To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The basal ganglia represents a key component of the pathophysiological model for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This brain region is part of several neural circuits, including the orbitofronto-striatal circuit and dorsolateral prefronto-striatal circuit. There are, however, no published studies investigating those circuits at a network level in non-medicated patients with OCD. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 20 non-medicated patients with OCD and 23 matched healthy volunteers. Voxelwise statistical parametric maps testing strength of functional connectivity of three striatal seed regions of interest (ROIs) with remaining brain regions were calculated and compared between groups. We performed additional correlation analyses between strength of connectivity and the severity scores for obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety in the OCD group. Positive functional connectivity with the ventral striatum was significantly increased (Pcorrected <.05) in the orbitofrontal cortex, ventral medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with OCD. There was no significant correlation between measures of symptom severity and the strength of connectivity (Puncorrected <.001). This is the first study to investigate the corticostriatal connectivity in non-medicated patients with OCD. These findings provide the first direct evidence supporting a pathophysiological model involving basal ganglia circuitry in OCD.
In the collapsing phase of a molecular cloud, the molecular gas temperature is a key to understand the evolutionary process from a dense molecular cloud to stars. In order to know this, mapping observations in NH3 lines are required. Therefore, we made them based on the FUGIN (FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with Nobeyama 45m telescope). The 6 maps were observed in NH3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) and H2O maser lines and obtained temperature maps; some show temperature gradient in a cloud. Additionally 72 cores were observed. These candidates were called as KAGONMA or KAG objects as abbreviation of KAgoshima Galactic Object survey with Nobeyama 45-M telescope in Ammonia lines. We show the results of two regions in W33 and discuss their astrophysical properties.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
Insufficient nutrition during the perinatal period causes structural alterations in humans and experimental animals, leading to increased vulnerability to diseases in later life. Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica, in which partial (8–10%) egg white was withdrawn (EwW) from eggs before incubation had lower birth weights than controls (CTs). EwW birds also had reduced hatching rates, smaller glomeruli and lower embryo weight. In EwW embryos, the surface condensate area containing mesenchymal cells was larger, suggesting that delayed but active nephrogenesis takes place. In mature EwW quail, the number of glomeruli in the cortical region (mm2) was significantly lower (CT 34.7±1.4, EwW 21.0±1.2); capillary loops showed focal ballooning, and mesangial areas were distinctly expanded. Immunoreactive cell junction proteins, N-cadherin and podocin, and slit diaphragms were clearly seen. With aging, the mesangial area and glomerular size continued to increase and were significantly larger in EwW quail, suggesting compensatory hypertrophy. Furthermore, apoptosis measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling analysis was higher in EwWs than in CTs on embryonic day 15 and postnatal day 4 (D4). Similarly, plasma glucocorticoid (corticosterone) was higher (P<0.01) on D4 in EwW quail. These results suggest that although nephrogenic activity is high in low-nutrition quail during the perinatal period, delayed development and increased apoptosis may result in a lower number of mature nephrons. Damaged or incompletely mature mesangium may trigger glomerular injury, leading in later life to nephrosclerosis. The present study shows that birds serve as a model for ‘fetal programming,’ which appears to have evolved phylogenetically early.
Contributions of electronic (or ligand) and geometric (or ensemble) effects on the AuM bimetallic nano-catalyst were elucidated by using a simple aerobic oxidation of 1-phenylethanol to acetophenone on the basis of difference in the ionization energy values (Ei) between Au and M elements. The poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-protected Au60M40 bimetallic NPs (M = Ag, Cu, Pd, Pt and Ir) were prepared with a polyol reduction method, and stabilized onto the solid base hydrotalcite support affording the Au60M40-PVP/HT catalysts. The yields for acetophenone were observed as the following order; Au60Pd40-PVP/HT (>99%) >> Au60Ag40-PVP/HT (17.4%) > Au60Cu40-PVP/HT (13.8%) > Au60Pt40-PVP/HT (7.1%) > Au60Ir40-PVP/HT (5.5%), at 343 K for 6 h. Differences in the Ei between Au and M (EiAu-EiM) indicted that the yields over the Ag, Cu, Pt, and Ir incorporated Au catalysts were well-understood on the ligand effects theory, though geometric factors such as differences in nanostructure around Au atom in Au60M40 NPs on HT should be further considered as other contributed factors. The significant activity on Au60Pd40-PVP/HT was studied in terms of the electron density of Pd atoms. It was observed that the Pd 4d density was varied by the amount of Au loading. According to these observations combined with our previous studies, we suggest that the advantages in AuPd bimetallic catalyst are not only in the ligand effect serving negatively-charged Au but also the ensemble effect of neighbor Pd, and they synergistically contribute to the novel activity for aerobic alcohol oxidation over AuPd catalyst.
To decrease the amount of precious metal usage for Pd-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation, various amount of Cu-contained Pd bimetallic nanoparticle-supported solid base hydrotalcite catalyst (PdxCuy-PVP/HTs) were prepared and applied for aerobic benzyl alcohol oxidation. It was found that the addition of Cu atoms into Pd in the range of 0-40% provided a similar or a little superior activity to that of Pd100-PVP catalyst, whereas a large quantity of co-existence Cu (>40%) gradually decreased their activity of the catalyst. The aerobic benzyl alcohol oxidation over Pd80Cu20-PVP/HT served 77% yield and 95% selectivity towards benzaldehyde at 313 K for 5 h in toluene under O2 flow. X-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies and scanning transmission electron microscopy-high angle annuar dark field (STEM-HAADF) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses suggested that Cu atoms doping into Pd(0) NP influenced not only localized nanostructure but also oxidation state around Pd atoms. We suggested that substitution of precious metal with small amount of transition metals such as Cu lead to geometric/electronic changes in active sites would be one of nice strategies for reducing the cost for the catalyst in the oxidation process.
We carried out theoretical calculation for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells with energy bandgap of 1.4 eV assuming formation of a Cu-poor layer on the surface of CIGS films. This calculation result revealed that formation of a thinner Cu-poor layer such as a few nanometers leads to improvement of the solar cells performance. This is because interfacial recombination was suppressed due to repelling holes from the interface by valence band offset (ΔEV). Next, we investigated composition distribution in the cross section of CIGS solar cells with Ga contents of 30% and 70% by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). It was revealed that the Cu-poor layer was formed on the surface and at the grain boundary (GB) in the case of conversion efficiency (η) of 17.3%, although it was not formed in the case of lower η of 13.8% for a Ga content of 30%. These results indicate that formation of the Cu-poor layer contributed to improvement of cell performance by suppression of carrier recombination. Moreover, it was also confirmed that although the Cu-poor layer was observed on the surface, it was not observed at the GB in the case of CIGS solar cells with a Ga content of 70% which had η of 12.7%. It is thought that the effect of repelling holes by ΔEV is not obtained at the GB and the solar cell performance in the Ga content of 70% is lower than that in the Ga content of 30%. Thus, we suggest importance of the Cu-poor layer at the GB for high efficiency of CIGS solar cells with high Ga contents.
A seroprevalence survey on measles, mumps, rubella and varicella was conducted on healthcare workers (HCWs) at Shimane University Hospital, Japan utilizing an enzyme immunoassay. Of 1811 HCWs tested, 91·8% were seropositive to measles, 92·1% to mumps, 89·5% to rubella and 96·3% to varicella. Sex-related differences in seroprevalence were found in rubella (males vs. females: 84·7 vs. 92·2%, P < 0·001). Moreover, males aged 30–39 years were most susceptible to rubella (22·4%), which may be attributed to the design of childhood immunization programmes in Japan. Individuals aged ⩽29 years were more susceptible to measles (14·3%) and mumps (10·9%), compared to other age groups. There were no significant sex- and age-related differences in varicella seroprevalence. The physician occupational group was more susceptible to rubella, but no significant occupational-related difference was observed in the other diseases. Susceptible subjects, with negative or equivocal serological results were given a vaccine which induced seroconversion in most vaccinees. Seroconversion occurred more frequently in the equivocal group than in the negative group. These findings provide a new insight for the seroprevalence survey of vaccine-preventable diseases in Japanese HCWs with special reference to vaccine efficacy.
There is an alarming rate of human African trypanosomiasis recrudescence in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, the disease has no successful chemotherapy. Trypanosoma lacks the enzymatic machinery for the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides, and is critically dependent on salvage mechanisms. Inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is responsible for the rate-limiting step in guanine nucleotide metabolism. Here, we characterize recombinant Trypanosoma brucei IMPDH (TbIMPDH) to investigate the enzymatic differences between TbIMPDH and host IMPDH. Size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity experiments reveal that TbIMPDH forms a heptamer, different from type 1 and 2 mammalian tetrameric IMPDHs. Kinetic analysis reveals calculated Km values of 30 and 1300 μm for IMP and NAD, respectively. The obtained Km value of TbIMPDH for NAD is approximately 20–200-fold higher than that of mammalian enzymes and indicative of a different NAD binding mode between trypanosomal and mammalian IMPDHs. Inhibition studies show Ki values of 3·2 μm, 21 nM and 3·3 nM for ribavirin 5′-monophosphate, mycophenolic acid and mizoribine 5′-monophosphate, respectively. Our results show that TbIMPDH is different from its mammalian counterpart and thus may be a good target for further studies on anti-trypanosomal drugs.
Flexible devices utilizing crystalline semiconductor nano or microstructures materials are attractive for many applications. However, these materials are fabricated or grown in unusable forms for flexible systems due to their rigid crystalline mother substrates. We demonstrate a transfer printing technique for transferring vertical arrays of one-dimensional (1D) materials from mother substrates to flexible substrates with subsequent device fabrication steps to create flexible devices from these arrays. The transfer printing technique is based on vertical embossing of arrays of 1D materials into thermoplastic (Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)) transfer layers, while the device fabrication steps rely on encapsulation with insulating polymers and contact deposition. We investigated the use of flexible insulating layers like polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyurethane (PU) which are shown to be effective for encapsulation and contact isolation. Representative flexible resistive devices were created from these transferred arrays and insulating layers which showed a reversible tactile characteristic. Electronic characterization and flexibility testing was carried out to show the potential of these methods for enabling large-scale integrations of nano and microstructures into vertical and flexible packages.
Corrosion behavior is a key issue for the waste disposal of irradiated metals, such as hulls and endpieces, and is considered to be a leaching source of radionuclides including C-14. However, little information about Zircaloy corrosion in anticorrosive conditions has been provided.
In the present study, long-term corrosion tests of Zircaloy-4 and Zircaloy-2 were performed in assumed disposal conditions (dilute NaOH solution, pH 12.5, 303 K) by using the gas flow system for 1500 days. The corrosion rate, which was determined by measuring gaseous hydrogen and the hydrogen absorbed in Zircaloy, decreased with immersion time and was lower than the value of 2×10−2 μm/y used in performance assessment (1500-day values: 5.84×10−3 and 5.66×10−3 μm/y for Zircaloy-4, 1000-day values: 8.81×10−3 μm/y for Zircaloy-2). The difference in corrosion behavior between Zircaloy 4 and Zircaloy-2 was negligible. The average values of the hydrogen absorption ratios for Zircaloy-4 and Zircaloy-2 during corrosion were 91% and 94%, respectively.
The hydrogen generation kinetics of both gas evolution and absorption into metal can be shown by a parabolic curve. This result indicates that the diffusion process controls the Zircaloy corrosion in the early corrosion stage of the present study, and that the thickness of the oxide film in this stage is limited to approximately 25 nm and may therefore be in the form of dense tetragonal zirconia.
NEWAGE is a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment with a gaseous
time-projection chamber. We improved the direction-sensitive dark matter limits by our
underground measurement. In this paper, R&D activities sinse the first underground
measurement are described.
We have investigated the revival of a shock wave by nuclear burning reactions at the central region of core-collapse supernovae. For this purpose, we performed hydrodynamic simulations of core collapse and bounce for 15 M⊙ progenitor model, using ZEUS-MP code in axi-symmetric coordinates. Our numerical code is equipped with a simple nuclear reaction network including 13 α nuclei form 4He to 56Ni, and accounting for energy feedback from nuclear reactions as well as neutrino heating and cooling. We found that the energy released by nuclear reactions is significantly helpful in accelerating shock waves and is able to produce energetic explosion even if the input neutrino luminosity is low.
Eight strains of influenza C virus isolated in various areas of Japan between January 1985 and January 1989 were compared using monoclonal antibodies to the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) glycoproteins and by oligonucleotide mapping of total vRNA. Five of six strains isolated during 1986–9 were closely related to one another and also resembled the virus, C/Aichi/1/81, isolated in 1981 in Aichi prefecture. This suggests that the C/Aichi/l/81-related viruses had an epidemiological advantage over any co-circulating viruses at least during that period. One of two 1985 isolates (C/Nara/1/85) was antigenically indistinguishable from the C/Mississippi/1/80 strain though their oligonucleotide patterns were markedly different from each other. This raises the possibility that C/Nara/1/85 may be a recombinant virus which receives its HE gene from the C/Mississippi/l/80-related parent.
Directional information should play a significant role
for a firm detection of the galactic dark matter.
We developed a prototype three-dimensional gaseous tracking device
for a direction-sensitive dark matter direct detection.
We investigated the performance of the prototype detector and demonstrated
a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment in a
We set the first limit
on the spin-dependent WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles)-proton cross s
ection by a direction-sensitive method.
We analyze a main scheme for the suppression of GeO desorption by the high pressure oxidation which drastically improve the electrical quality of Ge/GeO2 capacitors. The inherent driving force for GeO to form at the Ge/GeO2 interface and to diffuse toward the GeO2 surface was realized by the concentration gradient in the GeO2 film, which was obtained from the thermodynamic calculation. Kinetic consideration based on the comparison with Si/SiO2 stacks suggests that GeO desorption at the GeO2 surface is the rate-limiting process under passive oxidation conditions. When O2 pressure is increased by high pressure oxidation, the vapor pressure of GeO at the GeO2 surface is reduced, restricting GeO desorption at the GeO2 surface.
Field surveys of supraglacial ponds on debris-covered glaciers in the Nepal Himalaya clarify that ice-cliff calving occurs when the fetch exceeds ∼80 m. Thermal undercutting is important for calving processes in glacial lakes, and subaqueous ice melt rates during the melt and freeze seasons are therefore estimated under simple geomorphologic conditions. In particular, we focus on the differences between valley wind-driven water currents in various fetches during the melt season. Our results demonstrate that the subaqueous ice melt rate exceeds the ice-cliff melt rate when the fetch is >20 m and water temperature is 2–4°C. Calculations suggest the onset of calving due to thermal undercutting is controlled by water currents driven by winds at the surface of the lake, which develop with expanding water surface.
Composite film of carbon nanotube (CNT) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was formed with despersion fluid of CNT and PTFE. The film showed high electrical conductivity in the range of 5-13S/cm. This conductive film was applied on the stainless steel bipolar plate for the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as anticorrosion film. This coating decreased the contact resistance between the surface of bipolar plate and the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of the PEMFC. Therefore, the output power of the fuel cell was increased by 1.6 times.
This paper deals with a lithium/tin combined target to increase the conversion efficiency of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) of 13.5 nm emission from laser-produced plasma. The bilayer target of glass/lithium (20 nm)/tin (50 nm) exhibits a sharp and strong emission in comparison with a Sn bulk target. The reverse coating of glass/tin/lithium was unstable and EUV could not be observed. By using nano-porous SnO2 and an electrochemical deposition of lithium, nano-structured lithium/tin composite was prepared, and was stable without deliquescence of lithium.