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This study aims to explore the association between coffee consumption and the prevalence of hearing loss in American adults based on a national population-based survey.
Cross-sectional analysis of reported audiometric status and coffee intake from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Multivariate logistic regression, forest plots and restricted cubic spline (RCS) analyses were used to explore the associations and dose–response relationships between coffee consumption frequency and hearing loss.
This study included 1894 individuals aged ≥ 20 from the 2003–2006 NHANES.
In this study, the prevalence of speech-frequency hearing loss (SFHL) and high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL) among the participants was 35·90 % and 51·54 %, respectively. Compared with those who no consumed coffee, non-Hispanic White who consumed ≥ 4 cups/d had higher prevalence of SFHL (OR: 1·87; 95 % CI: 1·003. 3·47). And a positive trend of coffee consumption frequency with the prevalence of HFHL was found (Ptrend = 0·001). This association of HFHL was similar for participants aged 20–64 (Ptrend = 0·001), non-Hispanic White (Ptrend = 0·002), non-noise exposure participants (Ptrend = 0·03) and noise-exposed participants (Ptrend = 0·003). The forest plots analysis found that the association between 1 cup-increment of daily coffee consumption and the prevalence of HFHL was statistically significant in males. RCS model supported a positive linear association of coffee consumption with SFHL (P for overall association = 0·02, P for nonlinearity = 0·48) and a positive non-linear association of coffee consumption with HFHL (P for overall association = 0·001, P for nonlinearity = 0·001).
Our findings suggested that coffee consumption was associated with higher prevalence of hearing loss. Further cohort studies in larger population are needed to investigate these findings.
The French gained and lost a vast empire in the New World from the sixteenth to the early-nineteenth centuries. Mercantilism, a set of economic and political practices based on the assumption of limited wealth, underpinned that empire. French explorers founded colonies in North America based on trade in furs and fish. Few French ever to wanted move to the empire throughout its history. The French lost almost all their North American empire by 1763, mostly to Britain. But its colony of Saint Domingue in the Caribbean exploited slave mercantilism as effectively as any in the world. Terror made possible rule by a small white population. The edifice supporting that rule cracked with the French Revolution, beginning in 1789. By 1791, the enslaved population risen, overthrown the slave system, and begun a bloody war of independence that produced the first anticolonial hero, Toussaint Loverture. In the end, the enslaved would win their war, and establish independent Haiti in 1804. Napoleon would find his schemes for a rejuvenated empire based in the Caribbean and the Louisiana territories thwarted. As the nineteenth century dawned, the French empire would need not just new lands, but new ideological foundations.
The findings of studies investigating the relationship between coffee consumption and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels have been inconsistent, and few researchers considered the type of coffee. We examined the association between coffee consumption and high CRP levels, using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2016–2018, with 9337 adults aged 19–64 years. A 24-h diet recall was used to assess diet, including the amount and type of coffee consumed. We classified coffee into black coffee and coffee with sugar and/or cream (non-drinkers, or ≤ 1, 2–3, > 3 cups/d) and used multivariable logistic regression models with high CRP levels (≥ 2·2 mg/l). After the adjustment for potential confounders, 2–3 cups/d of coffee consumption were inversely associated with high CRP levels, compared with no consumption (OR = 0·83, 95 % CI 0·69, 0·99). By type of coffee, the inverse association was stronger in subjects consuming black coffee (OR = 0·61, 95 % CI 0·45, 0·84), while the inverse association was much weaker in those consuming coffee with sugar and/or cream (OR = 0·92, 95 % CI 0·74, 1·14). By sex, the inverse association of 2–3 cups of black coffee was found both in men (OR = 0·65, 95 % CI 0·41, 1·03) and women (OR = 0·55, 95 % CI 0·36, 0·83). More than three cups/d of heavy coffee consumption were not significantly associated with high CRP levels. Our findings indicate that moderate black coffee consumption of 2–3 cups/d is inversely associated with high CRP levels in Korean adults. Further prospective studies are warranted to provide definitive evidence.
This paper undertakes a comparative study of two rural mountainous areas participating in global agricultural markets while using, as an interpretative grid, the development of the quality of the products and spaces. We draw on contemporary analysis at the interface of food and agriculture systems through the example of coffee cultivation and consumption in two neighbouring countries: China and Vietnam. The purpose is to understand why these two provinces with similar historical dynamics have two radically different productions of coffee. While China produces Arabica coffee in limited volumes, Vietnam has over the past few decades become the world's second largest producer of Robusta coffee in response to the growing appetite for coffee in Asia. This paper adopts a multidimensional analysis of the quality of coffee based on the cultivation of the plant, the collective construction of quality, and the consumption of the beverage.
The present study aimed to assess the longitudinal associations of coffee and tea consumption with metabolic syndrome and its component conditions in a group of Australian older adults who participated in the Blue Mountains Eye Study (n 2554, mean age: 64 years, 43 % female). Participants’ coffee and tea intake were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) over a 10-year period were estimated using Cox hazard regression models adjusting for lifestyle factors. Results showed that coffee consumption was not associated with the incidence of metabolic syndrome, high fasting glucose, high triglycerides, central obesity, high blood pressure and low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). Tea consumption was not associated with incidence of metabolic syndrome and the component conditions except for the risk of having low HDL-C, in which a nominally inverse association was observed (multivariate-adjusted HR at 2–3 cups/d: 0⋅48, 95 % CI 0⋅26, 0⋅87, P = 0⋅016; 4 cups/d or more: 0⋅50, 95 % CI 0⋅27, 0⋅93, P = 0⋅029). After stratifying for fruit consumption (Pinteraction between tea and fruit = 0⋅007), consuming four cups of tea per day was nominally associated with lower incidence of metabolic syndrome among those with high fruit consumption (multivariable-adjusted HR: 0⋅44, 95 % CI 0⋅20, 0⋅93, P = 0⋅033). Our results did not support a significant association between tea and coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome. Tea consumption may be associated with a lower risk of having low HDL-C, while high tea and fruit consumption together may be associated with a lower risk of developing metabolic syndrome.
Costa Rica suspended payments on its London debt in 1901, at the beginning of a democratisation process and during a crisis in the world coffee market. Meanwhile, autocratic Nicaragua, also a coffee exporter, continued paying its foreign creditors. This article assesses the causes of these distinct outcomes, which are at odds with the influential hypothesis that democracy makes for better borrowers. Strongly represented in Congress, Costa Rica's coffee elite pushed for the end of a tax on coffee as the legislative became more powerful. The executive had used that revenue to service the debt, which went on default as a consequence. Politics were radically different in Nicaragua: coffee growers were weaker and President Zelaya ruled without legislative tutelage. Hence, his government could raise a similar tax to honour the sovereign debt. With a clean record, the dictator borrowed abroad to build a modern army, the backbone of his autocratic regime.
In the second half of the eighteenth century, European metropolitan powers succeeded in overcoming the dominance that Yemen had hitherto exercised over the world coffee supply. Two colonies of the New World stood out in this transformation, both employing African slave labor on a large scale: Suriname, owned by the Dutch, and Saint-Domingue, the main French colony in the Caribbean. However, Suriname’s growth was short-lived, and it was soon surpassed by the productive leap of Saint-Domingue. The article explores the divergent trajectories of these two colonies, focusing on the environmental conditions of the operation of coffee plantations. Rather than taking the specific combinations of land, labor, capital, and political power as an independent and locally determined set, the article examines how the coffee trajectories of Suriname and Saint-Domingue were mutually formative through the specific evolving relationships that each space had within the world-system.
The history of coffee cultivation on Mount Meru in northern Tanzania has been narrated by men and most scholars as a tale of extraordinary achievement and unfortunate decline. Meru women, however, associate coffee agriculture with gender inequality and social disorder. Complicating narratives of cash crop agriculture as a straightforward communal good, Williams uses oral histories to explore alternative renderings of Meru agricultural history, centering memories that highlight coffee’s role in reifying patriarchal power. Women’s concern with labor exploitation and emphasis on relational integrity challenge our understanding of what coffee represents in Meru history and our ideal models for pursuing sustainable growth through cash crop commodities.
How was consumption able to rise so dramatically before the age of the Industrial Revolution? The consumer revolution was the result of incremental changes in urban growth, agricultural specialization, commercial development, and proto-industry. Global trade was also a major factor. While agriculture, industry, and intra-European trade expanded gradually in the eighteenth century, intercontinental trade between Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas soared, expanding the horizons of the European material world. Global trade introduced European consumers to an array of products from distant lands, from Chinese porcelain and tea to Indian cotton textiles to American tobacco, coffee, chocolate, and sugar. Slavery was integral to global trade. On the west coast of Africa, European merchants traded Indian cloth for human captives, whom they shipped to the Americas in the largest forced migration in human history. In the Americas, European-descended enslavers brutally forced the enslaved to produce large quantities of commodities (tobacco, sugar, and coffee) for European consumption. Global trade also gave rise to import substitution as Europeans producers made cheap imitations of Asian porcelain and textiles. Such import substitution was part of a broad shift from the consumption of high-quality, durable materials that stored value over long periods of time to cheaper, more fragile semidurables that were rapidly replaced. This shift marked the birth of modern materiality and accelerated the fashion cycle.
The Verein der am Caffeehandel betheiligten Firmen, an association that grew to include all of Hamburg-based coffee traders, was established in May 1886. By 1939, the association was completely subjugated to the will of the Nazi regime, and it collapsed within the first few weeks of World War II. In the postwar period, the coffee traders of Hamburg were largely regulated by the Allied occupying forces, and this often led to undesirable circumstances, including internal competition. This chapter looks at the evolution of Hamburg coffee traders and how they functioned in the global market from the nineteenth through the late twentieth centuries. It considers the history of the Hamburg coffee traders, from the turbulent life span of the association to the challenging relationship between the Hamburg coffee traders and the Allied forces in West Germany and the global coffee moguls of the 1980s. The chapter analyzes the factors that contributed to the association’s downfall, including shifting worldviews, international market upheavals, and strong state intervention. Primary sources consulted include meeting minutes, news articles, legal documents, annual reports, and commission transactions.
The present study examines how alcohol intake from wine and non-wine alcoholic beverages (non-wine) in g/d, as well as cups of coffee and tea included as continuous covariates and mutually adjusted are associated with all-cause, cancer, non-cancer and CVD mortality. Consumption was assessed in 354 386 participants of the UK Biobank cohort who drank alcohol at least occasionally and survived at least 2 years after baseline with 20 201 deaths occurring over 4·2 million person-years. Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality were assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression models and beverage intake fitted as penalised cubic splines. A significant U-shaped association was detected between wine consumption and all-cause, non-cancer and CVD mortality. Wine consumption with lowest risk of death (nadir) ranged from 19 to 23 g alcohol/d in all participants and both sexes separately. In contrast, non-wine intake was significantly and positively associated in a dose-dependent manner with all mortality types studied except for CVD in females and with the nadir between 0 and 12 g alcohol/d. In all participants, the nadir for all-cause mortality was 2 cups coffee/d with non-coffee drinkers showing a slightly increased risk of death. Tea consumption was significantly and negatively associated with all mortality types in both sexes. Taken together, light to moderate consumption of wine but not non-wine is associated with decreased all-cause and non-cancer mortality. A minor negative association of coffee consumption with mortality cannot be excluded whereas tea intake is associated with a consistently decreased risk of all mortality types studied.
Given that there is an inconsistency in the findings related to the relationship between coffee and caffeine consumption and symptoms of psychological disorders, we performed a cross-sectional analysis to examine the association between coffee and caffeine intake and symptoms of psychological disorders among adults.
In this cross-sectional study, 3362 participants were included. We assessed the coffee and caffeine intakes using a self-completed FFQ. Symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological distress were assessed using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and General Health Questionnaire screening tools.
Fifty different healthcare centres located in the province of Isfahan, Iran.
This study was performed on 3362 Iranian general adults working in healthcare centres.
The mean age of participants in this study was 36·2 ± 7·8 years. After controlling for potential confounders, individuals who consumed coffee weekly or more had a significantly lower odds of symptoms of depression (OR 0·67; 95 % CI (0·46, 0·96)) and symptoms of anxiety (OR 0·57; 95 % CI (0·34, 0·95)) compared with those who did not consume coffee. However, no significant association was found between coffee intake and symptoms of psychological distress (OR 0·98; 95 % CI (0·68, 1·42)). No significant relationship was found between caffeine intake and odds of symptoms of depression (OR 0·94; 95 % CI (0·75, 1·16)), symptoms of anxiety (OR 0·90; 95 % CI (0·67, 1·20)) and symptoms of psychological distress (OR 1·13; 95 % CI (0·89, 1·42)).
Compared with lack of coffee intake, weekly or more coffee consumption might be correlated with symptoms of depression and anxiety.
Contemporary scholars debate the factors driving despotic labour conditions across the world economy. Some emphasize the dominance of global market imperatives and others highlight the market's reliance upon extra-economic coercion and state violence. At the Margins of the Global Market engages in this debate through a comparative and world-historical analysis of the labour regimes of three global commodity-producing subregions of rural Colombia: the coffee region of Viejo Caldas, the banana region of Urabá, and the coca/cocaine region of the Caguán. By drawing upon insights from labour regimes, global commodity chains, and world historical sociology, this book offers a novel understanding of the broad range of factors - local, national, global, and interregional - that shape labour conditions on the ground in Colombia. In doing so, it offers a critical new framework for analysing labour and development dynamics that exist at the margins of the global market.
Ideas, motifs, aesthetics, bodies of knowledge, texts, genres and literary worlds have travelled for centuries along Silk Road’s multiple networks of circulation connected through myriad contact hubs located across many temporal and spatial planes. This chapter argues that the Silk Road offers a roadmap for thinking about modes of circulation in world literature in ways that take us beyond the linear trajectory of West influencing the East, the centrifugal proliferation of the European novel around the world, the centripetal East coming to the West for a place, and the single temporality of the global visions of “modern” “colonial” and “postcolonial” “planetarity,” “globalization.” It offers two examples. The 1001 Nights is a classic example of the global circulation of a “text” beyond “translation-as-circulation” and the confines of monologically defined language, nation, genre and historical period. Coffee is a site of global connectedness and intercultural exchange in a comparative analysis of coffee in five literary works from Egypt, Japan, Palestine, Taiwan and Turkey. The global pasts of coffee give shape to the literary world and worldliness; however, each is uniquely mapped by the itinerary of coffee and the cultures it has picked up on the way.
We aimed to evaluate the association between coffee and/or tea consumption and breast cancer (BC) risk among premenopausal and postmenopausal women and to conduct a network meta-analysis.
Systematic review and network meta-analysis.
We conducted a systematic review of electronic publications in the last 30 years to identify case–control studies or prospective cohort studies that evaluated the effects of coffee and tea intake.
Forty-five studies that included more than 3 323 288 participants were eligible for analysis. Network meta-analysis was performed to determine the effects of coffee and/or tea consumption on reducing BC risk in a dose-dependent manner and differences in coffee/tea type, menopause status, hormone receptor and the BMI in subgroup and meta-regression analyses. According to the first pairwise meta-analysis, low-dose coffee intake and high-dose tea intake may exhibit efficacy in preventing ER(estrogen receptor)− BC, particularly in postmenopausal women. Then, we performed another pairwise and network meta-analysis and determined that the recommended daily doses were 2–3 cups/d of coffee or ≥5 cups/d of tea, which contained a high concentration of caffeine, particularly in postmenopausal women.
Coffee and tea consumption is not associated with a reduction in the overall BC risk in postmenopausal women and is associated with a potentially lower risk of ER− BC. And the highest recommended dose is 2–3 cups of coffee/d or ≥5 cups of tea/d. They are potentially useful dietary protectants for preventing BC.
This article investigates the history of coffee culture across three continents during the Fascist ventennio (1922–45.) By using the novel framework of coffee, from the bean in the field to the machine in the caffè, it connects interwar histories that previously have been explored independently. Specifically, it examines the transnational economics of coffee bean trade routes and the colonial imagery of coffee advertising to argue that caffès emerged as key sites for promoting the Fascist imperial projects in East Africa – an architectural and artistic legacy that remains in place today. Ultimately, this trajectory broadens the way that we understand how food and farming became politicised during the Fascist period. By untangling the interwar trade of beans and bodies between Italy, Brazil, and Ethiopia, this article brings to light an untold story of caffeinated imperial aggression and resistance.
Lifestyle interventions are an important and viable approach for preventing cognitive deficits. However, the results of studies on alcohol, coffee and tea consumption in relation to cognitive decline have been divergent, likely due to confounds from dose–response effects. This meta-analysis aimed to find the dose–response relationship between alcohol, coffee or tea consumption and cognitive deficits.
Prospective cohort studies or nested case-control studies in a cohort investigating the risk factors of cognitive deficits were searched in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane and Web of Science up to 4th June 2020. Two authors searched the databases and extracted the data independently. We also assessed the quality of the studies with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Stata 15.0 software was used to perform model estimation and plot the linear or nonlinear dose–response relationship graphs.
The search identified 29 prospective studies from America, Japan, China and some European countries. The dose–response relationships showed that compared to non-drinkers, low consumption (<11 g/day) of alcohol could reduce the risk of cognitive deficits or only dementias, but there was no significant effect of heavier drinking (>11 g/day). Low consumption of coffee reduced the risk of any cognitive deficit (<2.8 cups/day) or dementia (<2.3 cups/day). Green tea consumption was a significant protective factor for cognitive health (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence intervals, 0.92–0.97), with one cup of tea per day brings a 6% reduction in risk of cognitive deficits.
Light consumption of alcohol (<11 g/day) and coffee (<2.8 cups/day) was associated with reduced risk of cognitive deficits. Cognitive benefits of green tea consumption increased with the daily consumption.
The goal of this study is to perform a comparative analysis of agroecological and conventional small coffee farms. We investigated 15 coffee farms in the East region of Minas Gerais, a Brazilian rural region, based on coffee production using a multicriteria analysis with economic, social and environmental factors. The results suggest that agroecological farms perform better than conventional farms in terms of sustainability, reduce labor intensity and improve income stability and the environmental impact, such as agro-biodiversity and forest cover. In particular, the results reveal that agroecological farms, though they have lower levels of coffee productivity than conventional farms, perform better in terms of income stabilization. This result depends on product diversification (such as agri-food products, vegetables or fruits) for local markets, which reduces farmer risks associated with coffee price volatility, improving both the local economy and local food security. Moreover, agroecological farms rely more on labor than capital. Overall, the results of this study reveal that agroecological systems support the socio-economic sustainability of the rural areas under study and suggest the potential of agroecology to boost sustainable development in the East Region of Minas Gerais. In short, the spread of agroecological systems could improve local employment conditions, reducing migration toward large cities and shanty towns in other parts of Brazil. Hence, agroecology systems can represent the main alternative to conventional production systems to improve the well-being and wealth of rural populations in developing countries. The analysis presented in this study is based on a specific case study, but the rural area under study has many similarities with other areas in Latin America regarding all aspects of economic, social and environmental sustainability. Finally, some agricultural policy implications are discussed.