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Measurements and numerical simulations of snow-particle saltation

  • K. Nishimura (a1), K. Sugiura (a1), M. Nemoto (a1) and N. Maeno (a1)

Abstract

First, wind-tunnel experiments were carried out to measure the trajectories of saltating snow particles with varying friction velocity. Trajectories of saltating particles were recorded by a video system with a laser sheet and trajectory statistics, such as ejection and impact velocities and angles, were obtained for each particle. Parabolic trajectories are considerably elongated with an increase in the friction velocity; impact angle was approximately the same but ejection angle decreased with increasing friction velocity. Furthermore, it should be noted that the gradient of flux decay with height decreased with friction velocity. In the experiments, a snow-particle counter, which can sense not only the number of particles but also their diameters, was introduced. The flux distribution and the transport rate obtained as a function of the particle size gave a new insight into the relationship with the friction velocity.

Trajectories of saltating grains were computed, using the measurements of the initial ejection velocities, angles and the mean velocity profile of the air. The results agreed reasonably with our measurements. Using the measured probability distribution of the ejection velocities, an ensemble of trajectories was computed and thence the vertical profiles of stream-wise fluxes. The exponential decay of the flux on height was obtained in all cases and it supports the basic validity of the model, although agreement is less than expected.

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References

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