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Effects of short- and long-chain fatty acids on the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase and other lipogenic genes in bovine mammary epithelial cells

  • A. A. A. Jacobs (a1), J. Dijkstra (a1), J. S. Liesman (a2), M. J. VandeHaar (a2), A. L. Lock (a2), A. M. van Vuuren (a1), W. H. Hendriks (a1) (a3) and J. van Baal (a1)...

Abstract

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in the bovine mammary gland introduces a cis-double bond at the Δ9 position in a wide range of fatty acids (FA). Several long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) inhibit expression of SCD, but information on the effect of short-chain fatty acids on mammary SCD expression is scarce. We used a bovine mammary cell line (MAC-T) to assess the effect of acetic acid (Ac) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) in comparison with the effect of various long-chain fatty acids on the mRNA expression of the lipogenic enzymes SCD, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA), fatty acid synthase (FASN) and their associated gene regulatory proteins sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), insulin-induced gene 1 protein (INSIG1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA)and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) by quantitative real-time PCR. MAC-T cells were treated for 12 h without FA additions (CON) or with either 5 mM Ac, 5 mM BHBA, a combination of 5 mM Ac + 5 mM BHBA, 100 μM C16:0, 100 μM C18:0, 100 μM C18:1 cis-9, 100 μM C18:1 trans-11, 100 μM C18:2 cis-9,12 or 100 μM C18:3 cis-9,12,15. Compared with control, mRNA expression of SCD1 was increased by Ac (+61%) and reduced by C18:1 cis-9 (−61%), C18:2 cis-9,12 (−84%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (−88%). In contrast to native bovine mammary gland tissue, MAC-T cells did not express SCD5. Expression of ACACA was increased by Ac (+44%) and reduced by C18:2 cis-9,12 (−48%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (−49%). Compared with control, FASN expression was not significantly affected by the treatments. The mRNA level of SREBF1 was not affected by Ac or BHBA, but was reduced by C18:1 cis-9 (−44%), C18:1 trans-11 (−42%), C18:2 cis-9,12 (−62%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (−68%) compared with control. Expression of INSIG1 was downregulated by C18:0 (−37%), C18:1 cis-9 (−63%), C18:1 trans-11 (−53%), C18:2 cis-9,12 (−81%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (−91%). Both PPARA and PPARD expression were not significantly affected by the treatments. Our results show that Ac upregulated mRNA expression of SCD1 and ACACA in MAC-T cells. The opposite effect of the PUFA C18:2 cis-9,12 and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 on the these genes and the failure of Ac to mimic the PUFA-inhibited SREBF1 and INSIG1 mRNA expression, suggest that Ac can stimulate mammary lipogenesis via a transcriptional regulatory mechanism different from PUFA.

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Effects of short- and long-chain fatty acids on the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase and other lipogenic genes in bovine mammary epithelial cells

  • A. A. A. Jacobs (a1), J. Dijkstra (a1), J. S. Liesman (a2), M. J. VandeHaar (a2), A. L. Lock (a2), A. M. van Vuuren (a1), W. H. Hendriks (a1) (a3) and J. van Baal (a1)...

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