To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of post-ruminally infused fat supplements, varying in fatty acid (FA) chain length, on animal performance, metabolism and milk FA. Eleven multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated incomplete 3×3 Latin square design with 7-d periods, separated by 7-d washouts. Treatments were administered as abomasal infusions of enrichments providing 280 g/d of FAs: 1) palmitic acid (98.4% 16:0; PA), 2) caprylic and capric acids (56.2% 8:0, 43.8% 10:0; MCT), and 3) stearic acid (99.0% 18:0; SA). Relative to PA, SA decreased the efficiency of fat-corrected milk production, which was associated with a tendency for higher dry matter intake and lower FA absorption with SA, whereas MCT was not different from PA for these variables. Milk fat concentration and yield were increased by PA relative to SA, but only fat yield tended to be greater relative to MCT. Relative to PA, MCT increased milk fat concentration of FAs < 16 C, whereas SA increased FAs > 16 C. Expression of mammary stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 was lower with SA than with PA. Relative to PA, liver expression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-1 and pyruvate kinase was increased with MCT, whereas expression of these genes tended to be increased by SA. The mechanism of increased fat secretion with PA does not seem to be related to a modulation of the expression of lipogenesis-related genes, but rather to increased substrate availability as reflected by milk FA profile.
Data trusts have been conceived as a mechanism to enable the sharing of data across entities where other formats, such as open data or commercial agreements, are not appropriate, and make data sharing both easier and more scalable. By our definition, a data trust is a legal, technical, and organizational structure for enabling the sharing of data for a variety of purposes. The concept of the “data trust” requires further disambiguation from other facilitating structures such as data collaboratives. Irrespective of the terminology used, attempting to create trust in order to facilitate data sharing, and create benefit to individuals, groups of individuals, or society at large, requires at a minimum a process-based mechanism, that is, a workflow that should have a trustworthiness-by-design approach at its core. Data protection by design should be a key component of such an approach.
CSR and sustainability practices play a significant role across diverse sectors of an economy. This chapter examines corporate social responsibility and sustainable development in the informal economy. Through the review of the literature, the chapter establishes that unregistered micro, small, and medium enterprises mainly dominate the informal sector particularly in developing and emerging economies. The low degree of formalisation and other specific attributes common to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) operating in the informal sector, influence their CSR approach and strategies. The chapter discusses the need to build social capital (trust, reputation and legitimacy) and culture as motivating factors that promote SMEs involvement in CSR practices, while legislation and institutional context are major drivers of sustainability practices. The chapter highlights how the informal economy, particularly in the context of SMEs, can be positioned to be more socially and environmentally responsible.
Despite the well-characterised mechanisms of amino acids (AA) regulation of milk protein synthesis in mammary glands (MG), the underlying specific AA regulatory machinery in bovine MG remains further elucidated. As methionine (Met) is one of the most important essential and limiting AA for dairy cows, it is crucial to expand how Met exerts its regulatory effects on dairy milk protein synthesis. Our previous work detected the potential regulatory role of seryl-tRNA synthetase (SARS) in essential AA (EAA)-stimulated bovine casein synthesis. Here, we investigated whether and how SARS participates in Met stimulation of casein production in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC). With or without RNA interference against SARS, BMEC were treated with the medium in the absence (containing all other EAA and devoid of Met alone)/presence (containing 0·6 mm of Met in the medium devoid of Met alone) of Met. The protein abundance of β-casein and members of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) pathways was determined by immunoblot assay after 6 h treatment, the cell viability and cell cycle progression were determined by cell counting and propidium iodide-staining assay after 24 h treatment, and protein turnover was determined by l-[ring-3H5]phenylalanine isotope tracing assay after 48 h treatment. In the absence of Met, there was a general reduction in cell viability, total protein synthesis and β-casein production; in contrast, total protein degradation was enhanced. SARS knockdown strengthened these changes. Finally, SARS may work to promote Met-stimulated β-casein synthesis via affecting mTOR and GCN2 routes in BMEC.
The present study examined whether the combination of medium-chain TAG (MCT) along with exercise suppresses energy intake to a greater extent compared with either intervention alone. Twelve participants consumed a porridge breakfast containing 692·9 kJ of either vegetable or MCT oil on two separate occasions: one followed by rest for 240 min and another followed by rest broken up with 1 h of cycling at 65 %
O2peak starting at 120 min. At 240 min, participants consumed a buffet lunch to satiation and recorded their food intake for the rest of the day. Expired air samples (for calculation of energy expenditure (EE)) and subjective ratings of appetite on visual analogue scales were taken every 30 min, and gastric emptying (GE) breath samples were taken every 15 min. No effect of either breakfast or exercise condition was observed on energy intake at any time point (P > 0·05) or no effect was observed on subjective appetite ratings (P > 0·05). Exercise trials resulted in significantly higher EE compared with resting trials (2960·6 kJ, 95 % CI 2528·9, 3392·2; P < 0·001), and MCT increased resting EE over 4 h compared with long-chain TAG (LCT) (124·8 kJ, 95 % CI 13·5, 236·0; P = 0·031). GE was accelerated by exercise, regardless of the breakfast consumed, but delayed by MCT in both resting and exercise trials. The results show that exercise causes energy deficits via increased EE without promoting dietary compensation. MCT has no effect on energy intake or satiety but increases EE under resting conditions. There is no additive effect of MCT and exercise on EE, intake or appetite ratings.
Agents can learn from financial markets to predict macroeconomic outcomes, and learning dynamics can feed back into both the macroeconomy and financial markets. This paper builds on the adaptive learning (AL) model of [Slobodyan, S. and R. Wouters (2012a) American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics 4, 65–101.] by introducing the term structure of interest rates. This extension enables term structure information to fully characterize agents’ expectations in real time. This feature addresses an imperfect information issue neglected in the related AL literature. The term structure of interest rates results in a strong channel of persistence driven by multi-period forecasting. Including the term structure in the AL model results in a model fit similar to that obtained in the rational expectation (RE) version of the model, but it greatly reduces the importance of other endogenous sources of aggregate persistence such as price and wage stickiness and the elasticity of the cost of adjusting capital. The model estimated also shows that term premium innovations are a major source of persistent fluctuations in nominal variables under AL. This stands in sharp contrast to the lack of transmission of term premium shocks to the macroeconomy under REs.
Chapter 4 analyzes the doctrine of patentable subject matter. Delving into American, European, and Japanese patent jurisprudence, it first describes how these legal systems handle software-related inventions in general. Next, it applies that jurisprudence to 3D printable files to demonstrate why only one of the three 3D printing file formats is likely to constitute patentable subject matter. More intriguingly, it turns out that this file format is of least interest to would-be patent holders. In other words, a patent protection gap exists. Chapter 4 also analyzes jurisdictions’ differential treatment of patent claims directed to electronic signals. The Japanese and European patent systems consider these claims to be patentable subject matter, whereas the U.S. system does not. The upshot is that patent protection for software and 3D printable files is weaker in the United States because most 3D printable files are sold as internet signal transmissions. I argue that the United States should provide protection for signal claims.
Disturbances in lipid metabolism are at the core of several health issues facing modern society, including fatty liver and obesity. The sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) is one important transcription factor regulating lipid metabolism, but the relevant mechanism still remains unknown. The present study determined the transcriptional regulation of SREBP-1 and its target genes (including acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (accα), fatty acid synthase (fas) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (scd1)) in a freshwater teleost, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. We cloned and characterised the 1988 bp, 2043 bp, 1632 bp and 1889 bp sequences of srebp-1, accα, scd1 and fas promoters, respectively. A cluster of putative binding sites of transcription factors, such as specific protein, yin yang 1, nuclear factor Y, sterol response elements (SRE) and enhancer box (E-box) element, were predicted on their promoter regions. Overexpression of nSREBP-1 reduced srebp-1 promoter activity, increased scd1 and fas promoter activity but did not influence accα promoter activity. The site-mutation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay analysis indicated that srebp-1, fas and scd1 promoters, but not accα promoter, possessed SRE. In Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells of grass carp, nSREBP-1 overexpression significantly reduced srebp-1 mRNA expression and up-regulated miR-29 mRNA expression. The 3′UTR of srebp-1 possessed the potential miR-29 binding site and miR-29 up-regulated the luciferase activity of srebp-1 3′UTR and srebp-1 mRNA expression, implying a self-activating loop of SREBP-1 and miR-29 in grass carp. Based on the above-mentioned results, we found two novel transcriptional mechanisms for SREBP-1 in grass carp: (1) the auto-regulation sited on the SREBP-1 promoter regions was suppressive and (2) there was a self-activating loop of SREBP-1 and miR-29.
The present study compared the protective effect of sodium selenite (SS) and selenomethionine (SeMet) on heat stress (HS)-invoked porcine IPEC-J2 cellular damage and integrate potential roles of corresponding selenoprotein. Cells were cultured at 37°C until 80 % confluence and then subjected to four different conditions for 24 h: at 37°C (control), 41·5°C (HS), 41·5°C supplied with 0·42 µmol Se/L SS (SS), or SeMet (SeMet). HS significantly decreased cell viability, up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and down-regulated mRNA and protein levels of tight junction-related proteins (claudin-1 (CLDN-1) and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1)). HS-induced cell injury was associated with the up-regulation (P < 0·05) of six inflammation-related genes and fourteen selenoprotein encoding genes and down-regulation (P < 0·05) of two inflammation-related genes and five selenoprotein encoding genes. Compared with the HS group, SS and SeMet supplementation resulted in an increase (P < 0·05) in cell viability, decreased (P < 0·05) mRNA expression of HSP70 and six inflammation-related genes and rescue (P < 0·05) of mRNA and protein levels of CLDN-1 and ZO-1. SS and SeMet supplementation changes the expressions of nineteen selenoprotein encoding genes in cells affected by HS. Both Se supplementation significantly recovered the protein level of glutathione peroxidase-1 and increased selenoprotein P in the IPEC-J2 cells under HS, respectively. In summary, Se supplementation alleviated the negative impact of HS on IPEC-J2 cells, and their cellular protective effect was associated with regulation expression of selenoproteins, and SeMet exhibited a better protective effect.
Numerical analysis was investigated for steady two-dimensional double diffusive mixed convection boundary layer flow over a semi-infinite vertical plate embedded non-Darcy porous medium filled with nanofluid, in presence of thermal dispersion and under convective boundary conditions. The Buongiorno nanofluid model is used, while the porous medium is described by the Darcy-Forchheimer extension. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into four coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations using an appropriate similarity transformations and the resulting system of equations is then solved numerically by the finite-difference method. Numerical results are presented to illustrate how the physical parameters affect the flow field, temperature, concentration and solid volume fraction profiles. In addition, the variation of heat, mass and nanoparticle transfer rates at the plate are exhibited graphically for different values of pertinent parameters.
Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
Here the fundamental problem of MHD waves in a uniform medium is discussed in detail, principally from the viewpoint of partial differential equations. The tube speed is introduced. Dispersion relations are obtained and their properties determined, as well as the properties of the perturbations. Two special cases are also discussed: the incompressible medium, and the $\beta = 0$ plasma.
The present study investigated if the presence of encircling granulosa cells protected against di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)-induced oxidative stress in rat oocytes cultured in vitro. Denuded oocytes and cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were treated with or without various doses of DEHP (0.0, 25.0, 50.0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 μM) in vitro. Morphological apoptotic changes, levels of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential, and expression levels of apoptotic markers (Bcl2, Bax, cytochrome c) were analyzed. Our results showed that DEHP induced morphological apoptotic changes in a dose-dependent manner in denuded oocytes cultured in vitro. The effective dose of DEHP (400 µg) significantly (P>0.05) increased oxidative stress by elevating ROS levels and the mitochondrial membrane potential with higher mRNA expression and protein levels of apoptotic markers (Bax, cytochrome c). Encircling granulosa cells protected oocytes from DEHP-induced morphological changes, increased oxidative stress and ROS levels, as well as increased expression of apoptotic markers. Taken together our data suggested that encircling granulosa cells protected oocytes against DEHP-induced apoptosis and that the presence of granulosa cells could act positively towards the survival of oocytes under in vitro culture conditions and may be helpful during assisted reproductive technique programmes.
The surface impedance characteristics of a wire grid composed of infinitely long parallel conducting wires embedded in lossless and lossy frequency-dispersive chiral background media have been investigated. Using wavefield decomposition approach for a chiral background and with the application of impedance boundary conditions for a wire grid, an analytic expression for the surface impedance of a wire grid with a chiral background has been derived. It is shown that the surface impedance magnitude of a wire grid with chiral nihility background is close to zero and almost independent of incident polar angles. A strong chiral background significantly enhances the surface impedance magnitude of a wire grid for incident polar angles closer to right angle as compared to the free space background. The same electromagnetic appearance of a wire grid with frequency-dispersive chiral and free space background media at some critical frequency has also been discussed which may find applications in electromagnetic illusions. It is also shown that if the value of incident polar angles are closer to right angle then the impedance magnitude of a wire grid embedded in the realistic chiral background is smaller as compared to the same wire grid when placed in the free space background.
The present study aimed to determine if the long-chain MUFA cetoleic acid (22 : 1n-11) can improve the capacity to synthesise the health-promoting n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA in human and fish models. Human hepatocytes (HepG2) and salmon primary hepatocytes were first enriched with cetoleic acid, and thereafter their capacities to convert radio-labelled 18 : 3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA) to EPA and DHA were measured. Increased endogenous levels of cetoleic acid led to increased production of radio-labelled EPA + DHA in HepG2 by 40 % and EPA in salmon hepatocytes by 12 %. In order to verify if dietary intake of a fish oil rich in cetoleic acid would have the same beneficial effects on the n-3 fatty acid metabolic pathway in vivo as found in vitro, Atlantic salmon were fed four diets supplemented with either sardine oil low in cetoleic acid or herring oil high in cetoleic acid at two inclusion levels (Low or High). The diets were balanced for EPA + DHA content within the Low and within the High groups. The salmon were fed these diets from 110 to 242 g. The level of EPA + DHA in liver and whole-body retention of docosapentaenoic acid and EPA + DHA relative to what was eaten, increased with increased dietary cetoleic acid levels. Thus, it is concluded that cetoleic acid stimulated the synthesis of EPA and DHA from ALA in human HepG2 and of EPA in salmon hepatocytes in vitro and increased whole-body retention of EPA + DHA in salmon by 15 % points after dietary intake of cetoleic acid.
Small and medium-sized enterprises are affected by changing development, production and selling paradigms in globalized industries, where innovation is a driver for sustainable competitiveness. However, innovating is highly challenging for small and medium-sized enterprises, as human resources are very limited and know-how are often highly specialized. It is often unclear which fields and factors provide the capability to innovate and which measures or methods can be applied to promote innovation based on existing competencies.
For this reason, the aim of this paper is to present a framework to support the innovation capability of SMEs by identifying promising fields for innovation and providing suitable innovation methods. A particular focus in this paper is a methodology for the description and identification of fields to foster the innovation capability in SMEs as a part of the introduced framework.
Men have earlier first-time event of CHD and higher postprandial TAG response compared with women. The aim of this exploratory sub-study was to investigate if intake of meals with the same amount of fat from different dairy products affects postprandial lipoprotein subclasses differently in healthy women and men. A total of thirty-three women and fourteen men were recruited to a randomised controlled cross-over study with four dairy meals consisting of butter, cheese, whipped cream or sour cream, corresponding to 45 g of fat (approximately 60 energy percent). Blood samples were taken at 0, 2, 4 and 6 h postprandially. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using NMR and analysed using a linear mixed model. Sex had a significant impact on the response in M-VLDL (P=0·04), S-LDL (P=0·05), XL-HDL (P=0·009) and L-HDL (P=0·001) particle concentration (P), with women having an overall smaller increase in M-VLDL-P, a larger decrease in S-LDL-P and a larger increase in XL- and L-HDL-P compared with men, independent of meal. Men showed a decrease in XS-VLDL-P compared with women after intake of sour cream (P<0·01). In men only, XS-VLDL-P decreased after intake of sour cream compared with all other meals (v. butter: P=0·001; v. cheese: P=0·04;
v. whipped cream: P=0·006). Meals with the same amount of fat from different dairy products induce different postprandial effects on lipoprotein subclass concentrations in men and women.
The drive to replace scarce and expensive Pt-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has led to the development of a group of electrocatalysts composed of transition-metal ion centers coordinated with four nitrogen groups (M-N4). Among these, metal phthalocyanines (MPcs), due to low cost of preparation, highly conjugated structure as well as high thermal and chemical stability, have received a great interest. The catalytic activity of MPcs can be improved by employing conducting supports. Here, in this report, we have solvothermally synthesized graphene-supported zinc phthalocyanine nanostructures, and their ORR kinetics and mechanism have been investigated in neutral solution (pH = 7) by using the rotating disk electrode technique. The as-synthesized nanocomposite followed a 4e− reduction pathway. The onset potential (−0.04 V versus Ag/AgCl) found in this work can be comparable with other state-of-the-art material, demonstrating good performance in neutral solution. The fascinating performance leads the nanocomposite material toward future energy applications.
Free convective flow and heat transfer of nanofluid close to the inclined plate immersed in the porous medium under the effects of uniform magnetic field and solar radiation has been studied. Boundary-layer approach, Boussinesq approximation and two-phase nanofluid model have been used for a formulation of the governing equations taking into account convective-radiative heat exchange with an environment. The local similarity method has been adopted for the analysis of the considered phenomenon. The obtained equations have been solved numerically using MATLAB software. The effects of control characteristics on profiles of velocity, temperature and nanoparticles volume fraction as well as Nusselt number have been studied in detail.
In this research, in situ high-temperature electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) mapping is applied to record and analyze the migration of the α/γ interfaces during cyclic austenite–ferrite phase transformations in a medium manganese steel. The experimental study is supplemented with related 3D phase field (PF) simulations to better understand the 2D EBSD observations in the context of the 3D transformation events taking place below the surface. The in situ EBSD observations and PF simulations show an overall transformation behavior qualitatively similar to that measured in dilatometry. The behavior and kinetics of individual austenite–ferrite interfaces during the transformation is found to have a wide scatter around the average interface behavior deduced on the basis of the dilatometric measurements. The trajectories of selected characteristic interfaces are analyzed in detail and yield insight into the effect of local conditions in the vicinity of interfaces on their motion, as well as the misguiding effects of 2D observations of processes taking place in 3D.