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This study explores the perception of wolverines, a carnivore in decline, by youths in northern Canada, the future generation of stakeholders. To accomplish this, we analysed 165 drawings from children and 22 interviews with Indigenous adults in the Northwest Territories and Quebec. Overall, children primarily drew wolverines in healthy environments, with only a minority depicting the wolverine’s environment negatively. All children demonstrated a basic understanding of the wolverine’s physical appearance and biology/ecology, with few differences in how the wolverine was depicted among the different research areas. Among interviewed adults, the ecological role played by wolverines was less prominent among the themes explored by Naskapi participants than was their role as a thief or pest, when contrasted to Dene participants. These results indicate that information about wolverine habitat or biology is still being acquired by children in areas where wolverines are extirpated, but that a lack of exposure to this species may negatively influence children’s understanding of its ecological role. These results suggest that informing the public about this carnivore’s ecological role may improve public support and, therefore, the likelihood of successful conservation programmes.
Indigenous people globally have experienced significant violations of human rights as a result of colonialism. Conquest and subsequent oppression of rights contributed to significant trauma extending across generations. These violations of human rights have contributed to psychological challenges over time, but unfortunately psychology as a profession has largely not responded in culturally appropriate ways to those challenges, in some instances even compounding the traumas. A significant portion of the mismatch of mainstream psychology to Indigenous people involves basic assumptions in worldviews that contribute to large differences in perspectives on what constitutes psychological health and how psychology should provide care given those differences. Despite the challenges, Indigenous people have sought psychological refuge in cultural practices that have contributed to resilience in the face of multiple human rights violations. Those cultural strengths may be used to transform psychology in ways that improve its ability to professionally serve Indigenous people in culturally relevant ways. Finally, human rights from Indigenous perspectives are reviewed and discussed, culminating in a more creation-centered conceptualization of rights as humane, rather than an anthropocentric conception of rights as merely human.
Research points to a higher risk for social isolation and loneliness among new immigrant and refugee older adults. Our article draws from a research project that explored the everyday stories of ageing among 19 diverse immigrant older adults in Canada. To capture their experiences of loneliness and social isolation, we use four illustrative cases derived from a structural approach to life-story narrative. To these we apply the intersectional lifecourse analytical lens to examine how life events, timing and structural forces shape our participants’ experiences of social isolation and loneliness. We further explore the global and linked lives of our participants as well as the categories of difference that influence their experiences along the continua of loneliness to belonging, isolation to connection. Finally, we discuss how an understanding of sources of domination and expressions of agency and resistance to these forces might lead us to solutions.
Women's magazines are widely read in Canada. The popularity of such magazines is significant because critical gerontologists, primarily drawing on content analyses of the magazines, often argue that these publications convey problematic messages about ageing. This article broaches the subject of women's magazines and ageing from a different vantage point, that of the older woman reader herself. This audience-centred research draws on 21 semi-structured interviews with Canadian women over the age of 55. The study examines what older women say about the ageing-related content of women's magazines, along with what they say about how, when and why they read these magazines. Findings illustrate that participants are aware of the inadequate and unrealistic representations of older women in women's magazines. Nonetheless, they value the publications as a source of practical information on a variety of topics and as a light and undemanding source of entertainment and relaxation. The study reveals how participants assess and deploy magazine contents and characteristics in ways that contribute to, and are informed by, their lives and identities as older women. Against the broader cultural context of ageism, using and talking about women's magazines enables the participants to position themselves as knowledgeable and informed on a variety of topics and in multiple interactions, both in explicit reference to the magazines themselves and more generally in their lives.
This chapter describes the export of the model of parliamentary public finance developed in the UK to the colonies, dominions and independent states which emerged from the British Empire. It opens by surveying the critical similarities and differences between public finance in the British and US constitutional traditions, before moving to explain how finance was treated in Canadian and Australasian colonial constitutions. Thereafter, the chapter explains how finance provisions became a form of 'constitutional boilerplate', adopted by independent dominions and republics in the twentieth century. By the conclusion of that constitutional itinerary, it is observed that the distribution of financial authority between Parliament and the executive government in nineteenth century Britain became the norm prevailing in the parliamentary constitutional world. Close attention is paid to the drafting history and provisions of constitutional documents from a number of parliamentary jurisdictions (including Australia, Canada, Indian, Malaysia, Nepal and Nigeria), as well as judicial decisions on public finance throughout the Commonwealth of Nations.
This chapter outlines the development of English dictionaries in Canada as expressions of the national variety of Canadian English. Four stages of dictionary development in Canadian English are identified. The role of and dependency on publishing houses in the field's development is surveyed. This dependency led, ultimately, to what is called the Great Canadian Dictionary War. A handful of less widely known dictionaries that were important in Canada’s lexicographical development are discussed in some detail, and numerical methods are used to analyse developments within the Canadian dictionary market since the late 1970s.
For much of the twentieth century, Indigenous writers faced daunting barriers in getting their books published; indeed, lack of access, delays in publishing, inadequate distribution, institutional racism, and precarious archiving practices have shaped the history of Indigenous writing in Canada. The obstacles to publishing reflect a larger reality in which the forces of appropriation continue to attempt to dispossess Indigenous people of lands, languages, communities, and families. Particularly since the 1990s, Indigenous writers have used strategies of reframing and de-framing in order to bring stories that have been overlooked back into circulation, and to tell new stories outside of the ever-adapting box of what is expected as “Indigenous literature.” Writers shift the frame to make stories more legible—or in some cases, to deliberately foreground silence and what is not (yet) told. This struggle to re-frame, de-frame, and shatter the existing frames of stories have opened up new spaces of freedom in Indigenous literary expression.
Integrated strategies for management of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed are needed to reduce reliance on herbicides. Planting a cover crop after corn or soybean harvest in the upper Midwest may reduce horseweed establishment and growth. Experiments were conducted in Michigan to determine if cereal rye and winter wheat, seeded at 67 or 135 kg ha-1, and terminated with glyphosate at 1.27 kg ae ha-1 one week prior to planting (early termination) or one week after soybean planting (planting green) would suppress establishment and growth of GR horseweed. Cover crop biomass was 212 to 272% higher when termination was delayed by planting green compared with early termination. At the time of termination, cover crops reduced GR horseweed biomass 41 to 89% compared with no cover. Planting green increased the C:N ratio of cover crop residue, which improved residue persistence and GR horseweed suppression at the time of POST herbicide application, approximately five weeks after planting. Planting green reduced GR horseweed biomass 46 to 93% compared with no cover at the time of POST herbicide application, while early termination provided less consistent suppression. Cover crops alone did not suppress GR horseweed through soybean harvest. Soybean yield was 30 to 108% greater when planting green compared with early termination at two site-years. Cereal rye and winter wheat, seeded at 67 or 135 kg ha-1, provided early-season GR horseweed suppression. Results from this research indicate that the practice of planting green may improve GR horseweed suppression through the time of POST herbicide application.
This article describes priority areas for research on the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on older adults that have been identified by the CIHR Institute of Aging (CIHR-IA). The process used by CIHR-IA consists of several iterative phases and thus far has resulted in identification of three key areas for Covid-19 research needs and four cross-cutting thematic areas. The key research priority areas are as follows: response of older adults to disease, vaccination, and therapeutics; mental health and isolation; and supportive care environments. The four cross-cutting themes are equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI); ethical/moral considerations; evidence-informed practices; and digital health technologies. The priorities outlined in this article will inform CIHR-IA’s responses to Covid-19 research needs.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on clinical practice. Safe standards of practice are essential to protect health care workers while still allowing them to provide good care. The Canadian Society of Clinical Neurophysiologists, the Canadian Association of Electroneurophysiology Technologists, the Association of Electromyography Technologists of Canada, the Board of Registration of Electromyography Technologists of Canada, and the Canadian Board of Registration of Electroencephalograph Technologists have combined to review current published literature about safe practices for neurophysiology laboratories. Herein, we present the results of our review and provide our expert opinion regarding the safe practice of neurophysiology during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada.
While ensuring adequate access to care is a central concern in countries with universal health care coverage, unmet health care needs remain prevalent. However, subjective unmet health care needs (SUN) can arise from features of a health care system (system reasons) or from health care users' choices or constraints (personal reasons). Furthermore, investigating the evolution of SUN within a health care system has rarely been carried out. We investigate whether health needs, predisposing factors and enabling factors differentially affect SUN for system reasons and SUN for personal reasons, and whether these influences are stable over time, using representative data from the Canadian Community Health Surveys from 2001 to 2014. While SUN slightly decreased overall during our period of observation, the share of SUN for system reasons increased. Some key determinants appear to consistently increase SUN reporting over all our observation periods, in particular being a woman, younger, in poorer health or not having a regular doctor. The distinction between personal and system reasons is important to better understand individual experiences. Notably, women report more SUN for system reasons and less for personal reasons, and reporting system reasons increases with age. Given this stability over time, our results may inform health policymakers on which subpopulations to target to ensure access to health care is universal.
Research has long observed the absence of gender in child care policy, media, and elections. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has invoked critical questions about child care and its importance to states’ economic recoveries around the world. In this research note, we analyze news coverage of child care in major Canadian daily newspapers to explore whether and how news narratives regarding child care are shifting in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, are we seeing a focus on women and gender in child care coverage amid the compounding pressures that women face in the current social and economic climate? The results of our analysis suggest that the pandemic has not shifted the conversation on child care and that current coverage principally reflects long-standing trends in child care framing. We find that gender remains systematically written out of coverage of child care, occluded by a larger focus on health-, economic-, and accessibility-related concerns about child care services.
This article examines Canada-US relations through their shared membership in a pluralistic security community (PSC). While the bilateral relationship has been turbulent for decades, the Trump presidency has damaged the Canada-US PSC by (1) exacerbating a decades-long trend of weakened shared identity and mutual trust between Canadians and Americans, and (2) undermining the democratic norms and institutions that uphold American domestic stability and Canadians’ expectations of peaceful change. Assessing the combined implications of the decline in shared identity, mutual trust and democratic stability, I argue that the Canada-US PSC cannot endure if the United States does not also consider Canada's national and security interests or if the United States itself poses a threat to those interests. Given current trends, the future absence of war in North America may reflect American domination over a weaker and dependent Canada rather than their continued membership in a bilateral PSC.
Incumbent city councillors have an almost insurmountable advantage in Canadian municipal elections. This article aims to improve our understanding of the municipal incumbency advantage by considering the ability of electors to correctly identify the two most competitive candidates in one's ward and the factors associated with being able to do so. Using survey data from the Canadian Municipal Election Study (CMES), we consider the case of the 2018 elections in Mississauga, a city with typically high rates of incumbent re-election. Survey respondents were asked to identify the two most competitive candidates in their local ward races. We find that comparatively few electors are able to recognize which challenger serves as the strongest threat to a sitting councillor, a finding that suggests that coordination problems may help to contribute to high rates of incumbent success. We identify several individual-level and ward-level correlates of correctly identifying the first-place and second-place finishers. We do note, however, that there is a significant amount of variation among the thousands of municipalities in Canada, so findings from this case should be tested in other settings, including larger or smaller cities where levels of information might be different.
Much of the literature discusses filial piety in general and ambiguous terms. This study, in contrast, investigates specific perceptions of filial piety and parental expectations of filial duty among older Chinese immigrants in Canada. The study is based on thematic analysis of 46 Chinese immigrants in seven focus groups conducted in the Greater Toronto Area. Findings show the perceptions of filial piety varied, but almost all participants had reduced expectations of their children. Nevertheless, they still valued and expected emotional care from their children. The study argues that changes in institutional settings, social policies and welfare systems define parents’ support needs and affect their expectations in the host society, while norms and institutional settings in the place of origin influence their perceptions of filial piety.
Chapter 5 brings the reader to the far north to examine the importance of self-determination for Inuit in trading disputes on seals and seal products. Michael Fakhri and Madeleine Redfern focus on how the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization used trade law to construct an Indigenous exemption including a European-imposed determination of Indigenous identity for the purpose of trade in a manner that limits Inuit political and economic options and works against their rights. This chapter emphasizes the importance of Indigenous people continuing to assert their sovereign power and claims for self-determination not just through international law but, more specifically, through international trade law.
In Chapter 8, Brenda Gunn looks to Canada as an example when she provides an analysis of how states have obligations to ensure the protection and promotion of Indigenous peoples’ rights in international investment agreements. Professor Gunn’s chapter begins by discussing some of the rights of Indigenous peoples that are potentially threatened by investment agreements, with a focus on land rights and the right to participate in decision-making on the basis of free, prior and informed consent. She concludes with a discussion of what measures need to be taken in investment agreements to ensure that Indigenous peoples’ rights are properly protected during the negotiation and implementation of investment agreements. This includes reference to the obligations of states and business enterprises to ensure that investment agreements protect Indigenous peoples’ rights while at the same time promoting foreign direct investment.
The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of hearing loss (HL), vision loss (VL), and dual sensory loss (DSL) in Canadians 45–85 years of age. Audiometry and visual acuity were measured. Various levels of impairment severity were described. Results were extrapolated to the 2016 Canadian population. In 2016, 1,500,000 Canadian males 45–85 years of age had at least mild HL, 1,800,000 had at least mild VL, and 570,000 had DSL. Among females, 1,200,000 had at least mild HL, 2,200,000 had at least mild VL, and 450,000 had DSL. Among Canadians 45–85 years of age, mild, moderate, and severe HL was prevalent among 13.4 per cent, 3.7 per cent, and 0.4 per cent of males, and among 11.3 per cent, 2.3 per cent, and 0.2 per cent of females, respectively. Mild and moderate, or severe VL was prevalent among 19.8 per cent and 2.4 per cent of males, and among 23.9 per cent and 2.6 per cent of females, respectively. At least mild DSL was prevalent among 6.4 per cent of males and 6.1 per cent of females.
To assess the prevalence of partially hydrogenated oils (PHO), hydrogenated oils (HO) and/or both in Canadian packaged foods in 2013 and 2017 and to determine the mean trans-fatty acid (TFA) content of products declaring such oils.
Repeated cross-sectional study of the Food Label Information Program.
Food labels (n 32 875) were collected from top Canadian grocery retailers in 2013 and 2017. Proportions of products declaring PHO, HO and/or both in the Ingredients List were calculated by year and food category. The percentage contribution of TFA (g) to total fat (g) was calculated and compared against the voluntary TFA limits, defined as <2 % of total fat content for fats and oils, and <5 % for all other foods. Foods exceeding limits were identified. The mean TFA content (in g/serving and per 100 g) was calculated for products with these oils.
The use of PHO, HO and/or both significantly decreased in Canadian foods from 2013 to 2017 (0·8 to 0·2 %, 5 to 2·4 % and 5·7 to 2·6 %, respectively, for PHO, HO and/or both). The mean TFA content of products containing PHO increased (0·34 to 0·57 g TFA/serving); although it was not statistically significant, it is still concerning that TFA content increased. The TFA content significantly decreased in foods with HO (0·24 to 0·16 g TFA/serving, P < 0·05) during 2013–2017.
Products with PHO continue to be present in the Canadian marketplace, despite voluntary efforts to eliminate them. Products with HO should also be monitored, as they can also contribute to TFA content in foods.
In their much-quoted typology of Western media systems, Hallin and Mancini (2004) associate Canada's media system with what they call the “Liberal model,” given its strong professionalization and limited politicization. They also hypothesize the existence of a more professional and more politicized media subsystem in Quebec. This article tests their hypothesis with data from a 2018 survey of 209 experts across Canada. The findings do not support the hypothesis of a media subsystem in Quebec. However, they show a diversity of ideological and political orientations among news media organizations, which has important empirical and theoretical implications for the study of political communication in Canada.