Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in the bovine mammary gland introduces a cis-double bond at the Δ9 position in a wide range of fatty acids (FA). Several long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) inhibit expression of SCD, but information on the effect of short-chain fatty acids on mammary SCD expression is scarce. We used a bovine mammary cell line (MAC-T) to assess the effect of acetic acid (Ac) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) in comparison with the effect of various long-chain fatty acids on the mRNA expression of the lipogenic enzymes SCD, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA), fatty acid synthase (FASN) and their associated gene regulatory proteins sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), insulin-induced gene 1 protein (INSIG1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA)and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) by quantitative real-time PCR. MAC-T cells were treated for 12 h without FA additions (CON) or with either 5 mM Ac, 5 mM BHBA, a combination of 5 mM Ac + 5 mM BHBA, 100 μM C16:0, 100 μM C18:0, 100 μM C18:1 cis-9, 100 μM C18:1 trans-11, 100 μM C18:2 cis-9,12 or 100 μM C18:3 cis-9,12,15. Compared with control, mRNA expression of SCD1 was increased by Ac (+61%) and reduced by C18:1 cis-9 (−61%), C18:2 cis-9,12 (−84%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (−88%). In contrast to native bovine mammary gland tissue, MAC-T cells did not express SCD5. Expression of ACACA was increased by Ac (+44%) and reduced by C18:2 cis-9,12 (−48%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (−49%). Compared with control, FASN expression was not significantly affected by the treatments. The mRNA level of SREBF1 was not affected by Ac or BHBA, but was reduced by C18:1 cis-9 (−44%), C18:1 trans-11 (−42%), C18:2 cis-9,12 (−62%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (−68%) compared with control. Expression of INSIG1 was downregulated by C18:0 (−37%), C18:1 cis-9 (−63%), C18:1 trans-11 (−53%), C18:2 cis-9,12 (−81%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (−91%). Both PPARA and PPARD expression were not significantly affected by the treatments. Our results show that Ac upregulated mRNA expression of SCD1 and ACACA in MAC-T cells. The opposite effect of the PUFA C18:2 cis-9,12 and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 on the these genes and the failure of Ac to mimic the PUFA-inhibited SREBF1 and INSIG1 mRNA expression, suggest that Ac can stimulate mammary lipogenesis via a transcriptional regulatory mechanism different from PUFA.