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Previous studies have shown that the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet might contribute to managing risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but evidence is limited. We examined the association of DASH diet score (DASH-DS) with NAFLD, as well as the intermediary effects of serum retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4), serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum TAG, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and BMI.
We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study. Dietary data and lifestyle factors were assessed by face-to-face interviews and the DASH-DS was then calculated. We assessed serum RBP4, hs-CRP and TAG and calculated HOMA-IR. The presence and degree of NAFLD were determined by abdominal sonography.
Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study participants, aged 40–75 years at baseline (n 3051).
After adjusting for potential covariates, we found an inverse association between DASH-DS and the presence of NAFLD (Ptrend = 0·009). The OR (95 % CI) of NAFLD for quintiles 2–5 were 0·78 (0·62, 0·98), 0·74 (0·59, 0·94), 0·69 (0·55, 0·86) and 0·77 (0·61, 0·97), respectively. Path analyses indicated that a higher DASH-DS was associated with lower serum RBP4, hs-CRP, TAG, HOMA-IR and BMI, which were positively associated with the degree of NAFLD.
Adherence to the DASH diet was independently associated with a marked lower prevalence of NAFLD in Chinese adults, especially in women and those without abdominal obesity, and might be mediated by reducing RBP4, hs-CRP, TAG, HOMA-IR and BMI.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
Covering a broad optical spectrum, ternary InxGa1−xAs nanowires, grown by bottom-up methods, have been receiving increasing attention due to the tunability of the bandgap via In composition modulation. However, inadequate knowledge about the correlation between growth and properties restricts our ability to take advantage of this phenomenon for optoelectronic applications. Here, three different InGaAs nanowires were grown under different experimental conditions and atom probe tomography was used to quantify their composition, allowing the direct observation of the nanowire composition associated with the different growth conditions.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
The 2Cr13/316L multilayered composite plates were fabricated by hot rolling with recycle heating step. The effect of rolling reductions on microstructure and properties was investigated. The 2Cr13 layer consists of martensite and lath ferrite, but the middle layer has less ferrite than both sides. The content and grains of ferrite increase with the increase of the reduction and number of reheating, which leads to a decrease in the hardness of the 2Cr13 layer. The hardness of the 2Cr13 layer is determined by the volume ratio of martensite and ferrite. Tensile strength of the specimens with the rolling reduction of 72% and 82% reached 815.8 MPa and 763.4 MPa, while elongations were 20% and 20.8%, respectively. With the increase of the rolling reduction, the fracture mode also changed from cleavage fracture to dimple fracture. There were no cracks and delamination when the 2Cr13/316L composite plate bent to 130° and 180°, which indicated better interfacial bonding.
The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWHA) in Taiwan. PLWHA were identified from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control HIV Surveillance System between 2000 and 2014. To examine the effect of active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on CVD incidence, incidence densities and standardised incidence rates (SIRs) of CVD were calculated after stratifying PLWHA by HAART. Of 26 272 PLWHA (mean age, 32.3 years) identified, 73.4% received HAART. Compared with general population, SIRs (95% confidence interval) were higher for incident coronary artery disease (1.11 (1.04–1.19)), percutaneous coronary intervention (1.32 (1.18–1.47)), coronary artery bypass surgery (1.47 (1.29–1.66)), sudden cardiac death (3.01 (2.39–3.73)), heart failure (1.50 (1.31–1.70)) and chronic kidney disease (1.95 (1.81–2.10)), but was lower for incident atrial fibrillation (0.53 (0.37–0.73)). Considering the effect of HAART on incident CVD, the SIRs for all-cause, ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke were higher in PLWHA who did not receive HAART, but were lower in PLWHA who received HAART. PLWHA had higher risks of incident coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass surgery, sudden cardiac death, heart failure and chronic kidney disease. HAART reduces risks of incident CVD in PLWHA.
Several epidemiological studies have investigated that Na or K intakes might be associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, little evidence has evaluated the association between Na:K ratio and the MetS. In this study, we assessed the association between the dietary Na:K ratio and the MetS. The cross-sectional study was conducted among adults aged 18 years and older in Nanjing, using a multi-stage random sampling method, which resulted in a sample size of 1993 participants. Dietary Na and K intakes were assessed by 3 consecutive days of dietary recollection combined with condiments weighing method. Health-related data were obtained by standardised questionnaires, as well as physical examinations and laboratory assessments. The prevalence rate of the MetS was 36·5 % (728/1993). After adjusting for various lifestyle and dietary factors of the MetS, participants in the highest quartile of dietary Na:K ratio were at a higher risk of developing MetS (OR=1·602; 95 % CI 1·090, 2·353) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Each 1-sd increase in dietary Na:K ratio was associated with a higher risk of prevalent MetS (OR=1·166; 95 % CI: 1·018, 1·336). Among the components of the MetS, dietary Na:K ratio was positively associated with high blood pressure (quartile 3 v. quartile 1: OR=1·656; 95 % CI 1·228, 2·256) and hypertriacylglycerolaemia (quartile 4 v. quartile1: OR=1·305; 95 % CI 1·029, 1·655) in multivariate analysis. These results revealed that higher dietary Na:K ratio significantly increased the risk of the MetS in Chinese adults. Further studies are needed to verify this association.
We propose a data-driven network-based approach to understand the interactions among technologies, products, and customers. Specifically, the approach enables both a qualitative understanding and a quantitative assessment of the impact of technological changes on customers’ co-consideration behaviors (decision of cross-shopping) and as a consequence the product competitions. The uniqueness of the proposed approach is its capability of predicting complex co-consideration relations of products as a network where both descriptive analyses (e.g., network statistics and joint correspondence analysis) and predictive models (e.g., multiple regressions quadratic assignment procedure) are employed. The integrated network analysis approach features three advantages: (1) It provides an effective visual representation of the underlying market structures; (2) It facilitates the evaluation of the correlation between customers’ consideration preferences and product attributes as well as customer demographics; (3) It enables the prediction of market competitions in response to potential technological changes. This paper demonstrates the proposed network-based approach in a vehicle design context. We investigate the impacts of the fuel economy-boosting technologies and the turbocharged engine technology on individual automakers as well as the entire auto industry. The case study provides vehicle engineers with insights into the change of market competitions brought by technological developments and thereby supports attribute decision-making in vehicle design.
We numerically investigate the mechanism leading to the entrapment of spheres at the gas–liquid interface after impact. Upon impact onto a liquid pool, a hydrophobic sphere is seen to follow one of the three regimes identified in the experiment (Lee & Kim, Langmuir, vol. 24, 2008, pp. 142–145): sinking, bouncing or being entrapped at the interface. It is important to understand the role of wettability in this process of flow–structure interaction with dynamic wetting, and in particular, to what extent the wettability can determine whether the sphere is entrapped at the interface. For this purpose, a diffuse-interface immersed boundary method is adopted in the numerical simulations. We expand the parameter space considered previously, provide the phase diagrams and identify the key phenomena in the impact dynamics. Then, we propose the scaling models to interpret the critical conditions for the occurrence of sphere entrapment, accounting for the wettability of the sphere. The models are shown to provide a good correlation among the impact inertia of the drop, the surface tension, the wettability and the density ratio of the sphere to the liquid.
Dietary energy density (ED) might have influences on body composition. We therefore examined whether ED is associated with body composition among Chinese adults.
We collected dietary data through validated two-day 24 h recalls. ED, defined as the amount of energy per unit weight of food consumed, was calculated based on five methods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the associations between ED and body composition parameters, including BMI, fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC).
Chinese adults (n 1933) in 2013.
After adjusting the covariates, all ED definitions were positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI, %BF and WC among women (P<0·01). In men, however, ED with foods only was positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI and %BF (P<0·05), but not with WC (P=0·07); we also found null associations between ED with foods and all beverages and body composition among men. Additionally, ED contributed to higher increases of body composition in women than in men (P<0·01).
The present study supports the positive association between ED and body composition among adults in Southwest China, in which beverages may play an important role.
The bigfin reef squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana is a neritic species widely distributed in coastal waters of the Indo-Pacific region and is of interest to fisheries for its high commercial value. Squid samples were collected from Keelung (KL) and Penghu (PH), around northern Taiwan from October 2012 to September 2013. A total of 949 squid were examined, and 620 squid were aged using statoliths. The age range of the squid in KL (55–183 days) was similar to that in PH (77–186 days). The squid hatched almost year-round, except in January and December in KL. Two seasonal cohorts were identified: a spring cohort (hatched in March to May) and an autumn cohort (July to October). Concentrations of nine trace elements in statoliths were analysed using solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences in Fe/Ca, Cu/Ca and Sr/Ca were found between the two locations, while significant differences in concentration ratios of Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca were noted between the two seasonal cohorts. Results of a principal component analysis and cluster analysis varied in life-history traits between the two geographic stocks and in elemental concentrations between the two seasonal cohorts. Squid in KL and PH might undertake different migration routes, while seasonal variability in oceanographic conditions was apparent in the two locations.
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) was significantly decreased in oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) were checked by RT-PCR; however, there were no differences between the AZD5438-treated and non-treated control groups. Our results demonstrate that porcine oocyte activation via an EP in combination with AZD5438 treatment can lead to a high blastocyst formation rate in PA and SCNT experiments.
We conduct numerical simulations using the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach to investigate the formation of the leaking, finger, and stable-settling modes in convective sedimentation when a sediment-laden fluid layer descends through a sharply stratified ambient flow. We show that the temporal evolution of the sedimentation process for the leaking mode can be divided into three stages, including (in temporal order) Rayleigh–Taylor instability, convection, and leaking stages. The presence of sheet-like descending plumes of suspended particles is an important characteristic of the leaking mode, which marks the existence of the leaking stage. For larger particles, the motion is more dominated by gravitational settling and less affected by buoyancy-induced flow motion. The resulting lack of the leaking stage for the larger-particle case leads to persistent finger-like plumes of suspended particles, known as the finger mode. The stable-settling mode occurs when the particles are large and the concentration is dilute such that flow motion due to Rayleigh–Taylor instability has no effect on the particle motion, and the convective motion of suspended particles is insignificant. For the third stage of the leaking mode, which is also the final stationary state, we derive the criterion for the occurrence of the leaking pattern from a scaling argument of the viscous boundary layer. The criterion is further confirmed by the present simulation results and previous laboratory experiments. Through analysis of the energy budget and the vertical flux, we show that although the settling of individual particles is accelerated, the presence of the sheet-like descending plumes in the leaking mode does not contribute to an efficient settling enhancement compared with the finger mode and the Rayleigh–Taylor instability, i.e., the cases with no background stratification. This implies a negative effect on the settling enhancement for small suspended particles when a stable background density stratification exists. In addition, simulations using the equilibrium Eulerian description for the suspended particles are also conducted to examine the difference between the present Lagrangian particle approach and the conventional Eulerian model.