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Data on the combination of foods consumed simultaneously at specific eating occasions are scarce, primarily due to a lack of assessment tools. We applied a recently developed meal coding system to multiple-day dietary intake data for assessing its ability to estimate food and nutrient intakes and characterise meal-based dietary patterns in the Japanese context. A total of 242 Japanese adults completed sixteen non-consecutive-day weighed dietary records, including 14 734 eating occasions (3788 breakfasts, 3823 lunches, 3856 dinners and 3267 snacks). Common food group combinations were identified by meal type to identify a range of generic meals. Dietary intake was calculated on the basis of not only the standard food composition database but also the substituted generic meal database. In total, eighty generic meals (twenty-three breakfasts, twenty-one lunches, twenty-four dinners and twelve snacks) were identified. The Spearman correlation coefficients between food group intakes calculated based on the standard food composition database and the substituted generic meal database ranged from 0·26 to 0·85 (median 0·69). The corresponding correlations for nutrient intakes ranged from 0·17 to 0·82 (median 0·61). A total of eleven meal patterns were established using principal components analysis, and these accounted for 39·1 % of total meal variance. Considerable variation in patterns was seen in meal type inclusion and choice of staple foods (bread, rice and noodles) and drinks, and also in meal constituents. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the usefulness of a meal coding system for assessing habitual diet, providing a scientific basis towards the development of simple meal-based dietary assessment tools.
Although habitual seaweed consumption in Japan would suggest that iodine intake in Japanese is exceptionally high, intake data from diet records are limited. In the present study, we developed a composition database of iodine and estimated the habitual intake of iodine among Japanese adults. Missing values for iodine content in the existing composition table were imputed based on established criteria. 16 d diet records (4 d over four seasons) from adults (120 women aged 30–69 years and 120 men aged 30–76 years) living in Japan were collected, and iodine intake was estimated. Habitual intake was estimated with the Best-power method. Totally, 995 food items were imputed. The distribution of iodine intake in 24 h was highly skewed, and approximately 55 % of 24 h values were < 300 μg/d. The median iodine intake in 24 h was 229 μg/d for women and 273 μg/d for men. All subjects consumed iodine-rich foods (kelp or soup stock) on one or more days of the sixteen survey days. The mean (median) habitual iodine intake was 1414 (857) μg/d for women and 1572 (1031) μg/d for men. Older participants had higher intake than younger participants. The major contributors to iodine intake were kelp (60 %) and soup stock (30 %). Habitual iodine intake among Japanese was sufficient or higher than the tolerable upper intake level, particularly in older generations. The association between high iodine intake as that observed in the present study and thyroid disease requires further study.
To compare the relative validity of food group intakes derived from a comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) and a brief-type DHQ (BDHQ) developed for the assessment of Japanese diets during the previous month using semi-weighed dietary records (DR) as a reference method.
Between November 2002 and September 2003, a 4 d DR (covering four non-consecutive days), a DHQ (150-item semi-quantitative questionnaire) and a BDHQ (fifty-eight-item fixed-portion-type questionnaire) were completed four times (once per season) at 3-month intervals.
Three areas in Japan: Osaka, Nagano and Tottori.
Ninety-two Japanese women aged 31–69 years and ninety-two Japanese men aged 32–76 years.
Median food group intakes were estimated well for approximately half of the food groups. No statistically significant differences were noted between a 16 d DR and the first DHQ (DHQ1) or between the DR and the first BDHQ (BDHQ1) in fifteen (44 %) and fifteen (52 %) food items for women and in fourteen (41 %) and sixteen (55 %) food items for men, respectively, indicating that both questionnaires estimated median values reasonably well. Median Spearman's correlation coefficients with the DR were 0·43 (range: −0·09 to 0·77) for DHQ1 and 0·44 (range: 0·14 to 0·82) for BDHQ1 in women, with respective values of 0·44 (range: 0·08 to 0·87) and 0·48 (range: 0·22 to 0·83) in men, indicating reasonable ranking ability. Similar results were observed for mean values of the four DHQ and BDHQ.
In terms of food intake estimates, both the DHQ and the BDHQ showed reasonable validity.
Although dietary pattern approaches derived from dietary assessment questionnaires are widely used, only a few studies in Western countries have reported the validity of this approach. We examined the relative validity of dietary patterns derived from a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) among Japanese adults.
The DHQ, assessing diet during the preceding month, and 4 d dietary records (DR) were collected in each season over one year. To derive dietary patterns, 145 food items in the DHQ and 1259 in the DR were classified into thirty-three predefined food groups, and entered into a factor analysis.
Three areas in Japan; Osaka (urban), Nagano (rural inland) and Tottori (rural coastal).
A total of ninety-two Japanese women and ninety-two Japanese men aged 31–76 years.
We identified three dietary patterns (‘healthy’, ‘Western’ and ‘Japanese traditional’) in women and two (‘healthy’ and ‘Western’) in men, which showed a relatively similar direction and magnitude of factor loadings of food groups across the first and mean of four DHQ (DHQ1 and mDHQ, respectively) and 16 d DR. The Pearson correlation coefficients between DHQ1 and 16 d DR for the healthy, Western and Japanese traditional patterns in women were 0·57, 0·36 and 0·44, and for the healthy and Western patterns in men were 0·62 and 0·56, respectively. When mDHQ was examined, the correlation coefficients improved for women (0·45–0·69).
Dietary patterns derived from the DHQ could be used for epidemiological studies as surrogates of those derived from DR.
Previous studies in Western populations have linked caffeine intake with health status. While detailed dietary assessment studies in these populations have shown that the main contributors to caffeine intake are coffee and tea, the wide consumption of Japanese and Chinese teas in Japan suggests that sources of intake in Japan may differ from those in Western populations. Among these teas, moreover, caffeine content varies widely among the different forms consumed (brewed, canned or bottled), suggesting the need for detailed dietary assessment in estimating intake in Japanese populations. Here, because a caffeine composition database or data obtained from detailed dietary assessment have not been available, we developed a database for caffeine content in Japanese foods and beverages, and then used it to estimate intake in a Japanese population.
The caffeine food composition database was developed using analytic values from the literature, 16 d weighed diet records were collected, and caffeine intake was estimated from the 16 d weighed diet records.
Four areas in Japan, Osaka (Osaka City), Okinawa (Ginowan City), Nagano (Matsumoto City) and Tottori (Kurayoshi City), between November 2002 and September 2003.
Two hundred and thirty Japanese adults aged 30–69 years.
Mean caffeine intake was 256·2 mg/d for women and 268·3 mg/d for men. The major contributors to intake were Japanese and Chinese teas and coffee (47 % each). Caffeine intake above 400 mg/d, suggested in reviews to possibly have negative health effects, was seen in 11 % of women and 15 % of men.
In this Japanese population, caffeine intake was comparable to the estimated values reported in Western populations.
Although many epidemiological studies have examined the association of dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) with health outcomes, information on the reproducibility and relative validity of these variables estimated from dietary questionnaires is extremely limited. We examined the reproducibility and relative validity of dietary GI and GL assessed with a self-administered diet-history questionnaire (DHQ) in adult Japanese. A total of ninety-two Japanese women and ninety-two Japanese men aged 31–76 years completed the DHQ (assessing diet during the preceding month) and 4 d dietary records (DR) in each season over a 1-year period (DHQ1–4 and DR1–4, respectively) and the DHQ at 1 year after completing DHQ1 (DHQ5). We used intraclass correlations between DHQ1 and DHQ5 to assess reproducibility, and Pearson correlations between the mean of DR1–4 and mean of DHQ1–4 and between the mean of DR1–4 and DHQ1 to assess relative validity. Reproducibility correlations for dietary GI and GL were 0·57 and 0·69 among women and 0·65 and 0·58 among men, respectively. Validity correlations for dietary GI and GL assessed by DHQ1–4 were 0·72 and 0·66 among women and 0·65 and 0·71 among men, respectively. Corresponding correlations for DHQ1 were 0·53 and 0·58 among women and 0·57 and 0·60 among men, respectively. White rice was the major contributor to GI and GL in both methods (49–64 %). These data indicate reasonable reproducibility and relative validity of dietary GI and GL assessed by a DHQ for Japanese adults, whose dietary GI and GL are primarily determined by the GI of white rice.
To examine relationships between the ratio of energy intake to basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR) and age and body mass index (BMI) among Japanese adults.
Energy intake was assessed by 4-day semi-weighed diet records in each of four seasons (16 days in total). The EI/BMR ratio was calculated from reported energy intake and estimated basal metabolic rate as an indicator of reporting accuracy.
Residents in three areas in Japan, namely Osaka (urban), Nagano (rural inland) and Tottori (rural coastal).
One hundred and eighty-three healthy Japanese men and women aged ≥30 years.
The oldest age group (≥60 years) had higher EI/BMR values than the youngest age group (30–39 years) in both sexes (1.74 vs. 1.37 for men; 1.65 vs. 1.43 for women). In multiple regression analyses, age correlated positively (partial correlation coefficient, β = 0.012, P < 0.001 for men; β = 0.011, P < 0.001 for women) and BMI correlated negatively (β = −0.031, P < 0.001 for men; β = −0.025, P < 0.01 for women) with EI/BMR.
Age and BMI may influence the relative accuracy of energy intake among Japanese adults.
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