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Wind-Tunnel Experiments on Blowing Snow

  • N. Maeno (a1), R. Naruse (a1), K. Nishimura (a1), I. Takei (a1), T. Ebinuma (a1), S. Kobayabhi (a2), H. Nlshlmura (a3), Y. Kaneda (a4) and T. Ishida (a5)...

Abstract

Blowing snow was produced artificially in a cold wind-tunnel, and various measurements were conducted including particle diameters, concentrations, saltation lengths heat transport and electric charge. The mean diameter of blowing snow particles decreased only slightly with increasing height; in the saltation layer, standard deviation was large and velocities were scattered in a wide range, suggesting the complex dynamic process on taking-off. The mean saltation length ranged from a few cm to 40 cm increasing with wind velocity.

When wind blew without snow drifting, the static air pressure on the snow surface was smaller at higher levels, the vertical pressure gradient being negative. The pressure gradient became positive when blowing snow was initiated eg +9.6 Pa/m at 11.2 m/s and -8.3 °C. The magnitude of à downward force acting on a saltating snow partice caused by the pressure gradient was not large enough to explain the downward acceleration found from photographic analyses of particle trajectories.

Blowing snow particles were charged negatively the magnitude of charge increased with lowering temperature. Increase in vertical heat transfer was found in blowing snow by measuring the temperature of the air at various levels; the increase is reflected on that in the apparent turbulent diffusion coefficient.

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Copyright

References

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Araoka, K, Maeno, N 1981 Dynamical behaviors of snow particles in the saltation layer. Memoirs of National institute of Polar Research 19: 253-263
Bagnold, R A 1936 The movement of desert sand. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A157-594-620
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Kawamura, R 1951 [Study of sand movement by wind.] Report of Technical Research Institute (Tokyo University) 5: 95-112 (in Japanese)
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Maeno, N, Araoka, K, Nishimura, K, Kaneda, Y 1979 Physical aspects of the wind-snow interaction in blowing snow. Journal of Faculty of Science (Hokkaido University) VII 6(1): 127-141
Maeno, N, Nishimura, K, Kaneda, Y 1980 Viscosity and heat transfer in fluidized snow. Journal of Glaciology 26(94): 263-274
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Wishart, E R 1968 Electrification of Antarctic drifting snow. In Gow, A J and others (eds) Proceedings of International Symposium on Antarctic Glaciological Exploration Hanover: 316-324

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