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Genetic predispositions play an important role in the development of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Understanding the mechanisms through which genetic risk unfolds to influence these developmental outcomes is critical for developing prevention and intervention efforts, capturing key elements of Irv's research agenda and scientific legacy. In this study, we examined the role of parenting and personality in mediating the effect of genetic risk on adolescents’ major depressive disorder and conduct disorder symptoms. Longitudinal data were drawn from a sample of 709 European American adolescents and their mothers from the Collaborative Studies on Genetics of Alcoholism. Results from multivariate path analysis indicated that adolescents’ depressive symptoms genome-wide polygenic scores (DS_GPS) predicted lower parental knowledge, which in turn was associated with more subsequent major depressive disorder and conduct disorder symptoms. Adolescents’ DS_GPS also had indirect effects on these outcomes via personality, with a mediating effect via agreeableness but not via other dimensions of personality. Findings revealed that the pattern of associations was similar across adolescent gender. Our findings emphasize the important role of evocative gene–environment correlation processes and intermediate phenotypes in the pathways of risk from genetic predispositions to complex adolescent outcomes.
Using a large and nationally representative sample, we examined how adolescents’ 5-HTTLPR genotype and perceived parenting quality independently and interactively associated with trajectories of alcohol use from early adolescence to young adulthood and whether/how gender may moderate these associations. The sample for this study included 13,749 adolescents (53.3% female; 56.3% non-Hispanic White, 21.5% Black, 16.0% Hispanic, and 6.1% Asian) followed prospectively from adolescence to young adulthood. Using growth mixture modeling, we identified four distinct trajectories of alcohol use (i.e., persistent heavy alcohol use, developmentally limited alcohol use, late-onset heavy alcohol use, and non/light alcohol use). Results indicated that the short allele of 5-HTTLPR was associated with higher risk of membership in the persistent and the late-onset heavy alcohol use trajectories. Parenting quality was associated with lower likelihoods of following the persistent heavy and the developmentally limited alcohol use trajectories but was not associated with risk of membership for the late-onset heavy drinking trajectory. 5-HTTLPR interacted with parenting quality to predict membership in the persistent heavy alcohol use trajectory for males but not for females. Findings highlighted the importance of considering the heterogeneity in trajectories of alcohol use across development and gender in the study of Gene Environment interactions in alcohol use.
In our attempt to investigate the basic active galactic nucleus (AGN) paradigm requiring a centrally located supermassive black hole (SMBH), a close to Keplerian accretion disk and a jet perpendicular to its plane, we have searched for radio continuum in galaxies with H2O megamasers in their disks. We observed 18 such galaxies with the Very Large Baseline Array in C band (5 GHz, ~2 mas resolution) and we detected 5 galaxies at 8 σ or higher levels. For those sources for which the maser data is available, the positions of masers and those of the 5 GHz radio continuum sources coincide within the uncertainties, and the radio continuum is perpendicular to the maser disk’s orientation within the position angle uncertainties.
Introduction: In 2015, there were 476 apparent illicit drug overdose deaths, prompting BC’s Provincial Health Officer to declare a public health emergency on 14 Apr 2016. Paramedics of BC’s Ambulance Service (BCAS) are on the front lines in this crisis. Here we examine recent trends in the number of suspected overdose events attended by the BCAS and the use of naloxone, an opioid antagonist, by BCAS paramedics. Methods: The BC Centre for Disease Control receives a weekly data feed from BC Emergency Health Services that includes all records from the BCAS Patient Care Record where: naloxone was administered by paramedics; the primary impression code indicates poisoning or overdose; or, the originating call is associated with ingestion poisoning (‘card 23’). Here, we report a descriptive analysis of these data for suspected drug overdose events during the period January 1, 2010 to September 30, 2016. Results: Between January 2010 and September 2016 BCAS paramedics attended 164,227 suspected overdose events; 12% of these events (n=16,944) included naloxone administration by BCAS paramedics. Paralleling the rise in illicit drug overdose deaths in BC, naloxone administration by paramedics has been increasing rapidly, doubling from approximately 180/month in 2014, to 370/month in 2016. When naloxone was administered by paramedics, 90% of these patients were transported, whereas 77% were transported when naloxone was not administered. Administrations occurred most frequently on Friday and Saturday evenings. Almost half (46%) of all naloxone administrations by paramedics were recorded as being in a home or residence; 18% were recorded as occurring on a street or highway. The proportion of naloxone administrations among males has increased yearly. In 2010, 58% of naloxone administrations were in males compared to 69% in 2016. Conclusion: The number of overdose deaths in BC has risen drastically in recent years and the proportion of ambulance calls requiring administration of naloxone by BCAS has climbed correspondingly. The vast majority of overdose cases-especially those requiring naloxone-are transported to the emergency department. With the overdose crisis showing little sign of abating, the administration of naloxone by BC paramedics will continue to be a critical element of the provincial response.
The Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver (Acbar) is a multifrequency millimeter-wave receiver optimized for observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in clusters of galaxies. Acbar was installed on the 2.1 m Viper telescope at the South Pole in January 2001 and the results presented here incorporate data through July 2002. The power spectrum of the CMB at 150 GHz over the range ℓ = 150 — 3000 measured by Acbar is presented along with estimates for the values of the cosmological parameters within the context of ΛCDM models. The inclusion of ΩΛ greatly improves the fit to the power spectrum. Three-frequency images of the SZ decrement/increment are also presented for the galaxy cluster 1E0657–67.
We made dynamical black hole mass measurements from nineteen Seyfert 2 galaxies which host sub-parsec H2O maser disks using the H2O megamaser technique. The nearly perfect Keplerian rotation curves in many of these maser systems guarantee the high accuracy and precision of the black hole mass measurements. With the stellar velocity dispersion (σ∗) of the galaxy bulges measured with the Dupont 2.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in the South and the Apache Point Observatory (APO) 3.5m telescope in the North, we found that H2O maser galaxies, most of which host pseudo bulges rather than classical bulges, do not all follow the MBH–σ∗ relation shown in the literature. This result is well consistent with the latest findings by Kormendy & Ho (2013) that only early type galaxies and galaxies with classical bulges follow a tight MBH–σ∗ relation. Such a tight correlation may not exist in pseudo bulge galaxies.
Transcritical flow of a stratified fluid past a broad localised topographic obstacle is studied analytically in the framework of the forced extended Korteweg–de Vries, or Gardner, equation. We consider both possible signs for the cubic nonlinear term in the Gardner equation corresponding to different fluid density stratification profiles. We identify the range of the input parameters: the oncoming flow speed (the Froude number) and the topographic amplitude, for which the obstacle supports a stationary localised hydraulic transition from the subcritical flow upstream to the supercritical flow downstream. Such a localised transcritical flow is resolved back into the equilibrium flow state away from the obstacle with the aid of unsteady coherent nonlinear wave structures propagating upstream and downstream. Along with the regular, cnoidal undular bores occurring in the analogous problem for the single-layer flow modelled by the forced Korteweg–de Vries equation, the transcritical internal wave flows support a diverse family of upstream and downstream wave structures, including kinks, rarefaction waves, classical undular bores, reversed and trigonometric undular bores, which we describe using the recent development of the nonlinear modulation theory for the (unforced) Gardner equation. The predictions of the developed analytic construction are confirmed by direct numerical simulations of the forced Gardner equation for a broad range of input parameters.
Three types of Ganium Nitride (GaN) transistors were studied in this work. The devices were fabricated and exhibited unique characteristics over on-state current and off-state blocking performances. We also compared the performance differences of devices fabricated by multiepitaxial GaN/AlGaN layers on different substrates (Sapphire and Si) and evaluated the correlations among starting substrate, device variation, and manufacturing uniformity. The first device is a normally-on device with Sapphire substrate which shows good drain saturation current (Idsat) and breakdown characteristics, but the gate leakage current is quite large. The second device is a normally-off GaN transistor named metal-insulate-semiconductor (MIS) heterojunction field-effect transistor (MIS-HFET) which exhibits good performance with threshold voltage (Vth) of 3V and breakdown voltage (Vbd) of over 1800V. However the third device is a normally-off GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor field-elect transistor (MOSFET) structure which is rather difficult to exhibit good blocking characteristic due to inadequate doping process control of the reduce-surface-field (RESURF) region.
Water vapor megamasers from the center of active galaxies provide a powerful tool to trace accretion disks at sub-parsec resolution and, through an entirely geometrical method, measure direct distances to galaxies up to 200 Mpc. The Megamaser Cosmology Project (MCP) is formed by a team of astronomers with the aim of identifying new maser systems, and mapping their emission at high angular resolution to determine their distance. Two types of observations are necessary to measure a distance: single-dish monitoring to measure the acceleration of gas in the disk, and sensitive VLBI imaging to measure the angular size of the disk, measure the rotation curve, and model radial displacement of the maser feature. The ultimate goal of the MCP is to make a precise measurement of H0 by measuring such distances to at least 10 maser galaxies in the Hubble flow. We present here the preliminary results from a new maser system, Mrk 1419. Through a model of the rotation from the systemic masers assuming a narrow ring, and combining these results with the acceleration measurement from the Green Bank Telescope, we determine a distance to Mrk 1419 of 81 ± 10 Mpc. Given that the disk shows a significant warp that may not be entirely traced by our current observations, more sensitive observations and more sophisticated disk modeling will be essential to improve our distance estimation to this galaxy.
The Hubble constant H0 describes not only the expansion of local space at redshift z ~ 0, but is also a fundamental parameter determining the evolution of the universe. Recent measurements of H0 anchored on Cepheid observations have reached a precision of several percent. However, this problem is so important that confirmation from several methods is needed to better constrain H0 and, with it, dark energy and the curvature of space. A particularly direct method involves the determination of distances to local galaxies far enough to be part of the Hubble flow through water vapor (H2O) masers orbiting nuclear supermassive black holes. The goal of this article is to describe the relevance of H0 with respect to fundamental cosmological questions and to summarize recent progress of the ‘Megamaser Cosmology Project’ (MCP) related to the Hubble constant.
The interface layer between thin sputter-deposited tantalum oxide (TaOx) high-k film and silicon substrate was engineered with the Hf doping method and the insertion of a thin 5Å TaNx interface. The following results have been obtained: 1) the Hf dopant in the TaOx film was involved in the interface formation process, e.g., forming a new, thinner high-k HfSixOy interface layer rather than the SiOx layer, 2) when the TaNx interface was inserted, the interface layer composition was even more complicated, e.g., including TaOxNy and HfSixOy structures. No hafnium nitride or oxynitride was detected, 3) the interface layer structure was changed, e.g., from single-zone to multi-zone with different compositions, 4) when a low concentration of Hf existed in the TaOx film, the high-k dielectric properties, such as the k value, fixed charge density, dielectric strength, were improved, and 5) when the thin TaNx interface layer was inserted, the above electric properties were further improved. However, the fixed charge density and interface states were increased due to the insertion of the TaNx interface layer. These results were contributed by factors such as the charge-trapping characteristics in the interface layer and the some damage repairing mechanisms. In summary, this research proved that the high-k film's interface layer and bulk properties could be were improved with the doping process as well as the insertion of an ultra-thin TaNx interface film.
The activation of Si+ and Be+ ions implanted into InGaP, InGaAs or InAlAs grown by GSMBE and OMVPE was investigated as a function of ion dose and annealing temperature. Activation efficiencies close to 100% were obtained in InGaP and InGaAs for Be doses up to ∼1014 cm−2 and annealing temperatures of 700–850°C. Activation of Be was less efficient in InAlAs. By contrast, implanted Si displayed a saturation in active sheet electron densities at 1–3 × 1013 cm−2 and required higher annealing temperatures for optimum activation efficiency. High sheet resistance (≤108 μ/□) regions were created by O+ implantation into n+ InGaP or InAlAs, with hopping conduction dominating carrier transport in the bombarded material. For post-implant annealing temperatures above 750°C, the conductivity was restored to its initial value. No evidence was found for the creation of electrically active oxygen-related deep levels in either material.
The wet chemical etching rates of InGaP in H3 PO4:HCL:H2O mixtures have been systematically measured as a function of etch formulation and are most rapid (-1 μm · min−1) for high HCl compositions. The etch rate, R, in a 1:1:1 mixture is thermally activated of the form R ∝ e−Ea/kT, where Ea = 11.25 kCal · mole−1. This is consistent with the etching being reaction-limited at the surface. This etch mixture is selective for InGaP over GaAs. For chlorine-based dry etch mixtures (PCl3 /Ar or CCl2 F2 /Ar) the etching rate of InGaP increases linearly with DC self-bias on the sample, whereas CH4/H2-based mixtures produce slower etch rates. Selectivities of ≥500 for etching GaAs over InGaP are obtained under low bias conditions with PCl3/Ar, but the surface morphologies of InGaP are rough. Both CCl2F2/Ar and CH4/H2/Ar mixtures produce smooth surface morphologies and good (>10) selectivities for etching GaAs over InGaP.
The formation of high resistivity (> 107 Ω□) regions in GaAs-AlGaAs HBT and SEED structures by oxygen and hydrogen ion implantation is described. Multiple energy implants in the dose range 1013 cm−3 (for O+) and 1015 cm−2 (for H+), followed by annealing around 500°C are necessary to isolate structures ∼2 μm thick. In each case, the evolution of the sheet resistance of the implanted material with annealing is consistent with a reduction in hopping probabilities of trapped carriers between deep level states for temperatures up to ∼600°C, followed by significant annealing of these deep levels. A comparison of the relative thermal stability of O+ or H+ ion implantisolated p+ material is given. Small geometry (2 × 9 μm2) HBTs exhibiting current gain of 44 and cut-off frequency fT as high as 45 GHz are demonstrated using implant isolation.
Thin Sb films have been prepared on glass substrates by rapid thermal evaporation. Films with thicknesses varied from 260 Å to 1300Å were used for the study. X-ray diffraction data showed that for films deposited at room substrate temperature, an almost random grain orientation was observed for films of 1300 Å thick and a tendency for preferred grain orientation was observed as films got thinner. For films of 260 Å thick, only two x-ray diffraction peaks--(003) and (006) were observed. After thermal annealing, secondary grains grew to show preferred orientation in all the films. This phenomenon was explained by surface-energy-driven secondary grain growth. This paper reports the effects of annealing time and film thickness on the secondary grain growth and the evolution of thin Sb film microstmctures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction were used to characterize the films.
We present a process for creating in-plane anisotropic strain in (100) GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) thin films. The host substrates used for bonding include (100) GaAs, (100) silicon, and lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) with a special crystalline orientation. A mutilayer metallization consisting of Au-Sn (Au: 80 wt% , Sn: 20 wt%, 0.95μm), Ti (500Å) adhesion layer and Pt (500Å) barrier layer is deposited on the thin films and the host substrates. By choosing a proper annealing temperature (380°C) and thickness of eutectic layer, the thin films and the substrates are bonded together. Photoluminescence measurements do not reveal any thermally induced strain in the thin films bonded to GaAs; however, they show the existence of in-plane biaxial strain in the films bonded on Si. Linearly polarized reflectance measurements reveal an optical anisotropy in the MQW bonded to LiTaO3, which possesses an orientation-dependent thermal expansion. This indicates that the in-plane strain in the thin films is induced by the different thermal expansions between the thin films and the substrates. This process can be used to develop a new class of devices with an artificially induced in-plane strain.
Transmission election microscopy studies show that nitrogen doping changes the misfit dislocation structure in ZnSe films and decreases the density of threading dislocations. There appears to be a critical N doping concentration of ∼ 1.5 × 1018/cm3 above which the density of threading dislocations increases again. Samples with high N doping concentrations (> 1019/cm3 ) also show compensation or decrease in the carrier density of the films. Our TEM observations show that N doping can produce low energy nucleation sites for the 60° misfit dislocations at or close to the ZnSe/GaAs interface.
Thin film of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) structure have been bonded to the lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) substrates cut such that one of the linear thermal expansion coefficients almost matches that of the MQW while its orthogonal counterpart does not. By choosing the proper bonding and operating temperatures, in-plane anisotropic strain up to 0.3% has been achieved. The transmission spectrum shows an anisotropy in excitonic absorption which results in a polarization rotation of a light beam at normal incidence to the structure. The theoretical calculation is in agreement with the experimental results. Using the polarization rotation, we have demonstrated a novel MQW light modulator with an exceedingly high contrast ratio of 330:1.
Si1−xGex layers containing 2×1020 oxygen atoms/cm3 exhibit an enhancement in thermal stability when compared to similar films (comparable Ge content and thickness) with 2 orders of magnitude less oxygen. X-ray measurements of the lattice constants in the strained films indicate that the oxygen does not substantially change the amount of strain in the layers. A prediction of the effect of oxygen based on solid solution strengthening theory is shown to be consistent with experimental annealing results. In addition, experimental measurements of slower misfit dislocation velocities in the layers with high oxygen content compared to those measured in films with low oxygen content, support the idea of solid solution strengthening. It is therefore likely that oxygen impedes the kinetics of dislocation formation.
We have grown linearly compositionally graded GexSi1−x structures at high temperatures (700–900°C) on Si substrates to form a surface which resembles a GexSi1−x substrate. We have obtained completely relaxed structures with x≤0.50 and threading dislocation densities in the 105cm−2 - 106cm−2 range. Because of the very low threading dislocation densities, the structures appear dislocation free in conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) cross-section and plan view. Employing the electron beam induced current technique (EBIC), we were able to consistently measure these low threading dislocation densities. A direct comparison of two x=0.35 films, one graded in Ge content and one uniform in Ge content, shows that compositional grading decreases the dislocation density by a factor of 100–1000. These. higher quality graded buffers have been used as templates for the subsequent growth of InGaP light emitting diodes (LED) and GexSi1−x/Si two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) structures. Room temperature operation of orange-red LEDs were obtained at current densities of =600A/cm, and mobilities as high as 96,000 cm2/V-s were achieved at 4.2K in the 2DEG structures.