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We consider a panel cointegration model with latent group structures that allows for heterogeneous long-run relationships across groups. We extend Su, Shi, and Phillips (2016, Econometrica 84(6), 2215–2264) classifier-Lasso (C-Lasso) method to the nonstationary panels and allow for the presence of endogeneity in both the stationary and nonstationary regressors in the model. In addition, we allow the dimension of the stationary regressors to diverge with the sample size. We show that we can identify the individuals’ group membership and estimate the group-specific long-run cointegrated relationships simultaneously. We demonstrate the desirable property of uniform classification consistency and the oracle properties of both the C-Lasso estimators and their post-Lasso versions. The special case of dynamic penalized least squares is also studied. Simulations show superb finite sample performance in both classification and estimation. In an empirical application, we study the potential heterogeneous behavior in testing the validity of long-run purchasing power parity (PPP) hypothesis in the post–Bretton Woods period from 1975–2014 covering 99 countries. We identify two groups in the period 1975–1998 and three groups in the period 1999–2014. The results confirm that at least some countries favor the long-run PPP hypothesis in the post–Bretton Woods period.
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations contain various errors, the separation and measurement of which is a popular research topic. Multipath effect on code measurements is investigated through the multipath combination, but carrier multipath error is small, and it is difficult to distinguish from other errors, such as hardware delay, carrier noise and satellite inherent biases. However, as the number of frequency points increases during the rapid development of GNSSs, it is possible to analyse the abovementioned errors in detail. Triple-frequency combination can be used to eliminate the first order ionospheric error, and a quad-frequency combination has one degree of freedom, which may be used to minimise carrier error effects. For this reason, an optimum method has been developed for multi-frequency GNSS code-multipath combination measurements, which has been verified by exploiting BeiDou System (BDS), three frequency data from an International GNSS Service (IGS) station and a city canyon as well as actual sampled quad-frequency data. By comparative analysis, we found that the fluctuations of an optimum triple-frequency combination are smaller than that of the non-optimum combination, which decreases the influence of inherent errors and biases on carrier phase. At the same time, second-order ionospheric error can be effectively eliminated as well. This provides a new code-multipath combination measurement optimisation methodology for future multi-frequency BDS and other GNSSs.
Nutrition therapy is considered an important treatment of burn patients. The aim of the study was to delineate the nutritional support in severe burn patients and to investigate association between nutritional practice and clinical outcomes. Severe burn patients were enrolled (n 100). In 90 % of the cases, the burn injury covered above 70 % of the total body surface area. Mean interval from injury to nutrition start was 2·4 (sd 1·1) d. Sixty-seven patients were initiated with enteral nutrition (EN) with a median time of 1 d from injury to first feed. Twenty-two patients began with parenteral nutrition (PN). During the study, thirty-two patients developed EN intolerance. Patients received an average of about 70 % of prescribed energy and protein. Patients with EN providing <30 % energy had significantly higher 28- d and in-hospital mortality than patients with EN providing more than 30 % of energy. Mortality at 28 d was 11 % and in-hospital mortality was 45 %. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that EN providing <30 % energy and septic shock were independent risk factors for 28- d prognosis. EN could be initiated early in severe burn patients. Majority patients needed PN supplementation for energy requirement and EN feeding intolerance. Post-pyloric feeding is more efficient than gastric feeding in EN tolerance and energy supplement. It is difficult for severe burn patients to obtain enough feeding, especially in the early stage of the disease. More than 2 weeks of underfeeding is harmful to recovery.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
In this paper, a 3 dB H-plane substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) power divider/combiner with improved isolation is reported. By adding two isolated ports into the Y-junction, it will perform like a multi-port coupler, so that the isolation between its dividing ports can be effectively improved as the newly-added ports are properly matched. To verify the availability and effectiveness of this concept, two prototypes, one is terminated by coaxial terminations and the other is loaded with lumped resistors, are developed. Their measured results are separately in good agreement with their corresponding simulations. Meanwhile, isolations better than 16 dB with fractional bandwidth (FBW) of 35 and 25% are achieved, respectively, as well as low phase and amplitude imbalances. Compared with some reported similar SIW power dividers, the proposed ones exhibit wider FBW with similar isolation, insertion loss, phase, and amplitude balance performance.
The motion of a free-moving plate atop turbulent thermal convection exhibits diverse dynamics that displays characteristics of both deterministic and chaotic motions. Early experiments performed by Zhong & Zhang (Phys. Rev. E, vol. 75 (5), 2007, 055301) found an oscillatory and a trapped state existing for a plate floating on convective fluid in a rectangular tank. They proposed a piecewise smooth physical model (ZZ model) that successfully captures this transition of states. However, their model was deterministic and therefore could not describe the stochastic behaviours. In this study, we combine the ZZ model with a novel approach that models the stochastic aspects through a variational inequality structure. With the powerful mathematical tools for stochastic variational inequalities, the properties of the Markov process and corresponding Kolmogorov equations could be studied both numerically and analytically. Moreover, this framework also allows one to compute the transition probabilities. Our present work captures the stochastic aspects of the two aforementioned boundary–fluid coupling states, predicts the stochastic behaviours and shows excellent qualitative and quantitative agreements with the experimental data.
Dilated Cardiomyopathy is a serious heart disorder that may induce sudden cardiac death and heart failure. Significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of dilated cardiomyopathy. In previous studies, mutations in more than fifty genes have been identified in dilated cardiomyopathy patients. The purpose of this study was to detect the genetic lesion in a family from the central south of China affected by severe dilated cardiomyopathy.
Whole-exome sequencing combined with cardiomyopathy-related genes list were used to analyse the mutations of the proband. Co-segregation analysis was performed by Sanger sequencing.
Results and conclusions
Two novel heterozygous mutations – Myosin Binding Protein C: p.L1014RfsX6 and Titin: p.R9793X – were identified in the proband. The deletion mutation c.3041delT/p.L1014RfsX6 caused a premature stop codon at position 1020 in exon 28 of the Myosin Binding Protein C. The nonsense mutation, c.29377 C>T/ p. R9793X, of Titin was located in the highly evolutionarily conserved domain, resulting in truncation of the Titin protein as well. Co-segregation analysis further revealed that the Myosin Binding Protein C mutation came from his mother and the Titin mutation came from his father. Both mutations are reported in dilated cardiomyopathy patients for the first time. Our study not only provides a unique example of the genes and molecular mechanisms involved in dilated cardiomyopathy but also expands the spectrum of Myosin Binding Protein C and Titin mutations and contributes to the genetic diagnosis and counselling of dilated cardiomyopathy patients.
This paper presents new water-soluble bio-polyelectrolyte-based nanoparticles, formed from lanthanide-induced polysaccharide aggregates (LIPAs). These new nano-aggregates are formed by coordinating a photoluminescent lanthanide–ligand complex to a single polyelectrolyte [i.e. polyanionic hyaluronic acid (HA)] or to two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes [i.e. HA and polycationic chitosan (CHI)]. We demonstrate that photoluminescent Eu3+–ligand complexes, which are dispersed homogeneously in aqueous solution by the association with water-soluble HA. The polysaccharide supermolecular assembly can be tuned to obtain nanoparticles of different sizes and surface charges. The preparation of stable and water-soluble lanthanide complexes via Eu3+–LIPAs opens opportunities for use of luminescent lanthanides in aqueous environments, for biosensing and bioimaging applications.
In this paper, zircon U–Pb geochronology, major and trace elements, and Sr–Nd isotope geochemistry of the Baiyanghe dolerites in northern West Junggar of NW China are presented. The U–Pb dating of zircons from the dolerites yielded ages of 272.2±4 Ma and 276.7±6.2 Ma, which indicate the emplacement times. The dolerites are characterized by minor variations in SiO2 (46.89 to 49.07 wt%), high contents of Al2O3 (13.60 to 13.92 wt%) and total Fe2O3 (11.14 to 11.70 wt%), and low contents of MgO (2.67 to 3.64 wt%) and total alkalis (Na2O+K2O, 5.1 to 5.97 wt%, K2O/Na2O = 0.37–0.94), which indicate affinities to metaluminous tholeiite basalt. The REE pattern ((La/Sm)N = 2.25–2.34, (La/Yb)N = 7.42–8.36), V–Ti/1000 and 50*Zr–Ti/50–Sm discrimination diagrams show that these rocks are OIB-type. The high contents of Zr and Ti indicate a within-plate tectonic setting, and samples plot in the ‘plume source’ field shown on the Dy/Yb(N) versus Ce/Yb(N) diagram. The positive εNd(t) values (+7.09 to +7.48), high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70442 to 0.70682) and depletions of Nb and Ta elements in the samples can be explained by the involvement of subducted sediments. In summary, it is possible that the Baiyanghe dolerites were derived from an OIB-like mantle source and associated with a mantle plume tectonic setting. Therefore, our samples provide the youngest evidence for the existence of a mantle plume, which may provide new insights into the Late Palaeozoic tectonic setting of West Junggar.
SCN5A encodes sodium-channel α-subunit Nav1.5. The mutations of SCN5A can lead to hereditary cardiac arrhythmias such as the long-QT syndrome type 3 and Brugada syndrome. Here we sought to identify novel mutations in a family with arrhythmia.
Genomic DNA was isolated from blood of the proband, who was diagnosed with atrial flutter. Illumina Hiseq 2000 whole-exome sequencing was performed and an arrhythmia-related gene-filtering strategy was used to analyse the pathogenic genes. Sanger sequencing was applied to verify the mutation co-segregated in the family.
Results and conclusions
A novel missense mutation in SCN5A (C335R) was identified, and this mutation co-segregated within the affected family members. This missense mutation was predicted to result in amplitude reduction in peak Na+ current, further leading to channel protein dysfunction. Our study expands the spectrum of SCN5A mutations and contributes to genetic counselling of families with arrhythmia.
Knotless barbed sutures can eliminate knot tying during the bariatric surgery (BS) (1). Since effects reported by patients and surgeons are ambiguous, the aim of this study was to establish the safety and efficacy of barbed sutures for intestinal sutures to close the gastrojejunal anastomosis in obese patients undergoing BS.
PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Register of Clinical Studies, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies comparing barbed sutures with conventional sutures in BS (until 30 June 2016). Quality assessment was conducted using to Cochrane recommendations. Review Manager was applied to analyze the data, and we sequentially omitted each study to perform sensitivity analyses.
A total of five cohort studies (low to moderate risk of bias) (n = 859), and no RCTs provided eligible patients. BS includes laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Comparing to conventional sutures, pooling data showed that suture time (Mean Difference, MD = -5.73, 95 percent Confidence Interval, CI -6.25 to -5.21, P < .01) and operative time (MD = - 7.67, 95 percent CI -10.49 to -4.85, P < .01) decreased significantly in the barbed group. Although the postoperative complications did not suggest significant changes (Odds Ratio, OR = 1.56, 95 percent CI .79 to 3.07, P = .2), the pooling results of hospital stay suggested that a significantly longer duration happened in the barbed groups, despite the fact that there may be only 0.18 day longer. (MD =0.18, 95 percent CI .06 to .29, P = .003).
The barbed suture is an effective and safe surgical technique in BS. More evidence with randomized design, larger sample sizes and longer follow up need to compel validations of this state-of-the-art product in the future (2,3).
Knotless barbed sutures can eliminate knot tying when patients are undergoing cosmetic surgery (CS). Although benefits reported on clinical outcomes are obvious, many studies have failed to demonstrate the potential for barbed sutures to mitigate adverse events. Thus, this study aimed to determine the safety of knotless barbed suture in CS.
PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Register of Clinical Studies, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies comparing barbed sutures with conventional sutures in CS (until 30 June 2016). Quality assessment was conducted using Cochrane recommendations. Review Manager was applied to analyze the data, and we sequentially omitted each study to perform sensitivity analyses.
A total of five RCTs (low to moderate risk of bias) and six cohort studies (low to moderate risk of bias), proved eligible (3,481 patients). The CS included body contouring operations, breast reconstruction, lipoabdominoplasty, abdominoplasty and wound closure of cesarean delivery. Comparing to conventional sutures, pooling data showed that general adverse events of barbed sutures were not significantly different (Odds Ratio, OR = .6, 95 percent Confidence Interval, CI .24 to 1.52, P = .28), while the subgroup analysis showed that fewer adverse events occurred in cohort studies, though with high heterogeneity (I2 = 87 percent). Specifically, no significant differences were shown between barbed and traditional sutures in wound dehiscence (OR = .55, 95 percent CI .29 to 1.03, P = .06), incisional infection (OR = .56, 95 percent CI .22 to 1.48, P = .25), seroma (OR = .87, 95 percent CI .42 to 1.79, P = .70) and hematoma (OR = 1.52, 95 percent CI .29 to 7.99, P = .62).
No differences were found between knotless barbed sutures and conventional sutures generally, but the cohort studies suggested barbed sutures resulted in fewer adverse events with longer follow-up. Thus barbed sutures are considered a safe surgical technique in CS. More evidence with larger sample sizes and longer follow up are needed to confirm the advantages of this technique in the future.
In the present work, the evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of high-strength low-alloy D6AC steel containing the Ce element was synthetically investigated by means of electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscope, Transmission electron microscope, and tensile and impact tests. The experimental results show that adding a certain amount of Ce into HSLA-D6AC steel can refine grains and martensite laths, as well as increase the fine VC precipitates, which not only enhance the strength of the steel but also improve the toughness and plasticity. Meanwhile, the morphology of martensite in HSLA-D6AC steel changes from twin martensite to dislocation martensite. It is found that after adding Ce, HSLA-D6AC steel exhibits a distinct necking stage in the tensile test, and the impact toughness value increases from 83 to 136 J. With the appearance of some more and deeper homogeneous dimples, the quasi-cleavage fracture transforms into a ductile fracture characterized by microvoid coalescence, demonstrating that HSLA-D6AC steel with the Ce element achieves excellent comprehensive mechanical properties.
Kawasaki disease, which is characterised by systemic vasculitides accompanied by acute fever, is regularly treated by intravenous immunoglobulin to avoid lesion formation in the coronary artery; however, the mechanism of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is unclear. Hence, we aimed to analyse the global expression profile of serum exosomal proteins before and after administering intravenous immunoglobulin.
Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the differentially expressed proteome of serum exosomes in patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.
Our analysis revealed 69 differential protein spots in the Kawasaki disease group with changes larger than 1.5-fold and 59 differential ones in patients after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy compared with the control group. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the acute-phase response disappeared, the functions of the complement system and innate immune response were enhanced, and the antibacterial humoral response pathway of corticosteroids and cardioprotection emerged after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin. Further, we showed that complement C3 and apolipoprotein A-IV levels increased before and decreased after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and that the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit displayed reverse alteration before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. These observations might be potential indicators of intravenous immunoglobulin function.
Our results show the differential proteomic profile of serum exosomes of patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, such as complement C3, apolipoprotein A-IV, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit. These results may be useful in the identification of markers for monitoring intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease.
Blue-ice areas (BIAs) and their geographical distribution in Antarctica were mapped using Landsat-7 ETM+ images with 15 m spatial resolution obtained during the 1999–2003 austral summers and covering the area north of 82.5° S, and a snow grain-size image of the MODIS-based Mosaic of Antarctica (MOA) dataset with 125 m grid spacing acquired during the 2003/04 austral summer from 82.5°S to the South Pole. A map of BIAs was created with algorithms of thresholds based on band ratio and reflectance for ETM+ data and thresholds based on snow grain size for the MOA dataset. The underlying principle is that blue ice can be separated from snow or rock by their spectral discrepancies and by different grain sizes of snow and ice. We estimate the total area of BIAs in Antarctica during the data acquisition period is 234 549 km2, or 1.67% of the area of the continent. Blue ice is scattered widely over the continent but is generally located in coastal or mountainous regions. The BIA dataset presented in this study is the first map covering the entire Antarctic continent sourced solely from ETM+ and MODIS data. This dataset can potentially benefit other studies in glaciology, meteorology, climatology and paleoclimate, meteorite collection and airstrip site selection.
In this work, the high-performance silicon carbide particle SiCp[carbon nanotube (CNT)] hybrid reinforcement is currently explored to develop the advanced metal matrix composites. 17 wt% SiCp(CNT)/Al composites were fabricated by a powder metallurgy technique, in which SiCp(CNT) hybrid reinforcement with various CNT contents (e.g., 3, 6 and 9 wt%) were applied. Effects of CNT content on the morphology of SiCp(CNT) hybrid reinforcement, the microstructural characteristics, and the tensile mechanical behavior of SiCp(CNT)/Al composites were studied as well. Especially, the SiCp(CNT)/Al composites with 6 wt% CNT in SiCp(CNT) hybrid reinforcement exhibited the most significant enhancing effects in the elastic modulus and tensile strength. Meanwhile, the SiCp(CNT)/Al composites produced a synergistic strengthening effect of SiCp and CNT compared to SiCp/Al composites, while the SiCp(CNT)/Al composites with high CNT content in SiCp(CNT) hybrid reinforcement provided weak improvement in the tensile strength and ductility due to the forming agglomeration of CNT in the matrix.
A two-dimensional energy balance model (EBM) with a seasonal cycle and a realistic land–ocean distribution is used to study climate sensitivity and the properties of equilibrium climate states. The land–ocean distribution is represented by the heat capacity of the surface. The horizontal heat flux is parameterized by diffusion. Nonlinearity is introduced into the model by the albedo–temperature feedback. A multi-grid finite difference method is used to solve the model equation. This method shows great advantages compared to other numerical methods.
The sensitivity of snow cover to changes in the solar constant is examined. It is found that the climate is more sensitive in summer due to a more effective albedo–temperature feedback. The local annual mean temperature and the amplitude of the seasonal cycle depend on the land–ocean distribution. Because Eurasia has the largest annual cycle of temperature and is the coldest in winter, winter snow appears first in Eurasia as the solar constant is reduced. Wintertime snow appears next in Greenland because of its low annual mean temperature and last in North America. Perennial snow cover appears first in Greenland because of the low annual mean temperature and the small annual cycle, and next appears in North America. Perennial snow in Eurasia appears only when the solar constant is reduced to a very low value, since the Eurasian land mass is too hot in summer for perennial snow cover. The sensitivity of the model climate to changes in the orbital parameters is also investigated and discussed.
Small polar ice caps in one-dimensional mean-annual EBMs are unstable to small perturbations. The ice caps either vanish or grow to a stable finite size. This phenomenon, referred to as the small ice-cap instability (SICI), is a consequence of the multiple stable equilibrium states in one-dimensional models. The SICI may be related to glacial–interglacial transitions. However, numerical results with the two-dimensional EBM demonstrate that the existence of the SICI depends on the land–ocean distribution. The SICI exists in the southern hemisphere, but not in the northern hemisphere. This casts doubt on the role of the SICI in northern hemisphere glaciations. Experiments with a one-dimensional seasonal EBM with simplified geography have been made to analyze the two-dimensional results. Mechanisms for the existence of the SICI in seasonal EBMs are discussed.