To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
To evaluate learning motivation barriers in infection control and feedback competences, we conducted a national online survey in Germany. Among 767 healthcare workers, overconfidence effects could be detected independent from age, gender, profession, education, and hospital-size. The identified effects may impair learning motivation relevant for supervisors and educators in infection control.
Irregular backgrounds in time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data and nonlinear backgrounds in angle dependent neutron powder diffraction data. were corrected by fitting fifth degree polynomials to those portions of the data most affected. The anomalous background intensities were in both cases due to non Bragg scattering. The polynomial fitting was carried out over a sufficiently widerange of the profile to avoid interfering with the Bragg peaks. The corrected data gave internally consistent results for the crystallographically nonequivalent (Si,Al) -0 (1) and(Si, Al) -0 (2) bond lengths in zeolite rho and compare favorably with previous refinements of this Zeolite in space group Im3m. Internal and external in consistencies of bond lengths are just as diagnostic of refinement difficulties as negative isotropic temperature factors or non positive definite an isotropic temperature factors are.
Thin hole transport layers are important elements in organic semiconductor-based devices. Metal oxides are an encouraging material class for this purpose, as they may provide sufficient hole conduction in combination with excellent electron blocking properties. Both, long-term device stability, which may often be limited by the thermal stability of interfaces, and higher temperature processing steps, benefit strongly from the existence of thermally stable metal oxide interlayers. Provided that thermally stable electrodes can be fashioned, the stability of organic active layers—for example, in organic field effect transistors, light emitting diodes, or photovoltaic (OPV) devices can be investigated. Here, we apply this concept and report about the study of hole mobility (µh) in single-carrier-hole-only devices in dependence of thermal annealing up to the above the actual melting temperature of regio-regular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT).
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
4-tert-octylphenol (OP) is an alkylphenolic compound formed as metabolite of some nonionic surfactants that are widely used in industrial detergents, as plastic additives, dispersant for insecticides, etc. (Naylor et al., 1992). OP accumulates in adipose tissue. Micromolar concentrations of these compounds may constitute health hazards to animal cells. Furthermore, it has previously been shown to exert oestrogenic activity in vivo and in vitro (White et al., 1994). A growing concern about “endocrine disruptors” and their impact on oestrogen-dependent phenomena led us investigate the effects of OP on oocyte maturation. For variuos reasons bovine oocytes were chosen as the model system. We examined the effects of OP exposure on oocyte nuclear maturation in vitro and on the expression of oestrogen receptors in cumulus cells.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
The physical processes driving the chemical evolution of galaxies in the last ~ 11Gyr cannot be understood without directly probing the dust-obscured phase of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei. This phase, hidden to optical tracers, represents the bulk of the star formation and black hole accretion activity in galaxies at 1 < z < 3. Spectroscopic observations with a cryogenic infrared observatory like SPICA, will be sensitive enough to peer through the dust-obscured regions of galaxies and access the rest-frame mid- to far-infrared range in galaxies at high-z. This wavelength range contains a unique suite of spectral lines and dust features that serve as proxies for the abundances of heavy elements and the dust composition, providing tracers with a feeble response to both extinction and temperature. In this work, we investigate how SPICA observations could be exploited to understand key aspects in the chemical evolution of galaxies: the assembly of nearby galaxies based on the spatial distribution of heavy element abundances, the global content of metals in galaxies reaching the knee of the luminosity function up to z ~ 3, and the dust composition of galaxies at high-z. Possible synergies with facilities available in the late 2020s are also discussed.
Examination of ∼2000 sun–like stars has revealed 97 planets (as of 2002 Nov), all residing within our Milky Way Galaxy and within ∼200 light years of our Solar System. They have masses between 0.1 and 10 times that of Jupiter, and orbital sizes of 0.05–5 AU. Thus planets occupy the entire detectable domain of mass and orbits. News & summaries about extrasolar planets are provided at: http://exoplanets.org. These planets were all discovered by the wobble of the host stars, induced gravitationally by the planets, causing a periodicity in the measured Doppler effect of the starlight. Earth–mass planets remain undetectable, but space–based missions such as Kepler, COROT and SIM may provide detections of terrestrial planets within the next decade.
The number of planets increases with decreasing planet mass, indicating that nature makes more small planets than jupiter–mass planets. Extrapolation, though speculative, bodes well for an even larger number of earth–mass planets. These observations and the theory of planet formation suggests that single sun–like stars commonly harbor earth–sized rocky planets, as yet undetectable. The number of planets increases with increasing orbital distance from the host star, and most known planets reside in non–circular orbits. Many known planets reside in the habitable zone (albeit being gas giants) and most newly discovered planets orbit beyond 1 AU from their star. A population of Jupiter–like planets may reside at 5–10 AU from stars, not easily detectable at present. The sunlike star 55 Cancri harbors a planet of 4–10 Jupiter masses orbiting at 5.5 AU in a low eccentricity orbit, the first analog of our Jupiter, albeit with two large planets orbiting inward.
To date, 10 multiple–planet systems have been discovered, with four revealing gravitational interactions between the planets in the form of resonances. GJ 876 has two planets with periods of 1 and 2 months. Other planetary systems are “hierarchical”, consisting of widely separated orbits. These two system architectures probably result from gravitational interactions among the planets and between the planets and the proto-planetary disk out of which they formed.
An updated compilation of published and new data of major-ion (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, NO3, SO4) and methylsulfonate (MS) concentrations in snow from 520 Antarctic sites is provided by the national ITASE (International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition) programmes of Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and the national Antarctic programme of Finland. The comparison shows that snow chemistry concentrations vary by up to four orders of magnitude across Antarctica and exhibit distinct geographical patterns. The Antarctic-wide comparison of glaciochemical records provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the fundamental factors that ultimately control the chemistry of snow or ice samples. This paper aims to initiate data compilation and administration in order to provide a framework for facilitation of Antarctic-wide snow chemistry discussions across all ITASE nations and other contributing groups. The data are made available through the ITASE web page (http://www2.umaine.edu/itase/content/syngroups/snowchem.html) and will be updated with new data as they are provided. In addition, recommendations for future research efforts are summarized.
Most of our understanding of BPF's is based on observations of the neutral and ionized gas in bright, high luminosity sources. Data on low luminosity (L ≲ 30 L⊙) objects has now become more available (e.g. Frerking and Langer, Astrophys. J. 256, 523, 1982) permitting a test of models at this end of the luminosity range. We have performed a series of multi-wavelength observations, emphasizing low luminosity objects.
Social media presents an important means for social interaction, especially among adolescents, with Instagram being the most popular platform in this age-group. Pictures and communication about non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) can frequently be found on the internet.
During 4 weeks in April 2016, n = 2826 (from n = 1154 accounts) pictures which directly depicted wounds on Instagram were investigated. Those pictures, associated comments, and user accounts were independently rated for content. Associations between characteristics of pictures and comments as well as weekly and daily trends of posting behavior were analyzed.
Most commonly, pictures depicted wounds caused by cutting on arms or legs and were rated as mild or moderate injuries. Pictures with increasing wound grades and those depicting multiple methods of NSSI generated elevated amounts of comments. While most comments were neutral or empathic with some offering help, few comments were hostile. Pictures were mainly posted in the evening hours, with a small peak in the early morning. While there was a slight peak of pictures being posted on Sundays, postings were rather evenly spread across the week.
Pictures of NSSI are frequently posted on Instagram. Social reinforcement might play a role in the posting of more severe NSSI pictures. Social media platforms need to take appropriate measures for preventing online social contagion.
Observations show that glaciers around the world are in retreat and losing mass. Internationally coordinated for over a century, glacier monitoring activities provide an unprecedented dataset of glacier observations from ground, air and space. Glacier studies generally select specific parts of these datasets to obtain optimal assessments of the mass-balance data relating to the impact that glaciers exercise on global sea-level fluctuations or on regional runoff. In this study we provide an overview and analysis of the main observational datasets compiled by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS). The dataset on glacier front variations (∼42 000 since 1600) delivers clear evidence that centennial glacier retreat is a global phenomenon. Intermittent readvance periods at regional and decadal scale are normally restricted to a subsample of glaciers and have not come close to achieving the maximum positions of the Little Ice Age (or Holocene). Glaciological and geodetic observations (∼5200 since 1850) show that the rates of early 21st-century mass loss are without precedent on a global scale, at least for the time period observed and probably also for recorded history, as indicated also in reconstructions from written and illustrated documents. This strong imbalance implies that glaciers in many regions will very likely suffer further ice loss, even if climate remains stable.
Force variations on a "ploughmeter" and fluctuations in subglacial water pressure have been measured in the same borehole at Storglaciaren, Sweden, to investigate hydraulic properties of the basal till layer. A strong inverse correlation of the pressure and force records, in conjunction with a significant lime lag between the two signals, suggests that pore-water pressures directly affect the strength of the till. Variations in sub-glacial water pressure result in potential gradients across the water till interlace at the bottom of the borehole that drive pressure waves downwards through the till layer when the borehole water level is high and back upwards when the water level is low. Analysis of the propagation velocity of this pressure wave indicates that the hydraulic diffusivity of Storglaciaren till is in the range 1.9−3.6 x 10−6m2s−1,in good agreement with estimates obtained in the laboratory. Hydraulic conductivity values associated with these difrusivities are between 10−9 and 10−8ms−1 and thus are well within the range of values for other glacial tills.
In order to study, in situ, the rheology of a deforming subglacial till, various instruments were emplaced in till beneath Storglaciären, Sweden. Boreholes were used to gain access to the till beneath about 100 m of ice. Tiltmeters provided an estimate of the shear strain rate in the till. Two other instruments yielded measures of till strength. In addition, water pressures were recorded in boreholes and in the till, a computer-controlled distance meter provided an effectively continuous record of the surface velocity and data from frequent surveys of a stake network were used to estimate the mean basal drag, based on a force-balance calculation.
Tilt rates varied directly with effective pressure, so decreases in water pressure apparently increased the coupling between the glacier and the bed. Surface speed was either out of phase with tilt or varied independently of tilt. Thus, increases in speed were apparently a consequence either of longitudinal coupling or of reduced coupling between the glacier and the bed; they were not a result of till deformation! Till strength varied directly with effective pressure, which is consistent with it being a Mohr – Coulomb, or frictional material. The devices measuring till strength are presumed to have been pulled through the till at a speed that varied in phase with the surface speed but till strength did not vary systematically with surface speed. This implies that the residual strength of the till is insensitive to strain rate. Thus, the appropriate constitutive equation for till rheology may be of the form:
where k is a constant. This is consistent with experimental data reported in the geotechnical literature.