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The G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) sensing nutritional signals (amino acids, fatty acids, glucose, etc.) are not fully understood. In this research, we used transcriptome-sequencing to analyze differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in mouse mammary gland tissues at puberty, lactation and involution stages, in which 8 GPCRs were selected out and verified by qRT-PCR assay. It was further identified the role of GPR110 mediating nutrients including palmitic acid (PA) and methionine (Met) to improve milk synthesis using mouse mammary epithelial cell line HC11. PA but not Met affected GPR110 expression in a dose-dependent manner. GPR110 knockdown decreased milk protein and fat synthesis and cell proliferation, and blocked the stimulation of PA on mTOR phosphorylation and SREBP-1c expression. In summary, these experimental results disclose DEGs related to lactation and reveal that GPR110 mediates PA to activate the mTOR and SREBP-1c pathways to promote milk protein and fat synthesis.
In recent years, obesity is a growing pandemic in the world and has likely contributed to increasing the incidence of obesity related diseases. Fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) is the first gene discovered which has close connection with fat. Recent studies suggested FTO gene has played an important role in the molecular mechanisms of many diseases. Obesity is considered to be a hereditary disease and it can evoke many kinds of diseases, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cancer, etc., whose exact possible molecular mechanisms responsible for the effect of FTO on obesity and obesity related diseases remain largely unknown. In this review, we comprehensively discuss the correlation between FTO gene and obesity, cancer, PCOS, T2DM, as well as the molecular mechanism involved in these diseases.
Given the rising burden of palliative care and the limited human resources for its facilitation in China, volunteers are becoming increasingly indispensable. In particular, there is a high demand for volunteers who can serve as spiritual caregivers. However, a volunteer’s ability to provide good spiritual care in a palliative setting may be influenced by their attitude toward palliative care. To uncover the current state of spiritual caregiving in palliative settings in China and insights into best practices for its improvement, this study measured spiritual care competence and identified its influencing factors and explored its relationship with attitudes toward palliative care among volunteers. Notably, this study is the first to consider spiritual care competence alongside attitudes toward palliative care.
A descriptive cross-sectional study using online survey methods was conducted with 385 volunteers in Shanghai, China. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire.
Volunteers demonstrated relatively low levels of spiritual care competence (58.50 ± 10.92). Statistically significant correlations were found between spiritual care competence and the following variables: age, educational background, marital status, religious beliefs, occupational status, and relevant training and practical experience. Attitude toward palliative care significantly correlated with spiritual care competence (r = 0.49, p < 0.001).
Significance of results
To continually improve volunteers’ spiritual care competence, diversified education and training programs about spiritual care should be designed for different kinds of volunteers; moreover, because attitude toward palliative care significantly impacted spiritual care competence, such programs should encourage positive attitudes toward palliative care.
Mental disorders, including depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia, share a common neuropathy of disturbed large-scale coordinated brain maturation. However, high-interindividual heterogeneity hinders the identification of shared and distinct patterns of brain network abnormalities across mental disorders. This study aimed to identify shared and distinct patterns of altered structural covariance across mental disorders.
Subject-level structural covariance aberrance in patients with mental disorders was investigated using individualized differential structural covariance network. This method inferred structural covariance aberrance at the individual level by measuring the degree of structural covariance in patients deviating from matched healthy controls (HCs). T1-weighted anatomical images of 513 participants (105, 98, 190 participants with depression, OCD and schizophrenia, respectively, and 130 age- and sex-matched HCs) were acquired and analyzed.
Patients with mental disorders exhibited notable heterogeneity in terms of altered edges, which were otherwise obscured by group-level analysis. The three disorders shared high difference variability in edges attached to the frontal network and the subcortical-cerebellum network, and they also exhibited disease-specific variability distributions. Despite notable variability, patients with the same disorder shared disease-specific groups of altered edges. Specifically, depression was characterized by altered edges attached to the subcortical-cerebellum network; OCD, by altered edges linking the subcortical-cerebellum and motor networks; and schizophrenia, by altered edges related to the frontal network.
These results have potential implications for understanding heterogeneity and facilitating personalized diagnosis and interventions for mental disorders.
Non-spherical particles exhibit peculiar behaviour in non-Newtonian flows. In this paper, we numerically investigate the dynamics of a neutrally buoyant prolate spheroid immersed in viscoelastic shear flows at finite Reynolds numbers by means of the immersed boundary method. Our results show that the period of particle rotation changes monotonically with the solvent viscosity ratio but non-monotonically with the mobility factor. Furthermore, we find five rotation modes of the spheroid under the effects of fluid inertia and fluid rheology in the present flow configuration. With weak fluid inertia, the particle rotation rate is remarkably reduced by fluid elasticity, which also induces asymmetric rotational behaviour. While the particle tends to tumble in the shear plane with weak fluid elasticity and moderate fluid inertia. However, as the fluid elasticity increases, the particle rotates with a newly observed mode, named the asymmetric-kayaking mode, which is classified by two additional critical elastic numbers that differ from the earlier studies on Stokesian viscoelastic shear flows. The present findings imply the importance of fluid inertia and fluid elasticity on the particle dynamics and could be potentially used to control the particle orientations in viscoelastic fluid flows.
While implicit distraction could ameliorate negative feelings in patients with major depressive disorders (MDD), it remains unclear whether patients could benefit from explicit, voluntary distraction. Meanwhile, though the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is established as a crucial brain region involved in attentional control, the causal relationship between the DLPFC and voluntary distraction is unexplored in patients.
Combing explicit distraction and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), this study investigated whether TMS-activated DLPFC facilitates voluntary distraction in MDD patients. Eighty patients diagnosed with current MDD underwent either active (n = 40) or sham (n = 40) TMS sessions, followed by receiving negative social feedback from other patients, during which they were requied to use distraction strategy to down-regulate their painful feelings. Electroencephalogram was recorded during the task.
Both the subjective emotional rating and the amplitude of late positive potential showed that depressed patients successfully down-regulate their negative emotions via voluntary distraction, and the TMS-activated left DLPFC produced a larger benefit of emotion regulation compared to the sham TMS group. Results also revealed that while emotion regulation effect was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in the sham TMS group, this correlation was largely diminished when patients' left DLPFC was activated by TMS during the voluntary distraction.
These findings demonstrated that distraction is valuable for emotion regulation in MDD patients and they could be beneficial in voluntary distraction by activating their left DLPFC using neural modulation techniques. This study has valuable implications for clinical treatement of emotional dysregulation in MDD patients.
An abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level is predictive of disease and all-cause mortality and may indicate liver injury. Using twin modeling, the genetic and environmental factors that affect human serum ALT levels have been well studied for the populations in the different countries, and the results showed moderate-to-high heritability. However, the heritability of ALT level has not been explored in Chinese population. Thus, we recruited 369 pairs of twins (233 monozygotic and 136 dizygotic) from the Qingdao Twin Registry in China with a median age of 50 years (40−80 years). Correlation analysis and a structural equation model (SEM) were conducted to evaluate the heritability of ALT level. The data for age, gender, body mass index and alcohol consumption were set as covariates. Intrapair correlation in monozygotic twins was 0.64 (95%CI [.56, .71]) and 0.42 (95% CI [.28, .55]) in dizygotic twins. The SEM analysis indicated that 65% (95% CI [57%, 71%]) of the variation in ALT levels can be explained by additive genetics and 35% (95% CI [29%, 44%]) of the variation is attributed to unique environmental factors or residuals. Shared environmental influences were not significant. In conclusion, serum ALT variations exhibited strong genetic effects. The variation could also be explained by unique environmental factors. However, shared environmental factors have a minor impact on the serum ALT level.
We demonstrate an ultra-broadband high temporal contrast infrared laser source based on cascaded optical parametric amplification, hollow-core fiber (HCF) and second harmonic generation processes. In this setup, the spectrum of an approximately 1.8 μm laser pulse has near 1 μm full bandwidth by employing an argon gas-filled HCF. Subsequently, after frequency doubling with cascaded crystals and dispersion compensation by a fused silica wedge pair, 9.6 fs (~3 cycles) and 150 μJ pulses centered at 910 nm with full bandwidth of over 300 nm can be generated. The energy stability of the output laser pulse is excellent with 0.8% (root mean square) over 20 min, and the temporal contrast is >1012 at –10 ps before the main pulse. The excellent temporal and spatial characteristics and stability make this laser able to be used as a good seed source for ultra-intense and ultrafast laser systems.
High-performance 86 μJ, 11.2 fs pulses with a spectrum range of 800–1050 nm are generated based on 1030 nm, 190 fs Yb femtosecond pulses by using multi-plate-based spectral broadening and filtering. Taking advantage of single beam configuration, the obtained pulses have excellent power and spectral stabilities. Since the output spectrum is obtained by spectrally filtering the broadened components, the temporal contrast of the output pulses is enhanced by at least four orders of magnitude. Together with the robust and simple setup, the proposed method is expected to be a competitive option for the generation of seed pulses for 10s–100s petawatt lasers.
For the omnivorous Cherax quadricarinatus crayfish, plant raw materials can be good alternatives to dietary fish meal (FM). A 56-d feeding trial was conducted in C. quadricarinatus (11·70 (se 0·13) g). Diet with 100 % FM as the protein source was the control. Seven experimental diets were formulated by replacing 75 or 100 % of FM with soyabean meal (SM75, SM100) or cottonseed meal (CM75 and CM100), and a mixture of SM and CM (protein content is 1:1) replacing 50, 75 or 100 % of FM (SC50, SC75 and SC100). Crayfish fed the CM100 and SC100 showed significantly lower weight gain (WG), specific growth rate, trypsin and pepsin activities compared with the control diet. Crayfish in CM100 group showed significantly higher GPx, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase activities and malondialdehyde content than the control. SM100 and CM100 diets can cause slight separation of the peritrophic membrane from the intestinal folds. The pepsin activity of crayfish in SC50 was significantly higher than those in other experimental diets. The highest WG and muscle arginine content were also found in crayfish fed SC50. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Unclassified Enterobacteriaceae and Candidatus Bacilloplasma was significantly higher, but Actinobacteriota was significantly lower in SM100, CM100 and SC100 than in control. Microbiota functional prediction indicated that the relative abundance of ‘cell motility’ pathway in crayfish fed CM100 was significantly decreased compared with the control. In conclusion, only half of the FM can be effectively substituted with a mixture of SM and CM (protein content is 1:1) for C. quadricarinatus.
Few studies examined the association of energy, macronutrients and food consumption at dinner v. breakfast with hypercholesterolaemia. A total of 27 911 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2016) were included in the cross-sectional study. Energy, macronutrients and food consumption at breakfast, dinner and the difference at dinner v. breakfast (Δratio) were calculated. Multiple logistic regression models and substitution effects of foods at dinner with breakfast were also performed. After adjustment for potential covariates, compared with the lowest quintile, participants in the highest quintile of Δratio in terms of energy had a higher risk of prevalent hypercholesterolaemia (ORΔratio of energy 1·16, 95 % CI (1·01, 1·33)) mainly due to Δratio of low-quality carbohydrates and plant protein (ORΔratio of low-quality carbohydrates 1·19; 95 % CI (1·05, 1·35)); ORΔratio of plant protein 1·13; 95 % CI (1·01, 1·28)). ΔAdded sugars and Δnuts were associated with hypercholesterolaemia (ORΔadded sugars 1·01; 95 % CI (1·00, 1·02)); ORΔnuts 1·08; 95 % CI (1·01, 1·16)). Furthermore, the substitution of added sugars, nuts and processed meat at dinner with breakfast could reduce the OR of hypercholesterolaemia. This study indicated that among US adults, overconsumption of energy, macronutrients including low-quality carbohydrates and plant protein at dinner than breakfast was significantly associated with a higher risk of prevalent hypercholesterolaemia. The replacing of added sugar, nuts and processed meat at dinner with breakfast reduced the risk of prevalent hypercholesterolaemia. This study emphasised the importance of meal timing in the prevention of hypercholesterolaemia.
Daqingshan is located in the northwestern North China Craton where late Neoarchaean supracrustal rocks occur widely, but where magmatic zircon ages have rarely been reported for plutonic rocks. In this study, we report SIMS U–Pb zircon ages and Hf isotope, whole-rock element and Nd isotope compositions for 12 magmatic samples, including TTG, quartz monzonitic and monzogranitic gneisses, and meta-gabbroic and dioritic rocks. They have magmatic zircon ages of 2530–2469 Ma; some samples have ages of <2.48 Ga likely influenced by late Palaeoproterozoic tectonothermal events, making their ages less reliable. TTG gneisses have low Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, with whole-rock ϵNd(t) and in situ magmatic zircon ϵHf(t) values of +1.2 to +2.4 and −1.1 to +6.2, respectively. Quartz monzonite and monzogranite gneisses and gabbroic to dioritic rocks have similar Nd–Hf isotope compositions to the TTG gneisses. The absence of zircon >2.6 Ga in the early Precambrian rocks suggests that the Sanggan Group may have formed in an oceanic environment, whereas the TTG rocks formed as a result of partial melting of the basaltic rocks of the Sanggan Group under relatively low-pressure conditions. Combined with previous studies, the main conclusions are that in the Daqingshan area, late Neoarchaean magmatism was widespread, the late Mesoarchaean – early Neoarchaean was an important period of juvenile continental crustal growth, and the late Neoarchaean supracrustal and plutonic rocks most likely formed in an arc environment. These are common signatures for Neoarchaean crustal evolution throughout much of the North China Craton, and also globally.
Everyone faces uncertainty on a daily basis. Two kinds of probability expressions, verbal and numerical, have been used to characterize the uncertainty that we face. Because our cognitive concept of living things differs from that of non-living things, and distinguishing cognitive concepts might have linguistic markers, we designed four studies to test whether people use different probability expressions when faced with animate or inanimate uncertainty. We found that verbal probability is the preferred way to express animate uncertainty, whereas numerical probability is the preferred way to express inanimate uncertainty. The “verbal-animate” and “numerical-inanimate” associations were robust enough to persist when tested with forced-choice response patterns regardless of the information (e.g., equally likely outcomes, frequencies, or personal beliefs) used to construct probabilities of events. When the response pattern was changed to free-responses, the associations were evident unless the subjects were asked to write their own probability predictions for vague uncertainty. Given that the world around us consists of both animate (i.e., living) and inanimate (i.e., non-living) things, “verbal-animate” and “numerical-inanimate” associations may play a major role in risk communication and may otherwise be useful for practitioners and consultants.
Two new species of the lichenized genus Lasioloma are described from Asia: Lasioloma longiramosum W. C. Wang & A. Abas (collected from Malaysia), is characterized by a distinct woolly prothallus between dispersed thallus patches, comparatively small, muriform ascospores, long filiform conidia (main branch 22–28 μm in length, the other three branches 65–80 μm) and a foliicolous habitat; L. verrucosum W. C. Wang & X. L. Wei (collected from China), is characterized by a warted thallus, filiform conidia (main branch 22–32 μm in length, the other three branches 50–65 μm) and a corticolous habitat. The placement of both new species was confirmed by a molecular phylogenetic approach based on combined ITS, mtSSU and mtLSU sequences, and both are compared in detail to other similar species of the genus. Our study also revealed that the length of the conidial branches, which has not been explored in previous studies, should be regarded as an important feature for species delimitation in Lasioloma.
Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a useful tool in complex decision-making situations and has been used in medical fields to evaluate treatment options and drug selection. We aimed to provide valuable insights on the use of MCDA in health care through examining the research focus of existing studies, major fields, major applications, most productive authors and countries, and most common journals in the domain using a scientometric and bibliometric analysis.
Publications related to MCDA in health care were identified by searching the Web of Science Core Collection on 14 July 2021. Three bibliometric software programs (VOSviewer, Bibliometrix, and CiteSpace) were used to conduct the analysis.
A total of 410 publications were identified from 196 academic journals (average yearly growth rate of 32% from 1999 to 2021), with 23,637 co-cited references by 871 institutions from 70 countries or regions. The USA was the most productive country (n=80), while the Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (n=16), Université de Montréal (n= 13), and Syreon Research Institute (n=12) were the most productive institutions. The biggest nodes in every cluster of author networks were Aos Alaa Zaidan, Mireille Goetghebeur, and Zoltan Kalo. The top journals in terms of number of articles (n=17) and citations (n=1,673) were Value in Health and the Journal of Medical Systems, respectively. The research hotspots mainly included the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), decision-making, health technology assessment, and healthcare waste management. In the recent literature there was more emphasis on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarities to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). Big data, telemedicine, TOPSIS, and the fuzzy AHP, which are well-developed and important themes, may be the trends in future research.
This study provides a holistic picture of the MCDA-related literature published in health care. MCDA has a broad application in different topic areas and would be helpful for practitioners, researchers, and decision makers working in health care when faced with complex decisions. It can be argued that the door is still open for improving the role of MCDA in health care, both in its technologies and its application.