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The aim of the present study was to investigate the differences between the consumption of plant-based v. animal-based protein-rich diets on successful ageing, as well as to identify the optimal combination of dietary protein intake for facilitating successful ageing in people aged >50 years.
A combined analysis was conducted in older adults of the ATTICA and MEDIS population-based cross-sectional studies. Anthropometrical, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle parameters, dietary habits and level of protein intake were derived through standard procedures. Successful ageing was evaluated using the validated Successful Aging Index (SAI) composed of ten health-related social, lifestyle and clinical characteristics.
Athens area and twenty Greek islands.
A total of 3349 Greek women and men over 50 years old.
Participants with high consumption of plant proteins were more likely to be male, physically active, with higher daily energy intake, higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet and higher level of SAI (P < 0·001). Participants with ‘Low animal & High plant’ and ‘High animal & High plant’ protein consumption had a 6 and 7 % higher SAI score, respectively, compared with the other participants (P < 0·001). In contrast, ‘Low animal & Low plant’ and ‘High animal & Low plant’ protein intake was negatively associated with SAI as compared to the combination of all other consumption categories (P < 0·02).
The consumption of a plant-based protein-rich diet seems to be a beneficial nutritional choice that should be promoted and encouraged to older people since it may benefit both individual’s health and prolong successful ageing.
Investigate protein intake patterns over the day and their association with total protein intake in older adults.
Cross-sectional study utilising the dietary data collected through two non-consecutive, dietary record-assisted 24-h recalls. Days with low protein intake (n 290) were defined using the RDA (<0·8 g protein/kg adjusted BW/d). For each day, the amount and proportion of protein ingested at every hour of the day and during morning, mid-day and evening hours was calculated. Amounts and proportions were compared between low and high protein intake days and related to total protein intake and risk of low protein intake.
739 Dutch community-dwelling adults ≥70 years.
The mean protein intake was 76·3 (sd 0·7) g/d. At each hour of the day, the amount of protein ingested was higher on days with a high protein intake than on days with a low protein intake and associated with a higher total protein intake. The proportion of protein ingested during morning hours was higher (22 v. 17 %, P < 0·0001) on days with a low protein intake, and a higher proportion of protein ingested during morning hours was associated with a lower total protein intake (P < 0·0001) and a higher odds of low protein intake (OR 1·04, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·06). For the proportion of protein intake during mid-day or evening hours, opposite but weaker associations were found.
In this sample, timing of protein intake was associated with total protein intake. Additional studies need to clarify the importance of these findings to optimise protein intake.
Reducing dietary CP content is an effective approach to reduce animal nitrogen excretion and save protein feed resources. However, it is not clear how reducing dietary CP content affects the nutrient digestion and absorption in the gut of ruminants, therefore it is difficult to accurately determine how much reduction in dietary CP content is appropriate. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of reduced dietary CP content on N balance, intestinal nutrient digestion and absorption, and rumen microbiota in growing goats. To determine N balance, 18 growing wether goats (25.0 ± 0.5 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three diets: 13.0% (control), 11.5% and 10.0% CP. Another 18 growing wether goats (25.0 ± 0.5 kg) were surgically fitted with ruminal, proximate duodenal, and terminal ileal fistulae and were randomly assigned to one of the three diets to investigate intestinal amino acid (AA) absorption and rumen microbiota. The results showed that fecal and urinary N excretion of goats fed diets containing 11.5% and 10.0% CP were lower than those of goats fed the control diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, N retention was decreased and apparent N digestibility in the entire gastrointestinal tract was increased in goats fed the 10% CP diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, the duodenal flow of lysine, tryptophan and phenylalanine was decreased in goats fed the 11.5% CP diet (P < 0.05) and that of lysine, methionine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, leucine, glutamic acid, tyrosine, essential AAs (EAAs) and total AAs (TAAs) was decreased in goats fed the 10.0% CP diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, the apparent absorption of TAAs in the small intestine was increased in goats fed the 11.5% CP diet (P < 0.05) and that of isoleucine, serine, cysteine, EAAs, non-essential AAs, and TAAs in the small intestine was increased in goats fed the 10.0% CP diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, the relative richness of Bacteroidetes and Fibrobacteres was increased and that of Proteobacteria and Synergistetes was decreased in the rumen of goats fed a diet with 10.0% CP. In conclusion, reducing dietary CP content reduced N excretion and increased nutrient utilization by improving rumen fermentation, enhancing nutrient digestion and absorption, and altering rumen microbiota in growing goats.
Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) are cytokines that are involved in the development, proliferation and apoptosis of ovarian follicular cells in domestic mammals. The expression of these cytokines in various follicular compartments, depending on the stage of follicle development, demonstrates their involvement in the control of primordial follicle growth up to the preovulatory stage. The mechanism of action of these factors depends on the presence of their receptors that transduce their biological actions. This review shows the expression sites of TNF-α, IL-1β and their receptors in ovarian follicles, and discusses the mechanism of action of these cytokines during follicle development, oocyte maturation and ovulation in domestic animals.
A high dietary fibre intake has been associated with improvements in inflammatory conditions in adults. However, little is known on whether associations between dietary fibre and inflammation are evident during adolescence. We examined the relationship between dietary fibre intake measured by food frequency questionnaire and the inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the adipokines leptin and adiponectin cross-sectionally in 17-year-olds participating in the Raine Study (n=621). In weighted analysis using tobit and linear regression, and after excluding participants with hs-CRP>10mg/L, higher total dietary fibre intake (per 5g/day) was significantly associated with lower leptin (β=-0.13, 95% CI -0.17, -0.09) and adiponectin (β=-0.28, 95% CI -0.49, -0.07), but not hs-CRP, in unadjusted analyses. These associations were no longer significant after adjustment for gender, anthropometry and a number of lifestyle factors. However, higher cereal and grain fibre intake was significantly associated with lower leptin (β=-0.06, 95% CI -0.10, -0.01) in fully adjusted analysis. Our findings suggest that a higher intake of cereal and grain fibre may contribute to lower leptin in adolescents. This may contribute to reductions in low-grade chronic inflammation and improved health outcomes.
In this research communication, a cell model with elevated β-CASEIN synthesis was established by stimulating bovine mammary epithelial cells with 0.6 mM methionine, and the genome-wide gene expression profiles of methionine-stimulated cells and untreated cells were investigated by RNA sequencing. A total of 458 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 219 upregulated and 239 downregulated) were identified between the two groups. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that the two highest-ranked GO terms in ‘molecular function’ category were ‘binding’ and ‘catalytic activity’, suggesting that milk protein synthesis in methionine-stimulated cells requires induction of gene expression to increase metabolic activity. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that within the ‘environmental information processing’ category, the subcategory that is most highly enriched for DEGs was ‘signal transduction’. cGMP-PKG, Rap1, calcium, cAMP, PI3K-AKT, MAPK, and JAK-STAT are the pathways with the highest number of DEGs, suggesting that these signaling pathways have potential roles in mediating methionine-induced milk protein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells. This study provides valuable insights into the physiological and metabolic adaptations in cells stimulated with methionine. Understanding the regulation of this transition is essential for effective intervention in the lactation process.
Ovarian follicle selection is a natural biological process in the pre-ovulatory hierarchy in birds that drives growing follicles to be selected within the ovulatory cycle. Follicle selection in birds is strictly regulated, involving signaling pathways mediated by dietary nutrients, gonadotrophic hormones and paracrine factors. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that dietary Ca may participate in regulating follicle selection in laying ducks through activating the signaling pathway of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), possibly mediated by gonadotrophic hormones. Female ducks at 22 weeks of age were initially fed one of two Ca-deficient diets (containing 1.8% or 0.38% Ca) or a Ca-adequate control diet (containing 3.6% Ca) for 67 days (depletion period), then all birds were fed the Ca-adequate diet for an additional 67 days (repletion period). Compared with the Ca-adequate control, ducks fed 0.38% Ca during the depletion period had significantly decreased (P < 0.05) numbers of hierarchical follicles and total ovarian weight, which were accompanied by reduced egg production. Plasma concentration of FSH was decreased by the diet containing 1.8% Ca but not by that containing 0.38%. The ovarian content of cAMP was increased with the two Ca-deficient diets, and phosphorylation of PKA and ERK1/2 was increased with 0.38% dietary Ca. Transcripts of ovarian estradiol receptor 2 and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) were reduced in the ducks fed the two Ca-deficient diets (P < 0.05), while those of the ovarian follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) were decreased in the ducks fed 0.38% Ca. The transcript abundance of ovary gap junction proteins, A1 and A4, was reduced with the Ca-deficient diets (P < 0.05). The down-regulation of gene expression of gap junction proteins and hormone receptors, the increased cAMP content and the suppressed hierarchical follicle numbers were reversed by repletion of dietary Ca. These results indicate that dietary Ca deficiency negatively affects follicle selection of laying ducks, independent of FSH, but probably by activating cAMP/PKA/ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
The purpose of this study was to compare next-morning responses of resting metabolic rate (RMR) and appetite to pre-sleep consumption of casein protein (CP) in pre and postmenopausal women. The study was a randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Seven sedentary premenopausal (age: 19.9 (SD 1.2) years, BMI: 23.1(SD 2.6) kg/m2) and seven sedentary postmenopausal (age: 56.4 (SD 4.9) years, BMI: 26.3 (SD 3.5) kg/m2) women participated. During visit one, anthropometrics and body composition were measured. Following visit one, subjects consumed either CP (25g) or placebo (PL) ≥2h after their last meal and ≤30min prior to sleep on the night before visits two and three. Visits two and three occurred ≥one week after visit one and were 48h apart. During visits two and three, RMR (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and appetite were measured via indirect calorimetry and visual analogue scale, respectively. Anthropometrics and body composition were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). RMR and measures of appetite were analyzed using a 2x2 (menopause status × CP/PL) repeated measures ANOVA. Significance was accepted at p≤0.05. RMR was significantly lower in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal women under both conditions (p=0.003). When consumed pre-sleep CP did not alter RMR, RER, or appetite compared to PL when assessed next-morning in pre and postmenopausal women. These data contribute to growing evidence that pre-sleep consumption of protein is not harmful to next-morning metabolism or appetite. In addition, these data demonstrate that menopause may not alter next-morning RMR, RER, or appetite after pre-sleep consumption of CP.
Protein-losing enteropathy is an infrequent but severe condition occurring after Fontan procedure. The multifactorial pathogenesis remains unclear and no single proposed treatment strategy has proven universally successful. Therefore, we sought to describe different treatment strategies and their effect on clinical outcome and mortality.
Material and Methods:
We performed a retrospective observational study. From the total cohort of 439 Fontan patients treated in our institution during the study period 1986–2019, 30 patients (6.8%) with protein-losing enteropathy were identified. Perioperative, clinical, echocardiographic, laboratory, and invasive haemodynamic findings and treatment details were analysed.
Median follow-up after disease onset was 13.1 years [interquartile range 10.6]. Twenty-five patients received surgical or interventional treatment for haemodynamic restrictions. Medical treatment, predominantly pulmonary vasodilator and/or systemic anti-inflammatory therapy with budesonide, was initiated in 28 patients. In 15 patients, a stable remission could be achieved by medical or surgical procedures (n = 3 each), by combined multimodal therapy (n = 8), or ultimately by cardiac transplantation (n = 1). Phrenic palsy, bradyarrhythmia, Fontan pathway stenosis, and absence of a fenestration were significantly associated with development of protein-losing enteropathy (p = 0.001–0.48). Ten patients (33.3%) died during follow-up; 5-year survival estimate was 96.1%. In unadjusted analysis, medical therapy with budesonide and pulmonary vasodilator therapy in combination was associated with improved survival.
Protein-losing enteropathy is a serious condition limiting survival after the Fontan procedure. Comprehensive assessment and individual treatment strategies are mandatory to achieve best possible outcome. Nevertheless, relapse is frequent and long-term mortality substantial. Cardiac transplantation should be considered early as treatment option.
The aim of the present paper is to review the effects of non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) on immunity, focusing on their microbiota-independent mechanisms of action, as well as to explore their potential beneficial role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). IBD are chronic, inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Individuals with IBD have an aberrant immune response to commensal microbiota, resulting in extensive mucosal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability. NDO are prebiotic fibres well known for their role in supporting intestinal health through modulation of the gut microbiota. NDO reach the colon intact and are fermented by commensal bacteria, resulting in the production of SCFA with immunomodulatory properties. In disease states characterised by increased gut permeability, prebiotics may also bypass the gut barrier and directly interact with intestinal and systemic immune cells, as demonstrated in patients with IBD and in infants with an immature gut. In vitro models show that fructooligosaccharides, inulin and galactooligosaccharides exert microbiota-independent effects on immunity by binding to toll-like receptors on monocytes, macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells and by modulating cytokine production and immune cell maturation. Moreover, animal models and human supplementation studies demonstrate that some prebiotics, including inulin and lactulose, might reduce intestinal inflammation and IBD symptoms. Although there are convincing preliminary data to support NDO as immunomodulators in the management of IBD, their mechanisms of action are still unclear and larger standardised studies need to be performed using a wider range of prebiotics.
Precision feeding requires a mathematical model to estimate standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine (Lys) requirements (SIDLysR) in real time. However, this type of model requires constant calibration updates. The objective of this study was to review the calibration of the model used to estimate the real-time Lys requirements of individual growing-finishing pigs. A digestibility trial (n = 10) was conducted to evaluate amino acids digestibility during the growing and finishing phases. Additionally, 120 pigs were used in two 28-day growth experiments conducted as completely randomized design with growing (25 ± 2.1 kg BW, n = 60; 10 pigs per treatment) or finishing barrows (68.1 ± 6 kg BW, n = 60; 10 pigs per treatment). In each experiment, the pigs were divided into six equal treatment groups and fed 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 100% or 110% of their estimated individual SIDLysR. The Lys requirement of each pig was estimated daily using a real-time model. Body composition was measured with dual-energy X-ray densitometry on day 1 and 28 of the experiments. Average daily feed intake increased quadratically (P < 0.05) during both growth phases. Maximum average daily gain (ADG) (0.98 kg) and maximum protein deposition (PD; 170 g/day) were observed in growing pigs fed 100% of the estimated SIDLysR (P < 0.001). During the growing period, PD in BW gain (17% to 19%) and N efficiency (52% to 65%) increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing inclusion rates of SID Lys. Finishing pigs had maximum ADG (1.2 kg/day) when they were fed 100% of the requirements. However, the amount of protein in BW gain (13% to 16%) and N efficiency (40% to 55%) increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing inclusion rates of SID Lys. In conclusion, the model proposed for precision feeding is correctly calibrated to predict SIDLysR that maximize PD and ADG of average pigs from 25 to 50 kg BW. Still, there is an opportunity to improve the estimation of SIDLysR and N retention in individual pigs by better representing the individual proportion of protein in BW gain and the factors controlling the efficiency of Lys utilization in individual pigs.
Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence foetal growth; however, the available evidence is controversial. We aimed to assess whether maternal diet of Japanese women in mid-pregnancy can affect their offspring’s birth size via collection of questionnaire and medical record data. The studied sample was a large cohort of paired mothers and their singleton offspring (n= 78,793) from 15 areas allover Japan who participated in the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS).
The mid-pregnancy intakes of total energy, macronutrients and vitamins were lower than the recommended intakes for pregnant Japanese women. Maternal total energy intake was positively associated with the offspring’s birth weight; 10-g mean difference in the offspring’s birth weight of mothers in the lowest (3,026 g) versus highest (3,036 g) quartiles of energy intake. Carbohydrate intake was positively associated with the offspring’s birth length (mean difference of 0.7 cm) and inversely associated with the ponderal index (mean difference of 0.8 g/cm3). Offspring of mothers in the highest versus lowest quartiles of total dietary fiber intake were on average 9 g heavier and had 0.3 cm longer birth length and 0.2 cm longer head circumference. The highest in reference to lowest intake quartile of vitamin C was associated with 13 g and 0.7 cm mean differences in the offspring’s birth weight and length respectively. Several other associations were evident for maternal vitamins intakes and the offspring’s birth size.
In conclusion, maternal dietary intakes of energy, dietary fiber, carbohydrate and vitamins during pregnancy were associated with the offspring’s birth size.
Ketosis is a metabolic disease of dairy cows often characterized by high concentrations of ketone bodies and fatty acids, but low milk protein and milk production. The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways are central for the regulation of milk protein synthesis. The effect of high levels of fatty acids on these pathways and β-casein synthesis are unknown in dairy cows with clinical ketosis. Mammary gland tissue and blood samples were collected from healthy (n = 15) and clinically-ketotic (n = 15) cows. In addition, bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) were treated with fatty acids, methionine (Met) or prolactin (PRL), respectively. In vivo, the serum concentration of fatty acids was greater (P > 0.05) and the percentage of milk protein (P > 0.05) was lower in cows with clinical ketosis. The JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways were inhibited and the abundance of β-casein was lower in mammary tissue of cows with clinical ketosis (P > 0.05). In vitro, high levels of fatty acids inhibited the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways (P > 0.05) and further decreased the β-casein synthesis (P > 0.05) in BMEC. Methionine or PRL treatment, as positive regulators, activated the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways to increase the β-casein synthesis. Importantly, the high concentration of fatty acids attenuated the positive effect of Met or PRL on mTOR, JAK2-STAT5 pathways and the abundance of β-casein (P > 0.05). Overall, these data indicate that the high concentrations of fatty acids that reach the mammary cells during clinical ketosis inhibit mTOR and JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathways, and further suppress β-casein synthesis.
PUFA of the n-3 and n-6 families are present in high concentration in the brain where they are major components of cell membranes. The main forms found in the brain are DHA (22 :6, n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6). In the past century, several studies pinpointed that modifications of n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels in the brain through dietary supply or genetic means are linked to the alterations of synaptic function. Yet, synaptopathies emerge as a common characteristic of neurodevelopmental disorders, neuropsychiatric diseases and some neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the mechanisms of action underlying the activity of PUFA at the level of synapses is thus of high interest. In this frame, dietary supplementation in PUFA aiming at restoring or promoting the optimal function of synapses appears as a promising strategy to treat synaptopathies. This paper reviews the link between dietary PUFA, synapse formation and the role of PUFA and their metabolites in synaptic functions.
Excessive adipose accumulation, which is the main driver for the development of secondary metabolic complications, has reached epidemic proportions and combined pharmaceutical, educational and nutritional approaches are required to reverse the current rise in global obesity prevalence rates. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a unique organ able to dissipate energy and thus a promising target to enhance BMR to counteract a positive energy balance. In addition, active BAT might support body weight maintenance after weight loss to prevent/reduce relapse. Natural products deliver valuable bioactive compounds that have historically helped to alleviate disease symptoms. Interest in recent years has focused on identifying nutritional constituents that are able to induce BAT activity and thereby enhance energy expenditure. This review provides a summary of selected dietary phytochemicals, including isoflavones, catechins, stilbenes, the flavonoids quercetin, luteolin and resveratrol as well as the alkaloids berberine and capsaicin. Most of the discussed phytochemicals act through distinct molecular pathways e.g. sympathetic nerve activation, AMP-kinase signalling, SIRT1 activity or stimulation of oestrogen receptors. Thus, it might be possible to utilise this multitude of pathways to co-activate BAT using a fine-tuned combination of foods or combined nutritional supplements.
Nutrient requirements in cattle are dependent on physiological stage, breed and environmental conditions. In Holstein × Gyr crossbred dairy heifers, the lack of data remains a limiting factor for estimating energy and protein requirements. Thus, we aimed to estimate the energy and protein requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred heifers raised under tropical conditions. Twenty-two crossbred (½ Holstein × ½ Gyr) heifers with an average initial BW of 102.2 ± 3.4 kg and 3 to 4 months of age were used. To estimate requirements, the comparative slaughter technique was used: four animals were assigned to the reference group, slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to estimate the initial empty BW (EBW) and composition of the animals that remained in the experiment. The remaining animals were randomized into three treatments based on targeted rates of BW gain: high (1.0 kg/day), low (0.5 kg/day) and close to maintenance (0.1 kg/day). At the end of the experiment, all animals were slaughtered to determine EBW, empty body gain (EBG) and body energy and protein contents. The linear regression parameters were estimated using PROC MIXED of SAS (version 9.4). Estimates of the parameters of non-linear regressions were adjusted through PROC NLIN of SAS using the Gauss–Newton method for parameter fit. The net requirements of energy for maintenance (NEm) and metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) were 0.303 and 0.469 MJ/EBW0.75 per day, respectively. The efficiency of use of MEm was 64.5%. The estimated equation to predict the net energy requirement for gain (NEg) was: NEg (MJ/day) = 0.299 × EBW0.75 × EBG0.601. The efficiency of use of ME for gain (kg) was 30.7%. The requirement of metabolizable protein for maintenance was 3.52 g/EBW0.75 per day. The equation to predict net protein requirement for gain (NPg) was: NPg (g/day) = 243.65 × EBW−0.091 × EBG. The efficiency of use of metabolizable protein for gain (k) was 50.8%. We observed noteworthy differences when comparing to ME and protein requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred heifers with other systems. In addition, we also observed differences in estimates for NEm, NEg, NPg, kg and k. Therefore, we propose that the equations generated in the present study should be used to estimate energy and protein requirements for Holstein × Gyr crossbred dairy heifers raised in tropical conditions in the post-weaning phase up to 185 kg of BW.
Requirements for energy and particular amino acids (AAs) are known to be influenced by the extent of immune system stimulation. Most studies on this topic use models for immune system stimulation mimicking clinical conditions. Extrapolation to conditions of chronic, low-grade immune system stimulation is difficult. We aimed to quantify differences in maintenance energy requirements and efficiency of energy and protein used for growth (incremental energy and protein efficiency) of pigs kept under low (LSC) or high sanitary conditions (HSC) that were fed either a basal diet or a diet with supplemented AA. Twenty-four groups of six 10-week-old female pigs were kept under either LSC or HSC conditions for 2 weeks and fed a diet supplemented or not with 20% extra methionine, threonine and tryptophan. In week 1, feed was available ad libitum. In week 2, feed supply was restricted to 70% of the realized feed intake (kJ/(kg BW)0.6 per day) in week 1. After week 2, fasting heat production (FHP) was measured. Energy balances and incremental energy and protein efficiencies were measured and analyzed using a GLM. Low sanitary condition increased FHP of pigs by 55 kJ/(kg BW)0.6 per day, regardless of diet. Low sanitary condition did not alter the response of faecal energy output to incremental gross energy (GE) intake, but it reduced the incremental response of metabolizable energy intake (12% units), heat production (6% units) and energy retained as protein (6% units) to GE intake, leaving energy retained as fat unaltered. Incremental protein efficiency was reduced in LSC pigs by 20% units. Incremental efficiencies for energy and protein were not affected by dietary AA supplementation. Chronic, low-grade immune stimulation by LSC treatment increases FHP in pigs. Under such conditions, the incremental efficiency of nitrogen utilization for body protein deposition is reduced, but the incremental efficiency of absorbed energy for energy or fat deposition is unaffected.
Increasing clinical and experimental evidence accumulated during the past few decades supports an important role for dietary advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) in the pathogenesis of many chronic non-infectious diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, CVD and others, that are reaching epidemic proportions in the Western world. Although AGE are compounds widely recognised as generated in excess in the body in diabetic patients, the potential importance of exogenous AGE, mostly of dietary origin, has been largely ignored in the general nutrition audience. In the present review we aim to describe dietary AGE, their mechanisms of formation and absorption into the body as well as their main mechanisms of action. We will present in detail current evidence of their potential role in the development of several chronic non-infectious clinical conditions, some general suggestions on how to restrict them in the diet and evidence regarding the potential benefits of lowering their consumption.
We conducted a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) to examine the effects of strawberry interventions on cardiovascular risk factors. We searched multiple databases including PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus to identify eligible studies published before 19 May 2019. The endpoints were blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, TAG, fasting blood glucose, endothelial function and inflammatory factors. Pooled analyses were performed using random- or fixed-effects models according to a heterogeneity test. We also conducted sub-group analyses by baseline endpoint levels. We included eleven RCT in this meta-analysis (six for blood pressure, seven for lipid profile, seven for fasting blood glucose and six for C-reactive protein (CRP)). Overall, the strawberry interventions significantly reduced CRP levels by 0·63 (95 % CI −1·04, −0·22) mg/l but did not affect blood pressure, lipid profile or fasting blood glucose in the main analyses. Our analysis stratified by baseline endpoint levels showed the strawberry interventions significantly reduced TC among people with baseline levels >5 mmol/l (−0·52 (95 % CI −0·88, −0·15) mmol/l) and reduced LDL-cholesterol among people with baseline levels >3 mmol/l (−0·31 (95 % CI −0·60, −0·02) mmol/l). There was little evidence of heterogeneity in the analysis and no evidence of publication bias. In summary, strawberry interventions significantly reduced CRP levels and may improve TC and LDL-cholesterol in individuals with high baseline levels.