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The perinatal period is a vulnerable time for the development of psychopathology, particularly mood and anxiety disorders. In the study of maternal anxiety, important questions remain regarding the association between maternal anxiety symptoms and subsequent child outcomes. This study examined the association between depressive and anxiety symptoms, namely social anxiety, panic, and agoraphobia disorder symptoms during the perinatal period and maternal perception of child behavior, specifically different facets of development and temperament. Participants (N = 104) were recruited during pregnancy from a community sample. Participants completed clinician-administered and self-report measures of depressive and anxiety symptoms during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 16 months postpartum; child behavior and temperament outcomes were assessed at 16 months postpartum. Child development areas included gross and fine motor skills, language and problem-solving abilities, and personal/social skills. Child temperament domains included surgency, negative affectivity, and effortful control. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that elevated prenatal social anxiety symptoms significantly predicted more negative maternal report of child behavior across most measured domains. Elevated prenatal social anxiety and panic symptoms predicted more negative maternal report of child effortful control. Depressive and agoraphobia symptoms were not significant predictors of child outcomes. Elevated anxiety symptoms appear to have a distinct association with maternal report of child development and temperament. Considering the relative influence of anxiety symptoms, particularly social anxiety, on maternal report of child behavior and temperament can help to identify potential difficulties early on in mother–child interactions as well as inform interventions for women and their families.
Stressful experiences affect biological stress systems, such as the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Life stress can potentially alter regulation of the HPA axis and has been associated with poorer physical and mental health. Little, however, is known about the relative influence of stressors that are encountered at different developmental periods on acute stress reactions in adulthood. In this study, we explored three models of the influence of stress exposure on cortisol reactivity to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) by leveraging 37 years of longitudinal data in a high-risk birth cohort (N = 112). The cumulative stress model suggests that accumulated stress across the lifespan leads to dysregulated reactivity, whereas the biological embedding model implicates early childhood as a critical period. The sensitization model assumes that dysregulation should only occur when stress is high in both early childhood and concurrently. All of the models predicted altered reactivity, but do not anticipate its exact form. We found support for both cumulative and biological embedding effects. However, when pitted against each other, early life stress predicted more blunted cortisol responses at age 37 over and above cumulative life stress. Additional analyses revealed that stress exposure in middle childhood also predicted more blunted cortisol reactivity.
Despite considerable achievements in the field of conservation, biodiversity continues to decline and conservation initiatives face numerous barriers. Although many of these barriers are well known, for example insufficient funding and capacity, there has been no systematic attempt to catalogue and categorize them into a typology. Because risks compromise the conservation mission, any barrier to success is a risk. Here we present the first attempt at identifying key barriers. We analyse extensive interviews with 74 conservationists, primarily from Africa but with international experience, to identify potential risks to their projects and use that information to create a typology of barriers to conservation success. We draw on the literature to explain the prevalence of some of the barriers identified. We suggest that this typology could form the basis of heuristic tools that conservationists can use to identify and manage potential risks to their projects, thereby improving decision-making, strategic planning and, ultimately, overall impact. The typology is also useful for the conservation community (comprising conservationists and funders) to help implement better practices and improve the likelihood of success. We present examples of such work already underway and suggest more can be done to continue to improve.
Vascular surgery patients are nutritionally vulnerable. Various malnutrition screening and assessment tools are available; however, none has been developed or validated in vascular patients. The present study aimed to: (1) investigate the validity of four commonly administered malnutrition screening tools (Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Nutrition Risk Screen-2002 (NRS-2002) and the Mini-Nutritional Assessment – Short Form (MNA-SF) and an assessment tool (the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA)) compared against a comprehensive dietitian’s assessment and (2) evaluate the ability of the instruments to predict outcomes. Vascular inpatients were screened using the four malnutrition screening tools and assessed using the PG-SGA. Each was assessed by a dietitian incorporating nutritional biochemistry, anthropometry and changes in dietary intake. Diagnostic accuracy, consistency and predictive ability were determined. A total of 322 (69·3 % male) patients participated, with 75 % having at least one parameter indicating nutritional deficits. No instrument achieved the a priori levels for sensitivity (14·9–52·5 %). Neither tool predicted EuroQoL 5-dimension 5-level score. All tools except the MNA-SF were associated with length of stay (LOS); however, the direction varied with increased risk of malnutrition on the MUST and NRS-2002 being associated with shorter LOS (P=0·029 and 0·045) and the reverse with the MST and PG-SGA (P=0·005 and <0·001). The NRS-2002 was associated with increased risk of complications (P=0·039). The MST, NRS-2002 and PG-SGA were predictive of discharge to an institution (P=0·004, 0·005 and 0·003). The tools studied were unable to identify the high prevalence of undernutrition; hence, vascular disease-specific screening and/or assessment tools are warranted.
The goal of this study was to evaluate the ability of semantic (animal naming) and phonemic (FAS) fluency in their ability to discriminate between normal aging, amnestic-Mild Cognitive Impairment (a-MCI), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
We used binary logistic regressions, multinomial regressions, and discriminant analysis to evaluate the predictive value of semantic and phonemic fluency in regards to specific diagnostic classifications.
Outpatient geriatric neuropsychology clinic.
232 participants (normal aging = 99, a-MCI = 90, AD = 43; mean age = 65.75 years).
Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), Controlled Oral Word Association Test
Results indicate that semantic and phonemic fluency were significant predictors of diagnostic classification, and semantic fluency explained a greater amount of the discriminant ability of the model.
These results suggest that verbal fluency, particularly semantic fluency, may be an accurate and efficient tool in screening for early dementia in time-limited medical settings.
Acquired diaphragmatic hernia is a rare complication of pediatric intervention or surgery. In this study, we report an infant with iatrogenic diaphragmatic hernia following neonatal complex congenital cardiac surgery, and then we review the associated literature.
This work describes exploration of mitigating the parasitic amorphous alumina (Al2O3) shell of aluminum nanoparticles (n-Al) and modifying the surface using different plasmas, leading to n-Al with thinner shell and different coatings including carbons and oxidizing salt called aluminum iodate hexahydrate (AIH), respectively. The approach exploits a prototype atmospheric non-thermal plasma reactor with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) configuration for nanoparticle surface modifications using n-Al of 80 nm average diameter as an example. Preliminary results indicate that the amorphous Al2O3 shell surrounding the active aluminum core can be mitigated with inert plasmas by as much as 40% using either helium (He) or argon (Ar). The particle surface becomes carbon-rich with carbon monoxide (CO) / He plasmas. By immersing the plasma-treated n-Al in an iodic acid (HIO3) solution, AIH crystals can be formed on the n-Al surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used as a major tool to study the details of the modified surface morphologies, diffraction patterns, and chemical composition of the modified n-Al. The results demonstrate effective surface passivation of n-Al via atmospheric plasma techniques.
Previous research suggests that the experience of abuse and neglect in childhood has negative implications for physical health in adulthood. Using data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 115), the present research examined the predictive significance of childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and physical/cognitive neglect for multilevel assessments of physical health at midlife (age 37–39 years), including biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, self-reports of quality of health, and a number of health problems. Analyses revealed that childhood physical/cognitive neglect, but not physical or sexual abuse, predicted all three health outcomes in middle adulthood, even when controlling for demographic risk factors and adult health maintenance behaviors. We discuss possible explanations for the unique significance of neglect in this study and suggest future research that could clarify previous findings regarding the differential impact of different types of abuse and neglect on adult health.
To examine dietary Na and K intake at eating occasions in Australian adults and identify the contribution of major food sources to Na and K at different eating occasions.
Secondary analysis of 24 h recall diet data from the Australian Health Survey (2011–2013).
Nationally representative survey in Australia.
Male and female Australians aged 18–84 years (n 7818).
Dinner contributed the greatest proportion to total daily Na intake (33 %) and K intake (35 %). Na density was highest at lunch (380 mg/MJ) and K density highest at between-meal time eating occasions (401 mg/MJ). Between-meal time eating occasions provided 20 % of daily Na intake and 26 % of daily K intake. The major food group sources of Na were different at meal times (breads and mixed dishes) compared with between-meal times (cakes, muffins, scones, cake-type desserts). The top food group sources of K at meal times were potatoes and unprocessed meat products and dishes.
Foods which contributed to Na and K intake differed according to eating occasion. Major food sources of Na were bread and processed foods. Major food sources of K were potatoes and meat products and dishes. Public health messages that emphasise meal-based advice and diet patterns high in vegetables, fruits and unprocessed foods may also aid reduction in dietary Na intake and increase in dietary K intake.
Despite significant needs, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) make limited use of palliative care, in part because the current models of palliative care do not address their key concerns.
Our aim was to develop a tailored model of palliative care for patients with COPD and their family caregivers.
Based on information gathered within a program of studies (qualitative research exploring experiences, a cohort study examining service use), an expert advisory committee evaluated and integrated data, developed responses, formulated principles to inform care, and made recommendations for practice. The informing studies were conducted in two Australian states: Victoria and South Australia.
A series of principles underpinning the model were developed, including that it must be: (1) focused on patient and caregiver; (2) equitable, enabling access to components of palliative care for a group with significant needs; (3) accessible; and (4) less resource-intensive than expansion of usual palliative care service delivery. The recommended conceptual model was to have the following features: (a) entry to palliative care occurs routinely triggered by clinical transitions in care; (b) care is embedded in routine ambulatory respiratory care, ensuring that it is regarded as “usual” care by patients and clinicians alike; (c) the tasks include screening for physical and psychological symptoms, social and community support, provision of information, and discussions around goals and preferences for care; and (d) transition to usual palliative care services is facilitated as the patient nears death.
Significance of results:
Our proposed innovative and conceptual model for provision of palliative care requires future formal testing using rigorous mixed-methods approaches to determine if theoretical propositions translate into effectiveness, feasibility, and benefits (including economic benefits). There is reason to consider adaptation of the model for the palliative care of patients with other nonmalignant conditions.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
The provision of prescribed vitamin D to all aged-care residents has been implemented in New Zealand as part of a government-led falls prevention programme. To our knowledge, there has been no evaluation of this universal programme on vitamin D status and functional and health outcomes. Thus, we aimed to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and their predictors in aged-care residents across the country and to investigate whether the government-funded programme was associated with adequate vitamin D status.
Cross-sectional survey of sociodemographic, biochemical, anthropometric, dietary and health characteristics. Blood samples were analysed for serum 25(OH)D and other biochemical measures. Multiple regression was used to examine predictors of vitamin D status.
Sixteen residential aged-care facilities throughout New Zealand.
Residents aged ≥60 years with residency duration >12 weeks (n 309).
Mean serum 25(OH)D was 89·9 (95 % CI 85·2, 94·5) nmol/l and monthly supplements (1250 µg (50 000 IU)) were taken by 75 % of all residents. Of those not taking a funded supplement, 65·3 % had serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/l compared with only 1·5 % of supplement users. Being female, residing at lower latitude, increasing duration of aged-care residency and raised serum α1-acid glycoprotein were positively associated with higher 25(OH)D concentrations. Supplemental vitamin D from all sources was the strongest predictor, increasing serum 25(OH)D levels by more than 70 nmol/l. Furthermore, 25 % of participants had serum 25(OH)D levels >125 nmol/l.
Residents taking supplemental vitamin D had adequate vitamin D status; however monitoring of long-term supplementation should be considered, due to the high proportion of participants with high serum 25(OH)D levels.
Among populations of patients with the congenital heart disease, there is considerable diversity in the anatomy of the coronary arteries. Understanding these anatomical differences is vitally important in directing interventions and surgical repair. In this report, the authors describe the echocardiographic evaluation of the variants of coronary artery anatomy in the following lesions: transposition of the great arteries, congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, double-inlet left ventricle, common arterial trunk, tetralogy of Fallot, and double-outlet right ventricle.
This article describes a review undertaken in 2012–2013 by Nutrition and Dietetics, Flinders University, to assess the Indigenous health curriculum of the Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics (BND) and Masters of Nutrition and Dietetics (MND). An action research framework was used to guide and inform inquiry. This involved four stages, each of which provided information to reach a final decision about how to progress forward. First, relevant information was collected to present to stakeholders. This included identification of acknowledged curriculum frameworks, a review of other accredited nutrition and dietetics courses in Australia, a review of Indigenous health topics at Flinders University, including liaison with the Poche Centre for Indigenous Health and Well-Being (Indigenous health teaching and research unit), and a review of BND and MND current curriculum related to Indigenous health. Second, input was sought from stakeholders. This involved a workshop with practising dietitians and nutritionists from South Australia and the Northern Territory and discussions with Flinders University Nutrition and Dietetics academic staff. Third, a new curriculum was developed. Nine areas were identified for this curriculum, including reflexivity, approach and role, history and health status, worldview, beliefs and values, systems and structures, relationship building and communication, food and food choice, appreciating and understanding diversity, and nutrition issues and health status. Fourth, a final outcome was achieved, which was the decision to introduce a core, semester-long Indigenous health topic for BND students. A secondary outcome was strengthening of Indigenous health teaching across the BND and MND. The process and findings will be useful to other university courses looking to assess and expand their Indigenous health curriculum.
To identify and critique tools for the assessment of Ca and/or dairy intake in adults, in order to ascertain the most accurate and reliable tools available.
A systematic review of the literature was conducted using defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Articles reporting on originally developed tools or testing the reliability or validity of existing tools that measure Ca and/or dairy intake in adults were included. Author-defined criteria for reporting reliability and validity properties were applied.
Studies conducted in Western countries.
Thirty papers, utilising thirty-six tools assessing intake of dairy, Ca or both, were identified. Reliability testing was conducted on only two dairy and five Ca tools, with results indicating that only one dairy and two Ca tools were reliable. Validity testing was conducted for all but four Ca-only tools. There was high reliance in validity testing on lower-order tests such as correlation and failure to differentiate between statistical and clinically meaningful differences. Results of the validity testing suggest one dairy and five Ca tools are valid. Thus one tool was considered both reliable and valid for the assessment of dairy intake and only two tools proved reliable and valid for the assessment of Ca intake.
While several tools are reliable and valid, their application across adult populations is limited by the populations in which they were tested. These results indicate a need for tools that assess Ca and/or dairy intake in adults to be rigorously tested for reliability and validity.
Do the kinematics and mass profiles of dwarf galaxies present a fundamental challenge to standard cold dark matter (CDM) models? New, deep spectroscopy using DEIMOS on Keck for hundreds of low stellar mass (107-109 M⊙ star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.2 < z < 1) addresses this inquiry in a way that is less subject to cosmic variance and environmental bias than previous, more local work. Half of this sample reveals resolved, doppler-shifted nebular emission, used to constrain rotation curves. From these we can construct the stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation to masses as low as ~107 M⊙, and a persistent discrepancy is found between predictions from simulations and models compared to our observations. We suggest on-going and future tests that will be more effective in distinguishing between the effects of baryonic feedback and alternative models of dark matter in this remarkable regime.