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This study proposes two multimodal frameworks to classify pathological voice samples by combining acoustic signals and medical records. In the first framework, acoustic signals are transformed into static supervectors via Gaussian mixture models; then, a deep neural network (DNN) combines the supervectors with the medical record and classifies the voice signals. In the second framework, both acoustic features and medical data are processed through first-stage DNNs individually; then, a second-stage DNN combines the outputs of the first-stage DNNs and performs classification. Voice samples were recorded in a specific voice clinic of a tertiary teaching hospital, including three common categories of vocal diseases, i.e. glottic neoplasm, phonotraumatic lesions, and vocal paralysis. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed framework yields significant accuracy and unweighted average recall (UAR) improvements of 2.02–10.32% and 2.48–17.31%, respectively, compared with systems that use only acoustic signals or medical records. The proposed algorithm also provides higher accuracy and UAR than traditional feature-based and model-based combination methods.
Social attention ability is crucial for human adaptive social behaviors and interpersonal communications, and the malfunction of which has been implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a highly genetic neurodevelopmental disorder marked by striking social deficits.
Using a classical twin design, the current study investigated the genetic contribution to individual variation in social and non-social attention abilities, and further probed their potential genetic linkage. Moreover, individual autistic traits were further measured in an independent group of non-twin participants to examine the hypothetical link between the core social attention ability and ASD.
We found reliable genetic influences on the social attentional effects induced by two distinct cues (eye gaze and walking direction), with 91% of their covariance accounted for by common genetic effects. However, no evidence of heritability or shared genetic effects was observed for the attentional effect directed by a non-social cue (i.e. arrow direction) and its correlation with the social attention ability. Remarkably, one's autistic traits could well predict his/her heritable core social attention ability extracted from the conventional social attentional effect.
These findings together suggest that human social attention ability is supported by unique genetic mechanisms that can be shared across different social, but not non-social, processing. Moreover, they also encourage the identification of ‘social attention genes’ and highlight the critical role of the core human social attention ability in seeking the endophenotypes of social cognitive disorders including ASD.
Evidence on the association between maternal Hb concentration and preterm birth (PTB) risk is inconclusive. This paper aimed to explore whether women with anaemia or high Hb level before pregnancy would be at higher risk of PTB. We conducted a population-based cohort study with 2 722 274 women aged 20–49 years, who participated in National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project between 2013 and 2015 and delivered a singleton before 2016 in rural China. Logistic models were used to estimate OR and 95 % CI after adjusting for confounding variables. Restricted cubic spline models were applied to evaluate the dose–response relationships. A total of 192 819 (7·08 %) women had preterm deliveries. Compared with women with Hb of 110–149 g/l, the multivariable-adjusted OR for PTB was 1·19 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·44) for women with Hb<70 g/l, 1·01 (95 % CI 0·97, 1·03) for 70–99 g/l, 0·96 (95 % CI 0·95, 0·98) for 100–109 g/l, 1·04 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·06) for 150–159 g/l, 1·11 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·17) for 160–169 g/l and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·11, 1·27) for ≥170 g/l, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted OR for very PTB (VPTB) was 1·07 (95 % CI 1·03, 1·12) and 1·06 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·12) for women with Hb <110 and ≥150 g/l, compared with those with Hb of 110–149 g/l, respectively. Our study identified a U-shaped relationship between maternal preconception Hb concentration and PTB risk. Both preconception anaemia and high Hb level can significantly increase VPTB risk. Appropriate intervention for women with abnormal Hb levels before pregnancy is very necessary.
Paradoxical arguments and mixed empirical evidence coexist in the current literature concerning the relationship between team familiarity and team innovation. To resolve this contradiction, we apply habitual routines theory to propose that team familiarity and team innovation have an inverted U-shaped relationship. Using a data set of 68,933 R&D teams in the electrical engineering industry, our results support a nonlinear relationship between team familiarity and team innovation, and suggest that the best innovative performance is produced by moderately familiar teams. Furthermore, we find that external learning can moderate this curvilinear relationship. Theoretical contributions and future implications are discussed.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for menthyl lactate, C13H24O3, are reported [a = 5.522(6) Å, b = 11.795(8) Å, c = 17.780(6) Å, α = 50.632(3)°, β = 90.000(0)°, γ = 117.632(4)°, unit-cell volume V = 716.392(0) Å3, Z = 2, and space group P−1]. All measured lines were indexed and no detectable impurities were observed.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for monomenthyl succinate, C14H24O4, are reported [a = 19.352(2), b = 30.015(1), c = 5.277(0) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 3065.1(6) Å3, Z = 8, and space group Pba2]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the Pba2 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
Previous evidence has shown positive associations between post-traumatic
stress disorder (PTSD) and hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes
mellitus, which are all risk factors for stroke, but the role of PTSD in
the subsequent development of stroke is still unknown.
To investigate the temporal association between PTSD and the development
Identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database,
5217 individuals aged 18 years, with PTSD but with no history of stroke,
and 20 868 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled between 2002
and 2009, and followed up until the end of 2011 to identify the
development of stroke.
Individuals with PTSD had an increased risk of developing any stroke
(hazard ratio (HR) 3.37, 95% CI 2.44–4.67) and ischaemic stroke (HR =
3.47, 95% CI 2.23–5.39) after adjusting for demographic data and medical
comorbidities. Sensitivity tests showed consistent findings (any stroke
HR = 3.02, 95% CI 2.13–4.28; ischaemic stroke HR = 2.89, 95% CI
1.79–4.66) after excluding the first year of observation.
Individuals with PTSD have an increased risk of developing any stroke and
ischaemic stroke. Further studies are required to investigate the
There have been inconsistent results published regarding the relationship between dyslipidaemia and an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia (CRN), including colorectal adenoma (CRA) and colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a meta-analysis to explore the relationship between dyslipidaemia and CRN.
We identified studies by performing a literature search using PubMed, EMBASE and the Science Citation Index through October 2013.
We analysed thirty-three independent studies reporting the association between CRN and at least one of the selected lipid components, including total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C).
CRN cases (n 21 809) were identified.
Overall, people with high levels of serum TAG (risk ratio (RR)=1·08; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·12, P<0·00001) and LDL-C (RR=1·07; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·14, P=0·04) presented an increased prevalence of CRN. Subgroup analyses revealed that high levels of serum TC (RR=1·04; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·09, P=0·02), TAG (RR=1·06; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·10, P=0·0009) and LDL-C (RR=1·11; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·19, P=0·003) increased the risk of CRA but not of CRC. No association between serum HDL-C and risk for CRN (including CRA and CRC) was observed.
Both TAG and LDL-C were significantly associated with an increasing prevalence of CRN. High levels of serum TC, TAG and LDL-C were positively associated with CRA but not with CRC. No significant association was observed between levels of serum HDL-C and CRN.
To examine the vitamin D status, SNP of the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and the effects of vitamin D supplementation on parathyroid hormone and insulin secretion in adult males with obesity or normal weight in a subtropical Chinese city.
An intervention trial.
Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China.
From a cross-sectional survey conducted from June to July, eighty-two normal-weight and ninety-nine obese males (18–69 years) were screened to analyse their vitamin D status and for five SNP of VDR. From these individuals, in the same season of a different year, obese and normal-weight male volunteers (twenty-one per group) were included for an intervention trial with oral vitamin D supplementation at 1250 µg/week for 8 weeks.
For the survey, there was no significant difference (P>0·05) in baseline circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations or in the percentages of participants in different categories of vitamin D status between the two groups. The VDR SNP, rs3782905, was significantly associated with obesity (P=0·043), but none of the examined SNP were correlated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D when adjusted for age, BMI and study group. After vitamin D supplementation, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, hypersecretions of parathyroid hormone and insulin, and insulin resistance in the obese were changed beneficially (P<0·05); however, the increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was less than that of the normal-weight men.
For obese and normal-weight men of subtropical China, the summer baseline vitamin D status was similar. However, oral vitamin D supplementation revealed a decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obese men and ameliorated their hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone and insulin resistance.
Fast high precision relative Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning is very important to various applications and ambiguity resolution is a key requirement. It has been a continuing challenge to determine and fix GNSS carrier-phase ambiguity, especially for medium- and long-distance baselines. In past research, with dual-frequency band Global Positioning System (GPS), it is almost impossible for fast ambiguity resolution of medium- and long-distance baselines mainly due to the ionospheric and tropospheric effects. With the launch of the BeiDou system, triple-frequency band GNSS observations are available for the first time. This research aims to test the ambiguity resolution performance with BeiDou triple-frequency band observations. In this research, two mathematical models are compared: zenith tropospheric delay as an unknown parameter versus corrected tropospheric delay. The ambiguity resolution performance is investigated in detail with BeiDou observations. Different distance baselines are tested: 45 km, 70 km and 100 km and the performances are investigated with different elevation cut-off angles. Also the performance with BeiDou alone and combined BeiDou and GPS are compared. Experimental results clearly show that with practical observations of triple-frequency bands, ambiguity of medium- or long-distance baselines can be fixed. The results also show that: the performance of ambiguity resolution with an elevation cutoff angle of 20° is much better than that of 15°; The performance with tropospheric effect corrected is slightly better than that with tropospheric effect as an estimated parameter; Dual-frequency band GPS observations will benefit ambiguity resolution of integrated BeiDou and GPS.
Limb remote ischemic conditioning (LRIC) provides a physiologic strategy for harnessing the body’s endogenous protective capabilities against injury induced by ischemia–reperfusion in the central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to determine if LRIC played a role in protecting the retina from ischemia–reperfusion injury. A total of 81 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham and ischemia/reperfusion with or without remote LRIC arms. The retinal ischemic model was generated through right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and pterygopalatine artery occlusion for 60 min followed by 1, 3, and 7 days of subsequent reperfusion. LRIC was conducted immediately following MCAO by tightening a tourniquet around the upper thigh and releasing for three cycles. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin in order to quantify the number of cells in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) layer throughout the duration of the study. Cellular expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was detected and examined through immunohistochemistry. Protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was also analyzed by Western blot techniques. Our study demonstrated that the loss of cells in RGC layer was attenuated by LRIC treatment at 3 and 7 days following reperfusion (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry studies depicted a gradual increase (P < 0.05) in GFAP levels from day 1 through day 7 following ischemia and subsequent reperfusion, whereas LRIC reduced GFAP levels at 1, 3, and 7 days postreperfusion. In addition, LRIC increased the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 at day 1 and 3 following ischemia/reperfusion. This particular study is the first remote conditioning study applicable to retinal ischemia. Our results strongly support the position that LRIC may be used as a noninvasive neuroprotective strategy, which provides retinal protection from ischemia–reperfusion injury through the upregulation of antioxidative stress proteins, such as Nrf2 and HO-1.
COMPASS or BeiDou is the new satellite navigation system under construction in China. In this paper, the standalone performance of COMPASS is compared to the Global Positioning System (GPS), including: Single Point Positioning (SPP), differential positioning (DGPS and Differential COMPASS) and single epoch ambiguity resolution and positioning. Based on the results, it was found that COMPASS SPP performance is clearly worse than that of GPS, due to larger broadcast orbit and satellite clock errors, especially the latter. Differential positioning performance of COMPASS and GPS are essentially similar, with GPS marginally better. COMPASS single epoch ambiguity resolution performance is obviously better than that of GPS due to more observed satellites and the single epoch positioning performance of COMPASS and GPS are similar.
A quasicrystal (QC)- based alloy composite was made by copper mold casting under a low-vacuum level condition at the bulk metallic glass (BMG)- forming composition (Zr65Cu15Al10Ni10)90Nb10. The QC alloy consisted of a majority of icosahedral quasicrystal phase and a small amount Zr-rich glassy phase. Under uniaxial compression at room temperature, the BMG alloy exhibits a certain plastic strain; the QC alloy is much stronger but brittle. The icosahedral glass model was used to describe the I-phase structure. The structure–property relations of the BMG and QC alloys are discussed assuming the common preferential icosahedral atomic structure in both cases and the existence of local glue structure in the BMG structure.
In this study, we report a method to generate a reliable and homogeneous brush-shape air plasma plume at atmospheric pressure for surface modification of PET polymers and biomedical applications. The room-temperature air plasma plume consists of well-aligned and stable microplasma jets formed in the vicinity of the ends of hollow optical fibers at atmospheric pressure. This plasma plume may lead to the uniform and large-area surface modification of PET polymers. The plasma plume may efficiently prevent the heat-sensitive polymers from being damaged and significantly affect the surface properties of treated polymers, such as surface chemical compositions, hydrophobicity and biocompatibility. Compared to a high density of blood platelets adhering onto the untreated PET sample, no adhesion of blood platelets is observed on the plasma-activated PET sample due to the surface functionalization. The reaction processes of plasma-activated species at the surface of treated polymers are discussed based on the obtained experimental results.
The present study investigated the effects of xanthophyll supplementation on production performance, antioxidant capacity (measured by glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and reduced glutathione:oxidised glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG)) and lipid peroxidation (measured by malondialdehyde (MDA)) in breeding hens and chicks. In Expt 1, 432 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20 or 40 mg xanthophyll/kg diet. Blood samples were taken at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 d of the trial. Liver and jejunal mucosa were sampled at 35 d. Both xanthophyll groups improved serum SOD at 21 and 28 d, serum T-AOC at 21 d and liver T-AOC, and serum GSH:GSSG at 21, 28 and 35 d and liver GSH:GSSG. Xanthophylls also decreased serum MDA at 21 d in hens. Expt 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from 0 or 40 mg in ovo xanthophyll/kg diet of hens were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg xanthophyll/kg diet. Liver samples were collected at 0, 7, 14 and 21 d after hatching. Blood samples were also collected at 21 d. In ovo-deposited xanthophylls increased antioxidant capacity and decreased MDA in the liver mainly within 1 week after hatching. Maternal effects gradually vanished during 1–2 weeks after hatching. Dietary xanthophylls increased antioxidant capacity and decreased MDA in the liver and serum mainly from 2 weeks onwards. Data suggested that xanthophyll supplementation enhanced antioxidant capacity and reduced lipid peroxidation in different tissues of hens and chicks.
The present study investigated the effects of xanthophylls (containing 40 % of lutein and 60 % of zeaxanthin) on proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF)) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10) expression of breeding hens and chicks. In Expt 1, a total of 432 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (as the control group), 20 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls (six replicates per treatment). The liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled at 35 d of the trial. The results showed that both levels of xanthophyll addition decreased IL-1β mRNA in the liver and jejunum, IL-6 mRNA in the liver, IFN-γ mRNA in the jejunum and LITAF mRNA in the liver compared to the control group. Expt 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll diet of hens were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. The liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected at 0, 7, 14 and 21 d after hatching. The results showed that in ovo xanthophylls decreased proinflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and LITAF) in the liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-4 and IL-10) in the liver, jejunum and ileum mainly at 0–7 d after hatching. In ovo effects gradually vanished and dietary effects began to work during 1–2 weeks after hatching. Dietary xanthophylls modulated proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ) in the liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in the liver and jejunum mainly from 2 weeks onwards. In conclusion, xanthophylls could regulate proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in different tissues of hens and chicks.