To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Nutrients can impact and regulate cellular metabolism and cell function which is particularly important for the activation and function of diverse immune subsets. Among the critical nutrients for immune cell function and fate, glutamine is possibly the most widely recognised immunonutrient, playing key roles in TCA cycle, heat shock protein responses and antioxidant systems. In addition, glutamine is also involved with inter-organ ammonia transport, and this is particularly important for not only immune cells, but also to the brain, especially in catabolic situations such as critical care and extenuating exercise. The well characterised fall in blood glutamine availability has been the main reason for studies to investigate the possible effects of glutamine replacement via supplementation but many of the results are in poor agreement. At the same time, a range of complex pathways involved in glutamine metabolism have been revealed via supplementation studies. This article will briefly review the function of glutamine in the immune system, with emphasis on metabolic mechanisms, and the emerging role of glutamine in the brain glutamate/gamma-amino butyric acid cycle. In addition, relevant aspects of glutamine supplementation are discussed.
Sjögren’s syndrome is an autoimmune disease that predominantly affects women. Sjögren’s syndrome can present as Primary Sjögren Syndrome (PSS) if it is isolated syndrome, or as Secondary Sjögren Syndrome (SSS) if associated with other connective tissue diseas. Sjögren’s syndrome affects the nervous system in approximately 20% of cases and, of these, only 2-5% present central nervous system involvement. A few cases of ischemic and / or hemorrhagic stroke associated with Sjögren's syndrome as the first symptomatic manifestation of the disease, have been reported. We discuss a case of a 50-year-old woman with a history of transient ischemic attacks, admitted in emergency room because of acute onset of speaking difficulties and a loss of strength in the right arm, successfully treated with intravenous thrombolysis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed recent ischemic lesions in the left-brain hemisphere and MR angiography showed multiple arteries stenosis. Few weeks later, the neurological and MRI picture worsened. The laboratory screening tested the presence in the serum of Sjögren Syndrome specific antibodies. Immunosuppressive drugs (IV cyclophosphamide and oral prednisone) was started with transient clinical response. Following a clinical relapse, the patient was treated with rituximab, but the severe cardio-pulmonary and neurological complications led the patient to death. Cerebral arteries vasculitis of small and medium-size vessel is likely the pathogenetic mechanism of the ischemic damage in patients with PSS. Advances in knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the etiopathogenesis of primary Sjögren syndrome may allow the development of highly selective and more effective therapies
The central nervous system (CNS), consisting of the brain and spinal cord, regulates the mind and functions of the organs. CNS diseases, leading to changes in neurological functions in corresponding sites and causing long-term disability, represent one of the major public health issues with significant clinical and economic burdens worldwide. In particular, the abnormal changes in the extracellular matrix under various disease conditions have been demonstrated as one of the main factors that can alter normal cell function and reduce the neuroregeneration potential in damaged tissue. Decellularised extracellular matrix (dECM)-based biomaterials have been recently utilised for CNS applications, closely mimicking the native tissue. dECM retains tissue-specific components, including proteoglycan as well as structural and functional proteins. Due to their unique composition, these biomaterials can stimulate sensitive repair mechanisms associated with CNS damages. Herein, we discuss the decellularisation of the brain and spinal cord as well as recellularisation of acellular matrix and the recent progress in the utilisation of brain and spinal cord dECM.
Along with an increase in opioid deaths, there has been a desire to increase the accessibility of naloxone. However, in the absence of respiratory depression, naloxone is unlikely to be beneficial and may be deleterious if it precipitates withdrawal in individuals with central nervous system (CNS) depression due to non-opioid etiologies.
The aim of this study was to evaluate how effective prehospital providers were in administering naloxone.
This is a retrospective study of naloxone administration in two large urban Emergency Medical Service (EMS) systems. The proportion of patients who had a respiratory rate of at least 12 breaths per minute at the time of naloxone administration by prehospital providers was determined.
During the two-year study period, 2,580 patients who received naloxone by prehospital providers were identified. The median (interquartile range) respiratory rate prior to naloxone administration was 12 (6-16) breaths per minute. Using an a priori respiratory rate of under 12 breaths per minute to define respiratory depression, only 1,232 (47.8%; 95% CI, 50.3%-54.2%) subjects who received naloxone by prehospital providers had respiratory depression.
This study showed that EMS providers in Los Angeles County, California (USA) frequently administered naloxone to individuals without respiratory depression.
People with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS) and healthy controls (HCs) were evaluated on cognitive variability indices and we examined the relationship between fatigue and cognitive variability between these groups. Intraindividual variability (IIV) on a neuropsychological test battery was hypothesized to mediate the group differences expected in fatigue.
Fifty-nine PwMS and 51 HCs completed a psychosocial interview and battery of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires during a 1-day visit. Fatigue in this study was measured with the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS), a self-report multidimensional measure of fatigue. IIV was operationalized using two different measures, a maximum discrepancy score (MDS) and intraindividual standard deviation (ISD), in two cognitive domains, memory and attention/processing speed. Two mediation analyses with group (PwMS or HCs) as the independent variable, variability composite (memory or attention/processing speed) measures as the mediators, total residual fatigue (after accounting for age) as the outcome, and depression as a covariate were conducted. The Baron and Kenny approach to testing mediation and the PROCESS macro for testing the strength of the indirect effect were used.
Results of a mediation analysis using 5000 bootstrap samples indicated that IIV in domains of both attention/processing speed and memory significantly mediated the effect of patient status on total residual fatigue.
IIV is an objective performance measure that is related to differences in fatigue impact between PwMS and HCs. PwMS experience more variability across tests of attention/processing speed and memory and this experience of variable performance may increase the impact of fatigue.
Nano-biotechnology crosses the boundaries between physics, biochemistry and bioengineering, and has profound implications for the biomedical engineering industry. This book describes the quantum chemical simulation of a wide variety of molecular systems, with detailed analysis of their quantum chemical properties, individual molecular configurations, and cutting-edge biomedical applications. Topics covered include the basic properties of quantum chemistry and its conceptual foundations, the nanoelectronics and thermodynamics of DNA, the optoelectronic properties of the five DNA/RNA nucleobase anhydrous crystals, and key examples of molecular diode prototypes. A wide range of important applications are described, including protein binding of drugs such as cholesterol-lowering, anti-Parkinson and anti-migraine drugs, and recent developments in cancer biology are also discussed. This modern and comprehensive text is essential reading for graduate students and researchers in multidisciplinary areas of biological physics, chemical physics, chemical engineering, biochemistry and bioengineering.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic influences health care facilities world-wide. The flow rate, type, and severity of cases presented to emergency departments varied during the pandemic in comparison to the past years. However, this change has not been well-described among the cases of hospital admission due to toxic exposure.
Recognition of the pattern of toxic exposure among the cases refereed to Tanta Poison Control Center (TPCC; Tanta, Egypt) during the past five years, and furthermore, exploration of the impact of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the pattern of presented cases.
The current study is a five-year retrospective, comparative cross-sectional study carried out among acutely intoxicated patients admitted to TPCC during the spring months (March through May) of 2016-2020. A total of 1,916 patients with complete medical records were recruited. The type and manner of toxic exposure, demographic, clinical data, and outcomes were analyzed.
The current study noted that there were delays in time from toxic exposure to emergency services during the lockdown period. This was reflected in significant lower recovery rates (884.8/1,000 population; z = −3.0) and higher death rates (49.4/1,000 population; z = 2.1) despite the marked decrease in the total number of hospital admissions in comparison to the past four years. The lockdown period showed significantly higher phosphides (z = 3.5; χ2 = 34.295; P <.001) and antipsychotics exposure (z = 3.6; χ2 = 21.494; P <.001) than the previous years. However, predominance of female exposure and intentional self-poisoning was maintained over the past five years, including the lockdown.
COVID-19-associated lockdown greatly reformed the usual intoxication pattern of the cases admitted to emergency room. Also, it played a role in delaying time of hospital arrival, which was reflected as lower recovery rates and higher death rates.
Nervous systems are a characteristic feature of higher animals. Their sensory components convey incoming information from the internal and external environment; their motor components convey instructions for reactions to such stimuli to their effector organs. Vertebrates possess both central and peripheral nervous systems, including an autonomic division concerned with homeostasis of the internal environment. The nerve cell is the anatomical, functional and trophic unit of nervous system function. Its cell body radiates dendritic and axonal nerve fibres that respectively transmit incoming information and the departing results of its processing. In contrast to non-myelinated nerve fibres, myelinated nerve fibres are ensheathed by glial cells in the central and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous systems. Peripheral but not central nerves show a capacity for regeneration along their basement membranes thereby regaining their peripheral attachments. This property has attracted significant interest in connection with clinical repair following nerve injury.
Cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) is recognized as a cause of transient neurological symptoms (TNS) in various clinical entities. Although scientific literature has been flourishing in the field of CSD, it remains an underrecognized pathophysiology in clinical practice. The literature evoking CSD in relation to subdural hematoma (SDH) is particularly scarce. Patients with SDH frequently suffer from TNS, most being attributed to seizures despite an atypical semiology, evolution, and therapeutic response. Recent literature has suggested that a significant proportion of those patients’ TNS represent the clinical manifestations of underlying CSD. Recently, the term Non-Epileptical Stereoytpical Intermittent Symptoms (NESIS) has been proposed to describe a subgroup of patients presenting with TNS in the context of SDH. Indirect evidence and recent research suggest that the pathophysiology of NESIS could represent the clinical manifestation of CSD. This review should provide a concise yet thorough review of the current state of literature behind the pathophysiology of CSD with a particular focus on recent research and knowledge regarding the presence of CSD in the context of subdural hematoma. Although many questions remain in the evolution of knowledge in this field would likely have significant diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic implications.
Studies show that vitamin D (vit-D) (25(OH)D), the bioactive metabolite (1,25(OH)2D3) and vit-D receptors (vit-D receptor; protein disulphide isomerase, family A member 3) are expressed throughout the brain, particularly in regions pivotal to learning and memory. This has led to the paradigm that avoiding vit-D deficiency is important to preserve cognitive function. However, presently, it is not clear if the common clinical measure of serum 25(OH)D serves as a robust surrogate marker for central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis or function. Indeed, recent studies report CNS biosynthesis of endogenous 25(OH)D, the CNS expression of the CYP group of enzymes which catalyse conversion to 1,25(OH)2D3 and thereafter, deactivation. Moreover, in the periphery, there is significant ethnic/genetic heterogeneity in vit-D conversion to 1,25(OH)2D3 and there is a paucity of studies which have actually investigated vit-D kinetics across the cerebrovasculature. Compared with peripheral organs, the CNS also has differential expression of receptors that trigger cellular response to 1,25(OH)2D3 metabolites. To holistically consider the putative association of peripheral (blood) abundance of 25(OH)D on cognitive function, herein, we have reviewed population and genetic studies, pre-clinical and clinical intervention studies and moreover have considered potential confounders of vit-D analysis.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was approved by Food and Drug Administration for Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, primary generalised or segmental dystonia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) treatment. The exact mechanism of DBS remains unclear which causes side effects. The aim of this review was to assess variables causing stimulation-induced chronic psychiatric/personality-changing side effects.
The analysis of scientific database (PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE) was conducted. The included articles had to be research study or case report and DBS to be conducted in therapeutic purposes. The researches with mental disorders in patients’ medical histories were excluded.
Seventeen articles were used in the review. In the group of movement disorders the characteristic of side effects was strongly related to the placement of the electrode implantation. Tiredness/fatigue was correlated with DBS in thalamus. Implantations in subthalamic nucleus were mostly followed by affective side effects such as depression or suicide. The higher voltage of electrode was connected with more severe depression after implantation. The analysis of affective disorder contained only three articles – two about OCD and one about depression. Forgetfulness and word-finding problems as activities connected with cognition may be an inevitable side effect if obsessive thoughts are to be inhibited.
DBS of subthalamic nucleus should be seen as the most hazardous place of implantation. As a result there is a strong need of ‘gold standards’ based on the connectivity research and closer cooperation of scientists and clinicians.
The possible roles of selected B vitamins in the development and progression of sarcopenia are reviewed. Age-related declines in muscle mass and function are associated with huge and increasing costs to healthcare providers. Falls and loss of mobility and independence due to declining muscle mass/function are associated with poor clinical outcomes and their prevention and management are attractive research targets. Nutritional status appears a key modifiable and affordable intervention. There is emerging evidence of sarcopenia being the result not only of diminished anabolic activity but also of declining neurological integrity in older age, which is emerging as an important aspect of the development of age-related decline in muscle mass/function. In this connection, several B vitamins can be viewed as not only cofactors in muscle synthetic processes, but also as neurotrophic agents with involvements in both bioenergetic and trophic pathways. The B vitamins thus selected are examined with respect to their relevance to multiple aspects of neuromuscular function and evidence is considered that requirements, intakes or absorption may be altered in the elderly. In addition, the evidence base for recommended intakes (UK recommended daily allowance) is examined with particular reference to original datasets and their relevance to older individuals. It is possible that inconsistencies in the literature with respect to the nutritional management of sarcopenia may, in part at least, be the result of compromised micronutrient status in some study participants. It is suggested that in order, for example, for intervention with amino acids to be successful, underlying micronutrient deficiencies must first be addressed/eliminated.
Magnesium (Mg2+) is an essential mineral without known specific regulatory mechanisms. In ruminants, plasma Mg2+ concentration depends primarily on the balance between Mg2+ absorption and Mg2+ excretion. The primary site of Mg2+ absorption is the rumen, where Mg2+ is apically absorbed by both potential-dependent and potential-independent uptake mechanisms, reflecting involvement of ion channels and electroneutral transporters, respectively. Transport is energised in a secondary active manner by a basolateral Na+/Mg2+ exchanger. Ruminal transport of Mg2+ is significantly influenced by a variety of factors such as high K+ concentration, sudden increases of ammonia, pH, and the concentration of SCFA. Impaired Mg2+ absorption in the rumen is not compensated for by increased transport in the small or large intestine. While renal excretion can be adjusted to compensate precisely for any surplus in Mg2+ uptake, a shortage in dietary Mg2+ cannot be compensated for either via skeletal mobilisation of Mg2+ or via up-regulation of ruminal absorption. In such situations, hypomagnesaemia will lead to decrease of a Mg2+ in the cerebrospinal fluid and clinical manifestations of tetany. Improved knowledge concerning the factors governing Mg2+ homeostasis will allow reliable recommendations for an adequate Mg2+ intake and for the avoidance of possible disturbances. Future research should clarify the molecular identity of the suggested Mg2+ transport proteins and the regulatory mechanisms controlling renal Mg excretion as parameters influencing Mg2+ homeostasis.
Despite significant advances in therapies against Trypanosoma evansi, its effective elimination from the central nervous system (CNS) remains a difficult task. The incapacity of trypanocidal drugs to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) after systemic administrations makes the brain the main refuge area for T. evansi. Nanotechnology is showing great potential to improve drug efficacy, such as nerolidol-loaded nanospheres (N-NS). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the treatment with N-NS was able to cross the BBB and to eliminate T. evansi from the CNS. High-performance liquid chromatography revealed that N-NS can cross the BBB of T. evansi-infected mice, while free nerolidol (F-N) neither the trypanocidal drug diminazene aceturate (D.A.) were not detected in the brain tissue. Polymerase chain reaction revealed that 100% of the animals treated with N-NS were negatives for T. evansi in the brain tissue, while all infected animals treated with F-N or D.A. were positives. Thus, we concluded that nanotechnology improves the therapeutic efficacy of nerolidol, and enables the transport of its active principle through the BBB. In summary, N-NS treatment can eliminate the parasite from the CNS, and possesses potential to treat infected animals.
Our current therapeutic drugs for Alzheimer's disease are predominantly derived from the alkaloid class of plant phytochemicals. These drugs, such as galantamine and rivastigmine, attenuate the decline in the cholinergic system but, as the alkaloids occupy the most dangerous end of the phytochemical spectrum (indeed they function as feeding deterrents and poisons to other organisms within the plant itself), they are often associated with unpleasant side effects. In addition, these cholinesterase inhibiting alkaloids target only one system in a disorder, which is typified by multifactorial deficits. The present paper will look at the more benign terpene (such as Ginkgo biloba, Ginseng, Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) and Salvia lavandulaefolia (sage)) and phenolic (such as resveratrol) phytochemicals; arguing that they offer a safer alternative and that, as well as demonstrating efficacy in cholinesterase inhibition, these phytochemicals are able to target other salient systems such as cerebral blood flow, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammation, inhibition of amyloid-β neurotoxicity, glucoregulation and interaction with other neurotransmitters (such as γ-aminobutyric acid) and signalling pathways (e.g. via kinase enzymes).
The aim of the paper is to show the various neurological and psychiatric symptoms in coeliac disease (CD). CD is a T cell-mediated, tissue-specific autoimmune disease which affects genetically susceptible individuals after dietary exposure to proline- and glutamine-rich proteins contained in certain cereal grains. Genetics, environmental factors and different immune systems, together with the presence of auto-antigens, are taken into account when identifying the pathogenesis of CD. CD pathogenesis is related to immune dysregulation, which involves the gastrointestinal system, and the extra-intestinal systems such as the nervous system, whose neurological symptoms are evidenced in CD patients. A gluten-free diet (GFD) could avoid cerebellar ataxia, epilepsy, neuropathies, migraine and mild cognitive impairment. Furthermore, untreated CD patients have more symptoms and psychiatric co-morbidities than those treated with a GFD. Common psychiatric symptoms in untreated CD adult patients include depression, apathy, anxiety, and irritability and schizophrenia is also common in untreated CD. Several studies show improvement in psychiatric symptoms after the start of a GFD. The present review discusses the state of the art regarding neurological and psychiatric complications in CD and highlights the evidence supporting a role for GFD in reducing neurological and psychiatric complications.
Infants exposed to selective antidepressants (SADs) in utero are at risk to develop poor neonatal adaptation (PNA) postpartum. As symptoms are non-specific and the aetiology of PNA is unknown, the diagnostic process is hampered. We hypothesised that the serotonin metabolism plays a role in the aetiology of PNA.
In this controlled study, infants admitted postpartum from February 2012 to August 2013 were included and followed for 3 days. Infants exposed to SADs during at least the last 2 weeks of fetal life were included in the patient group (n=63). Infants not exposed to psychotropic medication and admitted postpartum for another reason were included in the control group (n=126). The neonatal urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetid acid (5-HIAA) levels of SAD-exposed infants who developed PNA, SAD-exposed infants who did not develop PNA and control infants were compared.
The course of the 5-HIAA levels over the first 3 days postpartum differed between infants with and without PNA (p≤0.001) with higher 5-HIAA levels in infants with PNA on day 1 (2.42 mmol/mol, p=0.001). Presence of maternal psychological distress modified this relationship.
A transient disturbance of the neonatal serotonergic system may play a role in the aetiology of PNA. Other factors, including the presence of maternal psychological distress, also seem to play a role.
After the prevalence of syphilis had reached historic lows, the Center for Disease Control devised a plan to eradicate syphilis in the United States. Since that decree there has been a dramatic rise in new cases. Psychosis is an ominous symptom of neurosyphilis.
We report a case of neurosyphilis that was misdiagnosed and staged incorrectly.
Failure to diagnose neurosyphilis was associated with prolonged psychosis that has been refractory to antipsychotic treatment.
Psychiatrists should renew their vigilance for neurosyphilis in the setting of a positive screening test and psychosis.
Chronic inflammation is implicated in numerous diseases, including major depression and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Since depression and T2DM often co-exist, inflammatory pathways are suggested as a possible link. Hence, the establishment of an immune-mediated animal model would shed light on mechanisms possibly linking depression and metabolic alterations.
In this study we investigated a behavioural and metabolic paradigm following chronic infusion with low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using osmotic minipumps in male rats.
Behavioural testing consisted of evaluating activity level in the open field and depressive-like behaviour in the forced swim test. Metabolic assessment included measurement of body weight, food and water intake, and glucose and insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test.
LPS-infused rats showed acute signs of sickness behaviour, but chronic LPS infusion did not induce behavioural or metabolic changes.
These results suggest that although inflammation is immediately induced as indicated by acute sickness, 4 weeks of chronic LPS administration via osmotic minipumps did not result in behavioural changes. Therefore, this paradigm may not be a suitable model for studying the underlying mechanisms that link depression and T2DM.
A healthy gut microbiota plays many crucial functions in the host, being involved in the correct development and functioning of the immune system, assisting in the digestion of certain foods and in the production of health-beneficial bioactive metabolites or ‘pharmabiotics’. These include bioactive lipids (including SCFA and conjugated linoleic acid) antimicrobials and exopolysaccharides in addition to nutrients, including vitamins B and K. Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota and reductions in microbial diversity are highlighted in many disease states, possibly rendering the host susceptible to infection and consequently negatively affecting innate immune function. Evidence is also emerging of microbially produced molecules with neuroactive functions that can have influences across the brain–gut axis. For example, γ-aminobutyric acid, serotonin, catecholamines and acetylcholine may modulate neural signalling within the enteric nervous system, when released in the intestinal lumen and consequently signal brain function and behaviour. Dietary supplementation with probiotics and prebiotics are the most widely used dietary adjuncts to modulate the gut microbiota. Furthermore, evidence is emerging of the interactions between administered microbes and dietary substrates, leading to the production of pharmabiotics, which may directly or indirectly positively influence human health.