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To examine the rate of monitoring of metabolic syndrome and actual rates of metabolic syndrome in two patient cohorts [clozapine treatment and long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic] who are reviewed on an equally regular basis (1–4 weekly) for administration of treatment.
Clinical and laboratory data are examined on 119 patients treated with clozapine and 116 patients treated with LAI antipsychotic medications to determine the rates of metabolic syndrome and evidence of monitoring for metabolic syndrome in the previous 6 months. Individuals with insufficient data from these cohorts were invited to attend for metabolic screening to determine actual rates of metabolic syndrome in these two cohorts of patients.
All metabolic parameters were monitored to a significantly greater extent in the clozapine cohort (>90%), compared to those treated with LAI antipsychotic medications (<50%) (blood pressure, weight, lipid and glucose levels; p < 0.001). Metabolic syndrome was present in 38.9% of those treated with clozapine compared to 31.1% of patients treated with LAI antipsychotic medications (X2 = 0.54, p = 0.46).
These findings suggest that a robust screening plan should be in place to monitor for metabolic syndrome in individuals treated with LAI antipsychotic medications. This screening should include measurement of body weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, lipids and fasting insulin levels. Early recognition of abnormal metabolic parameters allows early intervention, therefore, improving long-term cardiovascular outcomes.
Maternal mental well being influences offspring development. Research suggests that an interplay between genetic and environmental factors underlies this familial transmission of mental disorders.
To explore an interaction between genetic and environmental factors to predict trajectories of maternal mental well being, and to examine whether these trajectories are associated with epigenetic modifications in mothers and their offspring.
We assessed maternal childhood trauma and rearing experiences, prenatal and postnatal symptoms of depression and stress experience from 6 to 72 months postpartum, and genetic and epigenetic variation in a longitudinal birth-cohort study (n = 262) (Maternal adversity, vulnerability and neurodevelopment project). We used latent class modeling to describe trajectories in maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, marital stress and general stress, taking polygenetic risk for major depressive disorder (MDD), a composite score for maternal early life adversities, and prenatal depressive symptoms into account.
Genetic risk for MDD associated with trajectories of maternal well being in the postpartum, conditional on the experience of early life adversities and prenatal symptoms of depression. We will explore whether these trajectories are also linked to DNA methylation patterns in mothers and their offspring. Preliminary analyses suggest that maternal early life adversities associate with offspring DNA methylation age estimates, which is mediated through maternal mental well being and maternal DNA methylation age estimates.
We found relevant gene-environment interactions associated with trajectories of maternal well being. Our findings inform research on mechanisms underlying familial transmission of vulnerability for psychopathology and might thus be relevant to prevention and early intervention programs.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Animal and human studies suggest that individual differences in maternal parenting behaviour are transmitted from one generation to the next.
This study aimed to examine potential psychosocial mechanisms underlying an intergenerational transmission of conceptualization of parenting, including affect, cognition, and parental support.
In a subsample of 201 first-time mothers participating in the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) project, we assessed maternal childhood rearing experiences, using the Parental Bonding Instrument and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. At 6 months postpartum, mothers completed questionnaires on parenting stress, symptoms of depression, internalization of maternal care regulation and current relationship with mother and father.
We found significant direct associations of maltreatment and rearing by the grandmother with parenting stress at 6 months. These associations were mediated through distinct psychosocial pathways: the association of maltreatment on higher parenting stress was fully mediated through more maternal symptoms of depression (z = 2.297; P = 022). The association between sub-optimal rearing provided by the mother and higher parenting stress was mediated through lower internalization of maternal care regulation (z = -2.155; P = 031) and to a lesser degree through more symptoms of depression (z = -1.842; P = 065). Finally, higher quality rearing by the grandfather was indirectly related to lower parenting stress through positive current relationship with the father (z = -2.617; P = 009).
There are distinct pathways by which early experiences manifest in parenting stress. By understanding the structure of dysregulated parenting, clinicians will have practical information to specifically target maternal motivation, social supports, and depressed mood to disrupt maladaptive parenting cognitions and practices.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Prenatal maternal depression and a multilocus genetic profile of two susceptibility genes implicated in the stress response were examined in an interaction model predicting negative emotionality in the first 3 years. In 179 mother–infant dyads from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability, and Neurodevelopment cohort, prenatal depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressions Scale) was assessed at 24 to 36 weeks. The multilocus genetic profile score consisted of the number of susceptibility alleles from the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR): no long-rs25531(A) (LA: short/short, short/long-rs25531(G) [LG], or LG/LG] vs. any LA) and the dopamine receptor D4 gene (six to eight repeats vs. two to five repeats). Negative emotionality was extracted from the Infant Behaviour Questionnaire—Revised at 3 and 6 months and the Early Child Behavior Questionnaire at 18 and 36 months. Mixed and confirmatory regression analyses indicated that prenatal depression and the multilocus genetic profile interacted to predict negative emotionality from 3 to 36 months. The results were characterized by a differential susceptibility model at 3 and 6 months and by a diathesis–stress model at 36 months.
Disorganized attachment is an important early risk factor for socioemotional problems throughout childhood and into adulthood. Prevailing models of the etiology of disorganized attachment emphasize the role of highly dysfunctional parenting, to the exclusion of complex models examining the interplay of child and parental factors. Decades of research have established that extreme child birth weight may have long-term effects on developmental processes. These effects are typically negative, but this is not always the case. Recent studies have also identified the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) as a moderator of childrearing effects on the development of disorganized attachment. However, there are inconsistent findings concerning which variant of the polymorphism (seven-repeat long-form allele or non–seven-repeat short-form allele) is most likely to interact with caregiving in predicting disorganized versus organized attachment. In this study, we examined possible two- and three-way interactions and child DRD4 polymorphisms and birth weight and maternal caregiving at age 6 months in longitudinally predicting attachment disorganization at 36 months. Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment project, a sample of 650 mother–child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the putative allele seven repeat. Macroanalytic and microanalytic measures of maternal behavior were extracted from a videotaped session of 20 min of nonfeeding interaction followed by a 10-min divided attention maternal task at 6 months. Attachment was assessed at 36 months using the Strange Situation procedure, and categorized into disorganized attachment and others. The results indicated that a main effect for DRD4 and a two-way interaction of birth weight and 6-month maternal attention (frequency of maternal looking away behavior) and sensitivity predicted disorganized attachment in robust logistic regression models adjusted for social demographic covariates. Specifically, children in the midrange of birth weight were more likely to develop a disorganized attachment when exposed to less attentive maternal care. However, the association reversed with extreme birth weight (low and high). The DRD4 seven-repeat allele was associated with less disorganized attachment (protective), while non–seven-repeat children were more likely to be classified as disorganized attachment. The implications for understanding inconsistencies in the literature about which DRD4 genotype is the risk direction are also considered. Suggestions for intervention with families with infants at different levels of biological risk and caregiving risk are also discussed.
The formation of nanocrystal-molecule-nanocrystal nanostructures via controlled mixing of Au nanocrystals and bifunctional Re linkers is reported. UV-visible absorbance data, coupled with histogram analysis of nanostructures measured using Scanning Electron Microscopy has shown a characteristic optical response at wavelengths close to 600 nm following formation of dimer and trimer nanostructures. Directed assembly processes based on dielectrophoretic trapping have also been developed for electrical interfacing of these nanostructures between top-down nanoelectrode pairs for electrical characterization.
A method for the complete removal of twins from single crystals of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7−x is described. The process depends on ferroelastic behavior found to exist in the phase, and should be generally applicable to the layered perovskite-type phases containing accommodation twins resulting from a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transformation on cooling. The twin-free, superconducting single crystals will enable investigation of a–b anisotropy of properties as well as crystal structure determination without complication by the presence of microtwins.
We have conducted structural and magnetic investigations on thermomechanically-detwinned YBa2Cu3O6+x single crystals. Single crystal x-ray diffraction studies on a fully untwinned crystal with a superconducting onset temperature of 54 K have revealed that oxygen atoms in the basal plane are offset from the crystallographic mirror plane in the a direction, leading to “zig-zag” Cu-O chains. Magnetic measurements on untwinned and twinned crystals at 77 K indicate low levels of flux pinning in both crystals, with a slightly larger amount of pinning in the twinned crystal.
Homogeneous gelled composites of iron and silica containing 5–30 wt. % Fe have been prepared by low temperature polymerization of aqueous solutions of ferric nitrate, tetraethoxysilane, and ethanol (with an HF catalyst). X-ray diffraction data, characterized by the presence of a diffuse scattering peak centered at 20≈24 degrees and the absence of any strong Bragg scattering from the iron-containing regions, indicates that these bulk materials are comprised of nanometer-sized regions of iron compounds embedded in a silica gel matrix. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that this matrix is characterized by the presence of many interconnected pores and that the size of these pores is related to the particle size of the Fe-containing regions. The paramagnetic nature of these materials at room temperature, as well as the small size of the iron-containing regions, is indicated by the appearance in many of the samples of only a high intensity central doublet in the 57Fe M6ssbauer spectra. The Mössbauer effect data demonstrates that the form of the iron can be changed by a subsequent treatment in an atmosphere of ammonia or hydrogen at elevated temperatures: for a 10 wt. % Fe sample treated with ammonia, only a central doublet was observed but with a much larger quadrupole splitting and isomer shift. Both of these subsequently treated materials became superparamagnetic at room temperature. In addition, magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that the hydrogen treated material becomes a spin glass at low temperatures.
The following list includes books and articles on Irish history in which the year 1970 is given in the work itself as the date of publication, together with Addenda for 1965-9. The list excludes current works of reference, parliamentary publications, writings on contemporary politics, and items in newspapers; reports of archaeological finds and literary and linguistic studies, presented without reference to their historical context; and writings of little scholarly value. Reviews or short notices of many of the items listed will be found in this journal.
The following list includes books and articles on Irish history in which the year 1969 is given in the work itself as the date of publication, together with Addenda for 1965–8. The list excludes current works of reference, parliamentary publications, writings on contemporary politics, and items in newspapers; reports of archaeological finds and literary and linguistic studies, presented without reference to their historical context; and writings of little scholarly value. Reviews or short notices of many of the items listed will be found in this journal.