ideology. Since taking long-run STK into account did not alter ending STK and only led to a miniscule yield effect, we encourage producers to use annual profit-maximizing K rates that were 3–11% lower than KE rates and generated more profit with minimal yield loss.
The development of an integrated weed management (IWM) strategy for control of multiple herbicide-resistant (MHR) waterhemp can provide field crop producers with a strategy to deplete the number of waterhemp seeds in the soil seedbank. Field experiments were established on two commercial farms in Ontario, Canada, with MHR waterhemp in 2017. The number of waterhemp seeds in the seedbank at the Cottam and Walpole Island sites prior to establishing the experiments was 413 and 40 million seeds ha−1, respectively. The goal of this 9-yr study is to document the depletion in the number of waterhemp seeds in the seedbank after Years 3, 6, and 9 (spring 2020, 2023, and 2026) and to identify management practices that can reduce the number of waterhemp seeds by 95% or more. Relative to the number of seeds in the soil seedbank when the experiment was initiated, at the Cottam site after 3 yr of this experiment, in the “control” treatment (continuous soybean seeded in rows spaced 75 apart, and sprayed with glyphosate) there was a numeric 31% increase in the number of waterhemp seeds in the seedbank; in contrast, in the three-crop rotation of corn/soybean/winter wheat (with or without a cover crop after winter wheat harvest), soybean seeded in rows spaced 37.5 cm apart, with herbicide applications using a total of eight different herbicide modes of action resulted in a 65% to 66% decrease in the number of waterhemp seeds in the soil seedbank. At the Walpole Island site after 3 yr of this experiment, the number of waterhemp seeds in the seedbank was not affected by the IWM programs evaluated. Results indicate that a diversified integrated waterhemp management program dramatically decreased the number of waterhemp seeds in the seedbank at one of two sites.
In the Mid-Atlantic United States, there is increasing interest in delaying cereal rye termination until after soybean planting (i.e., planting green). Improved understanding of cereal rye seeding rate effects is needed to balance weed and agronomic management goals. We investigated the effects of cereal rye seeding rates on weed control and crop performance when planting green in complementary experiments in two Mid-Atlantic regions. The Pennsylvania experiment was replicated at three site-years and the Delaware experiment at two site-years. In both experiments, population-level weed responses were evaluated across four cereal rye seeding rates: 0, 51, 101, and 135 kg ha−1. The Delaware experiment also implemented a nitrogen treatment factor (0 and 34 kg N ha−1; spring applied). Both experiments showed that integrating cereal rye in the fall significantly improved winter- and summer-annual weed suppression compared with the fallow control, but no differences in total cereal rye biomass production or weed suppression were found among alternative cereal rye seeding rates (51 to 135 kg ha−1). Soybean yield did not differ among treatments in any of the studies. These results show there is no reason to increase cereal rye seeding rates for weed suppression services or to decrease seeding rates for agronomic reasons (i.e., soybean population and yield) when employing planting-green tactics in no-till soybean production within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States.
This study builds upon the existing literature on the Working curve and backwardation to explore the impact of storage regimes on the volatility measures of substitute agricultural commodity markets. We investigate the impact of commodity fundamentals (storage regime and stocks-to-use ratio), commodity-specific financial variables (options hedging pressure-long and -short), world economic activity, market-wide volatility index, seasonality, and time-to-maturity on nearby and deferred implied volatility (IV) series of selected commodity pairs of corn-soybean and winter wheat-spring wheat. Our work confirms that, in some cases, grain and oilseed IV derived from options premia respond to shocks in commodity (and substitute commodity) fundamentals which are in line with the behaviour of volatility in futures markets. Own-storage regime effects on price variability are stronger in the selected markets, while spillover effects from substitute commodity storage regimes show a modest impact on volatilities. We also find some evidence for the stocks-to-use ratio of both corn and soybean to impact both their own and each other’s IV, while options hedging pressure has some impact only on wheat IVs.
Narrow-windrow burning (NWB) is a form of harvest weed seed control in which crop residues and weed seeds collected by the combine are concentrated into windrows and subsequently burned. The objectives of this study were to determine how NWB will 1) affect seed survival of Italian ryegrass in wheat and Palmer amaranth in soybean and 2) determine whether a relationship exists between NWB heat index (HI; the sum of temperatures above ambient) or effective burn time (EBT; the cumulative number of seconds temperatures exceed 200 C) and the post-NWB seed survival of both species. Average soybean and wheat windrow HI totaled 140,725 ± 14,370 and 66,196 ± 6224 C, and 259 ± 27 and 116 ± 12 s of EBT, respectively. Pre-NWB versus post-NWB germinability testing revealed an estimated seed kill rate of 79.7% for Italian ryegrass, and 86.3% for Palmer amaranth. Non-linear two-parameter exponential regressions between seed kill and HI or EBT indicated NWB at an HI of 146,000 C and 277 s of EBT potentially kills 99% of Palmer amaranth seed. Seventy-six percent of soybean windrow burning events resulted in estimated Palmer amaranth seed kill rates greater than 85%. Predicted Italian ryegrass seed kill was greater than 97% in all but two wheat NWB events; therefore, relationships were not calculated. These results validate the effectiveness of the ability of NWB to reduce seed survival, thereby improving weed management and combating herbicide resistance.
Limited information exists on the global economic impact of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. The objective of this manuscript was to estimate the potential yield and economic loss from uncontrolled GR weeds in the major field crops grown in Ontario, Canada. The impact of GR weed interference on field crop yield was determined using an extensive database of field trials completed on commercial farms in southwestern Ontario between 2010 and 2021. Crop yield loss was estimated by expert opinion (weed scientists and Ontario government crop specialists) when research data were unavailable. This manuscript assumes that crop producers adjust their weed management programs to control GR weeds, which increases weed management costs but reduces crop yield loss from GR weed interference by 95%. GR volunteer corn, horseweed, waterhemp, giant ragweed, and common ragweed would cause an annual monetary loss of (in millions of Can$) $172, $104, $11, $3, and $0.3, respectively, for a total annual loss of $290 million if Ontario farmers did not adjust their weed management programs to control GR biotypes. The increased herbicide cost to control GR volunteer corn, horseweed, waterhemp, giant ragweed, and common ragweed in the major field crops in Ontario is estimated to be (in millions of Can$) $17, $9, $2, $0.1, and $0.02, respectively, for a total increase in herbicide expenditures of $28 million annually. Reduced GR weed interference with the adjusted weed management programs would reduce farm-gate monetary crop loss by 95% from $290 million to $15 million. This study estimates that GR weeds would reduce the farm-gate value of the major field crops produced in Ontario by Can$290 million annually if Ontario farmers did not adjust their weed management programs, but with increased herbicide costs of Can$28 million and reduced crop yield loss of 95% the actual annual monetary loss in Ontario is estimated to be Can$43 million annually.
The use of different herbicide-resistant soybean technologies in proximity could lead to injury and yield loss due to an application error. Research was initiated to evaluate the effect of 6.25%, 12.5%, and 100% doses of isoxaflutole and mesotrione field use doses applied postemergence to 4-hyroxyphenylpyruvate (HPPD) inhibitor-susceptible soybean, representing physical drift or misapplication doses. Visible injury manifested as chlorosis with slight necrosis, progressing to necrosis and height reduction, with visible height reduction as the only symptom. Isoxaflutole at 6.25% and 12.5% injured V2 soybean more than V1 or V4 soybean at all evaluation dates. This is supported by soybean height data at 14, 28, and 42 d after treatment (DAT). Following the 100% dose, maximum injury occurred at 28 DAT with V1, V2, and V4 soybean injured 90%, 85%, and 72%, but injury declined over time. All isoxaflutole treatments reduced yield at least 310 kg ha−1, with no differences among application timings or between the two lowest doses for a revenue loss of US$147 ha−1 to US$623 ha−1. Visible injury following mesotrione manifested as chlorosis and necrosis advancing to visible height reduction. Following mesotrione at 6.25% and 12.5%, injury ranged from 20% to 36% among application timings and did not differ at 3 to 21 DAT. Soybean heights at 28 and 42 DAT do not support injury observations; therefore, the greater injury was due to chlorosis and necrosis. Following mesotrione at 100%, sensitivity decreased at 3 to 14 DAT when applied to later growth stages, with no differences at 42 DAT. Yields did not differ among application timings, but yield losses were at least 240 kg ha−1, with revenue losses of US$60 ha−1 and US$373 ha−1. Producers are cautioned to prevent off-target movement or errant application of isoxaflutole or mesotrione to HPPD inhibitor-susceptible soybean.
Horseweed is a North American indigenous plant species commonly found in Nebraska cropping systems. Horseweed management is challenging because of horseweed’s prolific seed production, long-distance seed dispersal via wind, competitiveness, and rapid evolution of herbicide resistance. Understanding the horseweed emergence pattern across Nebraska can contribute to implementing effective and more sustainable tactics to minimize its impact on cropping systems. Field studies were conducted during fall and spring from 2016 to 2018 in Lincoln (corn and soybean), North Platte (wheat stubble and soybean), and Scottsbluff (corn and fallow) to investigate the emergence pattern of horseweed accessions from Lincoln, North Platte, and Scottsbluff, NE. Results show that most horseweed seedling emergence occurred in fall (99%) and only a few seedlings emerged in spring across locations, except in the wheat stubble experiment at North Platte, where higher spring emergence was detected (3% to 22%). In four out of six experiments, the density of total emerged seedlings of each accession was greatest when established in their site of origin. Our results suggest that late fall and/or early spring is likely the best timing for horseweed management across Nebraska.
A field experiment was conducted in 2019 and 2020 that included six site-years and four locations in Arkansas to determine the optimal sequence and timing of dicamba and glufosinate applications when applied alone, sequentially, or in combination to control Palmer amaranth by size: labeled (<10 cm height) and non-labeled (13 to 25 cm height). Single applications of dicamba, glufosinate, and dicamba plus glufosinate (not labeled) resulted in less than 80% Palmer amaranth control, regardless of weed size. The mixture of dicamba plus glufosinate was antagonistic for Palmer amaranth control and percent mortality. Sequential applications, averaged over all time intervals and herbicides, improved the percentage of Palmer amaranth control 11 to 17 percentage points over a single application, regardless of weed size at application 28 d after final application (DAFA). Palmer amaranth control with glufosinate followed by (fb) glufosinate and dicamba fb dicamba, pending weed size, were optimized at intervals of 7 d, and 14 to 21 d, respectively. Because single site of action (SOA) postemergence herbicide systems increase the likelihood of the development of resistant biotypes and are not a best management practice (BMP) in that regard; sequential applications involving both dicamba and glufosinate were more effective. Furthermore, the sequence of application mattered with a preference for applying dicamba first. Dicamba fb glufosinate at a 14-d interval was profit-maximizing and the only herbicide treatment that resulted in 100% weed control when size was <10 cm. For larger weed sizes, economic analysis revealed that dicamba fb dicamba performed better than dicamba fb glufosinate when no penalty was assigned for using a single SOA. This resulted in greater yield loss risk and soil weed seed bank in comparison to timelier weed control with the smaller weed size. Hence, timely weed control and two SOAs to control Palmer amaranth are recommended as BMPs that reduce producer risk.
A 3-yr field study was conducted in Keiser, AR, to investigate the response of the naturally occurring weed flora, dominated by Palmer amaranth, under various combinations of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicide-based programs and crop rotation sequences. In the first year, corn plots were established with three corn HPPD-based herbicide programs designed to represent a range of efficacies and selection pressures for resistance. In the following two years, corn as monoculture or with soybean and/or cotton crops was included in the rotation sequence for selected herbicide programs. Weed emergence, weed biomass, and soil seedbank were assessed through the entire experimental period. The results show that crop rotation, especially a rotation sequence with corn followed by (fb) soybean fb cotton, and the lowest-risk herbicide program involving seven sites of action over the course of the entire crop rotation was effective in reducing the emergence of naturally occurring weeds, including Palmer amaranth, prickly sida, morningglory species, and grass weeds (broadleaf signalgrass, large crabgrass, barnyardgrass, and johnsongrass) by 88.3%, 57.5%, 28.7%, and 76.3%, respectively. Treatments without crop rotation (corn as monoculture for 3 consecutive years) and poor herbicide programs, with one site of action, increased weed emergence, notably of Palmer amaranth and prickly sida, by 73.5% and 74.1%, respectively. The soil seedbank showed a similar trend to weed emergence. This study highlights the fact that reducing the weed seedbank cannot rely on one management practice but requires a multitactic approach with various control methods. HPPD-inhibiting herbicide programs seem to be effective on Palmer amaranth when coupled with crop rotation and should be used with other best management practices.
Glufosinate is among the few remaining effective herbicides for postemergence weed control in North Carolina crops. The evolution of glufosinate resistance in key weeds is currently not widespread in North Carolina, but to better assess the current status of glufosinate effectiveness, surveys were distributed at Extension meetings in 2019 and 2020. The surveys were designed to provide information about North Carolina farmers’ perception of glufosinate and its use. Survey results indicate that many North Carolina farmers (≥26%) apply glufosinate at the correct timing (5- to 10-cm weeds). In addition, North Carolina farmers (≥22%) are applying glufosinate as a complementary herbicide to other efficacious herbicides and to control herbicide-resistant weeds, suggesting that glufosinate is part of a diverse chemical weed management plan. Conversely, survey findings indicated that some farmers (13% to 17%) rely exclusively on glufosinate for weed control. Additionally, 28% to 30% of farmers reported glufosinate control failures, and control failures were observed on several weed species among corn, cotton, and soybean crops. The results of the survey suggest that most North Carolina farmers are currently stewarding glufosinate, but they also support the need for Extension personnel to keep educating farmers on how to correctly use glufosinate to delay the evolution of glufosinate-resistant weeds. Semiannual surveys should be distributed to monitor where glufosinate control failures occur and the weed species not being controlled.
Common bean and azuki bean are poor competitors with weeds and demonstrate sensitivity to herbicides used for weed control in soybean. S-metolachlor, flufenacet, and acetochlor are categorized as Group 15 herbicides and provide control of multiple annual grass and select small-seeded broadleaf weeds. By way of field trials near Exeter and Ridgetown, Ontario, in 2019, 2020, and 2021, four dry bean market classes (azuki, kidney, small red, and white bean) were evaluated for their tolerance to 1× established label rates and 2× rates of S-metolachlor (1,600 and 3,200 g ai ha−1), flufenacet (750 and 1,500 g ai ha−1) and acetochlor (1,700 and 3,400 g ai ha−1) applied preplant incorporated (PPI). Injury was evaluated by assessing visible injury symptoms, density, shoot biomass, height, seed moisture content, and seed yield. Azuki bean was more sensitive to the Group 15 herbicides than other dry bean market classes; the Group 15 herbicides caused a 12% reduction in azuki bean growth at 2 wk after emergence; growth reduction was ≤2% in the other bean classes. Flufenacet (2× rate) was the most injurious treatment, causing a 27% reduction in azuki bean yield. This study concludes that kidney, small red, and white bean have a sufficient margin of crop safety to flufenacet, acetochlor, and S-metolachlor applied PPI. Azuki bean was sensitive to flufenacet; additional research is needed to investigate azuki bean tolerance to acetochlor and S-metolachlor applied PPI.
The chapter analyses the recent trends in the organization of agricultural chains in Brazil and their effects in the patterns of agricultural production financing. From the late 1980s onwards, the Brazilian agricultural sector has experienced significant changes, particularly with the deregulation of the domestic market, which stimulated the concentration and internationalization of agro-industrial chains. This increasing international and concentrated private sector gradually assumed functions that were carried out by the State, such as the financing of agricultural production. By examining the relationships between actors operating within Brazilian soybean chains, we show how these new forms of financing production made input and processing firms able to appropriate margin on both sides of the production chain, affecting the income distribution in this agricultural value chain.
Limited information exists on the critical time of weed removal (CTWR) with the currently used soybean cultivars in Ontario. A study consisting of eight field experiments was conducted from 2017 to 2019 in Ontario, Canada, to determine the impact of delayed postemergence (POST) herbicide application on soybean yield based on average weed height at application, days after crop emergence (DAE), accumulated crop heat units (CHU) from the date of planting, and soybean growth stage. The regression model estimated the weed size at herbicide application that led to 1%, 2.5%, and 5% yield loss in soybean was 9, 14, and 20 cm under low weed density (averaging 73 to 134 plants m−2) and 3, 4, and 6 cm under high weed density (143 to 153 plants m−2) conditions, respectively. The estimated DAE at herbicide application time that led to 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 25% yield loss in soybean was 24, 30, 37, and 53 DAE under low weed density and 8, 10, 14, and 23 DAE under high weed density, respectively. The predicted crop stage at herbicide application that resulted in 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 25% yield loss in soybean was V4, V5, R2, and R5 under low weed density and VE, VC, V1, and V4 under high weed density, respectively. This study concludes that soybean yield loss is influenced by the weed density (low vs/high) and the time of the first POST herbicide application. When the first POST herbicide application was delayed until soybean was at the V2 stage the monetary loss was Can$20.46 and Can$221.20 ha−1 in low and high weed-density environments, respectively.
The continued dispersal of Palmer amaranth can impose detrimental impacts on cropping systems in Wisconsin. Our objective was to characterize the response of a recently introduced Palmer amaranth accession in southern Wisconsin to postemergence (POST) and preemergence (PRE) herbicides commonly used in corn and soybean. Greenhouse experiments were conducted with the Wisconsin putative herbicide-resistant accession (BRO) and two additional control accessions from Nebraska, a glyphosate-resistant (KEI2) and a glyphosate-susceptible (KEI3) accession. POST treatments were 2,4-D, atrazine, dicamba, glufosinate, glyphosate, imazethapyr, lactofen, and mesotrione at 1X and 3X label rates. PRE treatments were atrazine, mesotrione, metribuzin, S-metolachlor, and sulfentrazone at 0.5X, 1X, and 3X label rates. Plant survival of each accession was ≥63% after exposure to imazethapyr POST 3X rate. Survival of BRO and KEI2 was 44% (±13) and 50% (±13), respectively, after exposure to atrazine POST 3X rate. Survival of BRO was 69% (±12) after exposure to glyphosate POST 1X rate, whereas survival of KEI2 was 44% (±13) after exposure to glyphosate POST 3X rate. After exposure to 2,4-D POST 1X rate, KEI2 and KEI3 survival was 38% (±13) and 50% (±13), respectively. Survival of all accessions was ≤31% after exposure to 2,4-D POST 3X rate or dicamba, glufosinate, lactofen, and mesotrione POST at either rate. Plant density reduction of KEI2 was 77% (±13) after exposure to atrazine PRE 1X rate, whereas density reduction of BRO was 56% (±13) after exposure to atrazine PRE 3X rate. Plant density reduction of all accessions was ≥94% after exposure to mesotrione PRE 1X and 3X rates or metribuzin, S-metolachlor, and sulfentrazone PRE at either rate. Our results suggest that each accession is resistant (≥50% survival) to imazethapyr POST, that BRO and KEI2 are resistant to atrazine and glyphosate POST, and that KEI2 and KEI3 are resistant to 2,4-D POST. The recently introduced BRO accession exhibited multiple resistance to imazethapyr, atrazine, and glyphosate POST. In addition, atrazine PRE was ineffective for BRO control, suggesting that diversified resistance management strategies will be critical for its effective management.
Dicamba is a synthetic auxin herbicide that may be applied over the top of transgenic dicamba-tolerant crops. The increasing prevalence of herbicide-resistant weeds has resulted in increased reliance on dicamba-based herbicides in soybean production systems. Because of the high volatility of dicamba it is prone to off-target movement, and therefore concern exists regarding its drift onto nearby specialty crops. The present study evaluates 12 mid-Atlantic vegetable crops species for sensitivity to sublethal rates of dicamba. Soybean, snap bean, lima bean, tomato, eggplant, bell pepper, cucumber, summer squash, watermelon, pumpkin, sweet basil, lettuce, and kale were grown in a greenhouse and exposed to dicamba at 0, 0.056, 0.11, 0.28, 0.56, 1.12, 2.24 g ae ha−1, which is, respectively, 0, 1/10,000, 1/5,000, 1/2,000, 1/1,000, 1/500, and 1/250 of the maximum recommended label rate for soybean application (560 g ae ha−1). Vegetable crop injury was evaluated 4 wk after treatment using visual rating methods and leaf deformation index measurements. Overall, snap bean was the most sensitive crop, with dicamba rates as low as 0.11 g ae ha−1 resulting in significantly higher leaf deformation levels compared with the nontreated control. Other Fabaceae and Solanaceae species also demonstrated high sensitivity to sublethal rates of dicamba with rates ranging 0.28 to 0.56 g ae ha−1 causing higher leaf deformation compared with the nontreated control. While cucumber, pumpkin, and summer squash were no or moderately sensitive to dicamba, watermelon showed greater sensitivity with unique symptoms at rates as low as 0.056 g ae ha−1 based on visual evaluation. Within the range of tested dicamba rates, sweet basil, lettuce, and kale demonstrated tolerance to dicamba with no injury observed at the maximum rate of 2.24 g ae ha−1.
Palmer amaranth has developed resistance to at least seven herbicide sites of action in the Cotton Belt of the United States, leaving producers with fewer options to manage this weed. Previous research with corn and newly commercially released soybean systems have found the use of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicides such as isoxaflutole (IFT) to be effective at managing Palmer amaranth. Consequently, a new transgenic cultivar of cotton is being developed with tolerance to IFT, allowing for in-crop applications of the herbicide. Two separate studies were conducted near Marianna, AR, in 2019 and replicated in 2020, to investigate the crop safety and utility of IFT when added to cotton herbicide programs. Herbicide programs featured IFT as a preemergence or early-postemergence option, residual herbicides in subsequent postemergence applications, and the presence or absence of a layby application. The use of IFT did not significantly impact cotton injury or yield, whereas the use of layered residual herbicides, including IFT, increased Palmer amaranth control compared to those without. Regardless of earlier use of IFT, layby applications were needed for season-long control of Palmer amaranth, entireleaf morningglory, broadleaf signalgrass, and johnsongrass, as evidenced by greater than a 20 percentage point improvement in control of all weeds when a layby application was made. Overall, findings from these studies indicate IFT to be a suitable tool for managing Palmer amaranth and will provide an additional site of action for cotton herbicide programs. Sequential herbicide applications and overlaying residuals were found to be paramount for managing Palmer amaranth throughout the season.