1.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US) (CDC) (2016) Monitoring Selected National HIV Prevention and Care Objectives by Using HIV Surveillance Data—United States and 6 Dependent Areas, 2014. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 21. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/library/reports/hiv-surveillance.html (Accessed 27 July 2017).
2.Roberts, H, et al. (2016) Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in U.S. households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988–2012. Hepatology 63, 388–397.
3.Edlin, BR, et al. (2015) Toward a more accurate estimate of the prevalence of hepatitis C in the United States. Hepatology 62, 1353–1363.
4.Spradling, PR, et al. (2016) Infrequent clinical assessment of chronic hepatitis B patients in United States general healthcare settings. Clinical Infectious Diseases 63, 1205–1208.
5.Yehia, BR, et al. (2014) The treatment cascade for chronic hepatitis C virus infection in the United States: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 9, e101554.
6.Hall, HI, et al. (2015) Prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed HIV infection—United States, 2008–2012. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 64, 657–662.
7.Asselah, T and Marcellin, P (2013) Long-term results of treatment with nucleoside and nucleotide analogues (entecavir and tenofovir) for chronic hepatitis B. Clinics in Liver Disease 17, 445–450.
8.Cramp, ME, et al. (2014) Modelling the impact of improving screening and treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection on future hepatocellular carcinoma rates and liver-related mortality. BMC Gastroenterology 14, 137.
9.Montaner, JS, et al. (2014) Expansion of HAART coverage is associated with sustained decreases in HIV/AIDS morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission: the ‘HIV treatment as prevention’ experience in a Canadian setting. PLoS ONE 9, e87872.
10.Thio, CL (2009) Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. Hepatology 49(Suppl. 5), S138–S145.
11.Hua, L, et al. (2013) Hepatitis C virus/HIV coinfection and responses to initial antiretroviral treatment. Aids (London, England) 27, 2725–2734.
12.Hernando, V, et al. (2013) All-cause mortality in the cohorts of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (RIS) compared with the general population: 1997–2010. BMC Infectious Diseases 13, 382.
14.Colin, JF, et al. (1999) Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection on chronic hepatitis B in homosexual men. Hepatology 29, 1306–1310.
15.Hoffmann, CJ, et al. (2009) Hepatitis B and long-term HIV outcomes in coinfected HAART recipients. Aids (London, England) 23, 1881–1889.
16.Taylor, LE, Swan, T and Mayer, KH (2012) HIV coinfection with hepatitis C virus: evolving epidemiology and treatment paradigms. Clinical Infectious Diseases 55(Suppl. 1), S33–S42.
17.Operskalski, EA and Kovacs, A (2011) HIV/HCV co-infection: pathogenesis, clinical complications, treatment, and new therapeutic technologies. Current HIV/AIDS Reports 8, 12–22.
18.Konopnicki, D, et al. (2005) Hepatitis B and HIV: prevalence, AIDS progression, response to highly active antiretroviral therapy and increased mortality in the EuroSIDA cohort. Aids (London, England) 19, 593–601.
19.Thein, HH, et al. (2008) Natural history of hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected individuals and the impact of HIV in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a meta-analysis. Aids (London, England) 22, 1979–1991.
20.Teira, R, VACH Study Group (2013) Hepatitis-B virus infection predicts mortality of HIV and hepatitis C virus coinfected patients. Aids (London, England) 27, 845–848.
21.Adekoya, N, et al. (2015) Incidence of notifiable diseases among American Indians/Alaska natives—United States, 2007–2011. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 64, 16–19.
23.Sanchez, MA, et al. (2014) Epidemiology of the viral hepatitis-HIV syndemic in San Francisco: a collaborative surveillance approach. Public Health Reports 129(Suppl. 1), 95–101.
24.Speers, S, et al. (2011) Electronic matching of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C surveillance registries in three states. Public Health Reports 126, 344–348.
25.Butt, ZA, et al. (2013) Hepatitis B and C co-infection in HIV/AIDS population in the state of Michigan. Epidemiology and Infection 141, 2604–2611.
26.Drobnik, A, et al. (2014) Matching HIV, tuberculosis, viral hepatitis, and sexually transmitted diseases surveillance data, 2000–2010: identification of infectious disease syndemics in New York City. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 20, 506–512.
27.Prussing, C, et al. (2015) HIV and viral hepatitis co-infection in New York City, 2000–2010: prevalence and case characteristics. Epidemiology and Infection 143, 1408–1416.
28.Van Handel, MM, et al. (2016) County-level vulnerability assessment for rapid dissemination of HIV or HCV infections among persons who inject drugs, United States. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 73, 323–331.
29.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US) (CDC) (2017) National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) Surveillance Case Definitions. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC. Available at https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/case-definitions.html (Accessed 27 July 2017).
31.Atkins, M and Nolan, M (2005) Sexual transmission of hepatitis B. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 18, 67–72.
32.Suryaprasad, AG, et al. (2014) Emerging epidemic of hepatitis C virus infections among young nonurban persons who inject drugs in the United States, 2006–2012. Clinical Infectious Diseases 59, 1411–1419.
33.Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents: Recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 2017. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, AIDSinfo; 2017. http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/adult_oi.pdf (Accessed 27 July 2017).
35.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US) (CDC) (2013) Completeness of reporting of chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections—Michigan, 1995–2008. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 62, 99–102.
37.Purcell, DW, McCray, E and Mermin, J (2016) The shift to high-impact HIV prevention by health departments in the United States. Public Health Reports 131, 7–10.