To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether vehicle type based on size (car vs. other = truck/van/SUV) had an impact on the speeding, acceleration, and braking patterns of older male and female drivers (70 years and older) from a Canadian longitudinal study. The primary hypothesis was that older adults driving larger vehicles (e.g., trucks, SUVs, or vans) would be more likely to speed than those driving cars. Participants (n = 493) had a device installed in their vehicles that recorded their everyday driving. The findings suggest that the type of vehicle driven had little or no impact on per cent of time speeding or on the braking and accelerating patterns of older drivers. Given that the propensity for exceeding the speed limit was high among these older drivers, regardless of vehicle type, future research should examine what effect this behaviour has on older-driver road safety.
Experts recommend that products containing artificial sweeteners are not marketed to children or sold at schools. The present study aimed to provide a baseline assessment of the extent to which state laws and local school district wellness policies (LWP) address restrictions on the use of artificial sweeteners in competitive foods and beverages (CF&B) sold at schools.
A descriptive, cross-sectional study of policies in place for the 2014–15 school year.
Data were collected on laws in all fifty states and Washington, DC. LWP were compiled for 496/518 school food authorities (SFA) for which data were collected as part of the US Department of Agriculture’s School Nutrition and Meal Cost Study.
State laws and LWP respectively were coded on a 0–3 ordinal scale for the strength of their restrictions on artificial sweeteners in CF&B sold in each of five CF&B venues, separately by grade level. Prevalence of state laws and LWP for SFA nationwide was computed.
Thirteen states addressed the use of artificial sweeteners. Six states addressed the use of artificial sweeteners in both CF&B. District-level artificial sweetener policies were most frequently addressed for beverages in elementary schools’ vending machines. District policies also were more likely to address artificial sweeteners in states with laws addressing artificial sweeteners.
Most state laws and LWP do not address artificial sweeteners in CF&B. This is not surprising given the Food and Drug Administration has approved eight artificial sweeteners for consumption and the Smart Snacks regulation does not limit artificial sweeteners for CF&B.
Chernyak-Hai and Rabenu (2018) argue that social exchange theory (SET) should be revised to accommodate work relationships in the “new era” of work, characterized by a more diverse workforce with changing expectations for relationships between themselves and their organizational representatives. To account for the modern workplace, Chernyak-Hai and Rabenu introduce “new” or “modern exchange variables” that capture modern workplace conditions and employee characteristics or preferences, which they expect to indirectly influence whether and how employees develop high-quality work relationships with organizational representatives.
With brown adipose tissue (BAT) becoming a possible therapeutic target to counteract obesity, the prenatal environment could represent a critical window to modify BAT function and browning of white AT. We investigated if levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and UCP1-mediated thermogenesis are altered in offspring exposed to prenatal obesity. Female CD-1 mice were fed a high-fat (HF) or standard-fat (SF) diet for 3 months before breeding. After weaning, all pups were placed on SF. UCP1 mRNA and protein levels were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively, in brown (BAT), subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissues at 6 months of age. Total and UCP1-dependent mitochondrial respiration were determined by high-resolution respirometry. A Student’s t-test and Mann–Whitney test were used (significance: P<0.05). UCP1 mRNA levels were not different between the HF and SF offspring. UCP1 protein levels, total mitochondrial respiration and UCP1-dependent respiration were significantly higher in BAT from HF males (P=0.02, P=0.04, P=0.005, respectively) and females (P=0.01, P=0.04, P=0.02, respectively). In SAT, the UCP1 protein was significantly lower in HF females (P=0.03), and the UCP1-dependent thermogenesis was significantly lower from HF males (P=0.04). In VAT, UCP1 protein levels and UCP1-dependent respiration were significantly lower only in HF females (P=0.03, P=0.04, respectively). There were no differences in total respiration in SAT and VAT. Prenatal exposure to maternal obesity leads to significant increases in UCP1 levels and function in BAT in offspring with little impact on UCP1 levels and function in SAT and VAT.
The principal method adopted for the soil phosphate analysis for the Shaugh Moor project was a slightly modified version of that published by Dick and Tabatabai (1977). This method involves extraction of soil phosphate by alkaline oxidation with Sodium hypobromite (NaOBr-NaOh). It has been calculated that this process extracts about 60-70% of total phosphate from soils such as those on Shaugh Moor (Ralph, pers comm). This was considered satisfactory foe the purposes of this project.
It is thought that this method has not been used before in archaeological survey work but it is suggested that the simplicity of the technique and the relatively high level of phosphate extraction might prove of value in future work.
The accurate prediction of body composition of dairy cows is important for developing appropriate nutritional and management regimes. The objective of the present study was to develop prediction equations for empty body (EB) composition of lactating dairy cows using body weight and other live animal data.
Holstein-Friesian cattle are the predominant breed of dairy cattle in Northern Ireland. Breeding programmes for the Holstein Friesian have focused on improved milk production with little emphasis on functional traits such as fertility or disease resistance. In contrast Norwegian dairy cattle have been bred via a multi-trait selection procedure and there is evidence that problems associated with disease and fertility have tended to decrease in recent years. It is important, however, to investigate possible differences in efficiency of food use and partitioning of nutrients between the two breeds which may offset the potential advantages of improvements in secondary characteristics. Consequently, the objectives of this experiment were firstly to investigate the effects of breed type on the efficiency of utilization and partitioning of nutrients for milk production and secondly to investigate if there are differences in the energy requirement for maintenance and the efficiency of utilization of ME for lactation (kl) between the two breeds.
A number of equations for predicting methane energy output (CH4-E) in ruminants have been published since 1930. However the data used to develop these equations were collected from diets containing mainly dried or high dry matter (DM) forages, rather than low DM heavily fermented grass silages. Since 1992 a number of calorimetric studies have been carried out with growing and lactating cattle offered grass-silage based diets at the Agricultural Research Institute of Northern Ireland. The objective of the present study was to use these data to develop new relationships between CH4-E output and animal and dietary factors.
One of the cornerstones in the development of a new feed rationing system for dairy cows must involve a reappraisal of both the concepts and ‘numbers’ adopted in defining the energy requirements for dairy cows. This is particularly important in the present scenario where increasingly high levels of animal output are being achieved from very different animal genotypes to those used in UK dairying 20 - 30 years ago. One of the tasks within the Feed Into Milk (FIM) project was to develop a new system to predict the energy requirements of todays dairy cow. The objective of the present study was to collate all available energy metabolism data with dairy cows in the UK and to develop relationships for describing metabolisable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) and efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) using both existing and new methodologies.
The Feed into Milk (FIM) project in the United Kingdom has developed a Mitscherlich equation from calorimetric data for energy rationing of dairy cattle (Agnew et al., 2004). The objective of the present study was to evaluate this equation using independent data sets obtained in both calorimetric and production studies.
The current energy (E) feeding standards (AFRC, 1993) have the objective of providing accurate feeding of dairy cows when there is either zero tissue E retention or a given tissue E change. Such approaches are of limited practical value in the real world in which we must be able to predict optimum feeding levels and strategies for animals of differing milk yield potential producing in a range of physical and economic environments. In the latter context the key economic factor is how the animal responds to additional increments of feed. This is primarily driven by how the animal partitions that additional E between milk output and body tissue gain. The objective of this experiment was to use calorimetric techniques to explore the impact of level of metabolisable E (ME) intake (MEI) on milk E output (E1) and tissue E gain (Eg) and hence partitioning of increments of MEI between milk and tissues.
San Pietro and Rittenberg (1953) reported that urea appeared to meet all the requirements of a satisfactory tracer. Urea is non toxic, not foreign to the body and it shows an even and rapid distribution throughout the total body water without any physiological effect. For these reasons in addition to its easy and accurate measurement, urea is an ideal candidate tracer to estimate empty body water in vivo. Total body water volume (urea space) can be estimated by dividing the total amount of urea infused by the increase in plasma urea concentration from prior to infusion until 12 or 30 minutes after mean infusion time. Kock and Preston (1973) reported significant relationships between urea space measurements and percentage of empty body fat and water in cattle. However, Andrew et al. (1995) using 21 Holstein cows showed that prediction of empty body water using the urea space technique only explained 31 % of the variation. The objective of this experiment was to use the urea dilution technique to estimate the body composition of lactating dairy cows and produce relationships between urea space and body fat and protein content.
Anthony M. Kwasnica, Smeal College of Business, The Pennsylvania State University,
John O. Ledyard, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences, California Institute of Technology,
David P. Porter, Economic Science Institute, Chapman University,
Christine DeMartini, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences, California Institute of Technology
Theory, experiment and practice suggest that, when bidder valuations for multiple objects are super-additive, combinatorial auctions are needed to increase efficiency, seller revenue, and bidder willingness to participate (Bykowsky et al. 2000, Rassenti et al. 1982, Ledyard et al. 2002). A combinatorial auction is an auction in which bidders are allowed to express bids in terms of packages of objects. The now famous FCC spectrum auctions are a good example of the relevance of these issues. In 41 auction events from 1994 to 2003, the FCC used what is known as a Simultaneous Multiple Round (SMR) auction to allocate spectrum and raise over $40 billion in revenue. This auction format does not allow package bidding. The FCC auctions also divide the spectrum by geographic location. It is reasonable to expect that some bidders might receive extra benefits by obtaining larger, more contiguous portions of the spectrum. A firm might enjoy cost savings if they could purchase two adjacent locations. However, without package bidding, a bidder cannot express that preference, potentially lowering the efficiency and revenue of the auction. If the bidder attempts to acquire both licenses through bidding on the licenses individually, they might be forced to expose themselves to potential losses. The high number of bidder defaults on payments might, in part, be evidence of losses caused by the lack of package bidding. In response to these difficulties, the FCC plans to allow package bidding in future auctions (Federal Communications Commission 2002, Dunford et al. 2001). In particular, the FCC in its auction #31 for the upper 700 MHz band, affords bidders the ability to submit bids for packages of licenses. The particular design presented in this paper was developed prior to the FCC package auction design. Indeed one of the major features of the FCC design was clearly influenced by the pricing rules we developed herein.