To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The number of people following a vegan diet in the UK is increasing. Eating disorder clinicians are anecdotally reporting that more of their patients with anorexia nervosa are wanting to follow a vegan diet. The relationship between veganism and eating disorders is unclear. A fictitious scenario is used to explore these issues. An approach is described that clinicians may follow to help patients to understand the potential relationship between their eating disorder and veganism. The human rights issues this involves are also explored. It is hoped that this article will make readers more aware of this complex issue and the impact it can have on engagement with services and on treatment options.
This study aims to describe the course of admission and clinical characteristics of admissions to a psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) in the Phoenix Care Centre (PCC), Dublin, Ireland.
This retrospective chart study was conducted at the PCC, Dublin, Ireland. The cohort included all admission episodes (n = 91 complete data) over a three-year study period between January 2014 and January 2017.
The mean age of admitted cases was 37.1 (s.d. = 11.3; range 18–63). The mean length of stay (LOS) was 59.3 days (s.d. = 61.0; median 39.5 days). All patients were admitted under Mental Health Act legislation. Antipsychotic polypharmacy was used in 61% (n = 55) of the admissions. A diagnosis of acute psychotic disorder (B = −1.027, p = 0.003, 95% CI: −1.691, −0.363) was associated with reduced LOS in PICU.
Our study describes the cohort of patients admitted as being predominantly male, younger-aged, single, having a diagnosis of schizophrenia and being legally detained. The primary indication for referral is risk of assault, which highlights the need for the intensive and secure treatment model that a PICU can provide.
Mary Parker Follett was a feminist-pragmatist American philosopher, a social-settlement worker, a founding figure in the community centers movement, a mediator of labor disputes, and a theorist of political and social organization and management. I argue that she is a model for a certain kind of public philosopher, and I unpack the respects in which she serves as such a model. I emphasize both her virtues as a public thinker and the role played in her work by the process of integration and the creative process.
Prompt diagnosis and intervention for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is critical but can lead to overdiagnosis and overtreatment.
We investigated healthcare provider (HCP) perceptions and challenges associated with VAP diagnosis, and we sought to identify opportunities for diagnostic stewardship.
We conducted a qualitative study of 30 HCPs at a tertiary-care hospital. Participants included attending physicians, residents and fellows (trainees), advanced practice providers (APPs), and pharmacists. Interviews were composed of open-ended questions in 4 sections: (1) clinical suspicion and thresholds for respiratory culture ordering, (2) preferences for respiratory sample collection, (3) culture report interpretation, and (4) VAP diagnosis and treatment. Interviews transcripts were analyzed using Nvivo 12 software, and responses were organized into themes.
Overall, 10 attending physicians (75%) and 16 trainees (75%) trainees and APPs believed they were overdiagnosing VAP; this response was frequent among HCPs in practice 5–10 years (91%, n = 12). Increased identification of bacteria as a result of frequent respiratory culturing, misinterpretation of culture data, and fear of missing diagnosis were recognized as drivers of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Although most HCPs rely on clinical and radiographic changes to initiate work-up, the fear of missing a diagnosis leads to sending cultures even in the absence of those changes.
HCPs believe that VAP overdiagnosis and overtreatment are common due to fear of missing diagnosis, overculturing, and difficulty distinguishing colonization from infection. Although we identified opportunities for diagnostic stewardship, interventions influencing the ordering of cultures and starting antimicrobials will need to account for strongly held beliefs and ICU practices.
The invention of silicon drift detectors has resulted in an unprecedented improvement in detection efficiency for energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy in the scanning transmission electron microscope. The result is numerous beautiful atomic-scale maps, which provide insights into the internal structure of a variety of materials. However, the task still remains to understand exactly where the X-ray signal comes from and how accurately it can be quantified. Unfortunately, when crystals are aligned with a low-order zone axis parallel to the incident beam direction, as is necessary for atomic-resolution imaging, the electron beam channels. When the beam becomes localized in this way, the relationship between the concentration of a particular element and its spectroscopic X-ray signal is generally nonlinear. Here, we discuss the combined effect of both spatial integration and sample tilt for ameliorating the effects of channeling and improving the accuracy of EDX quantification. Both simulations and experimental results will be presented for a perovskite-based oxide interface. We examine how the scattering and spreading of the electron beam can lead to erroneous interpretation of interface compositions, and what approaches can be made to improve our understanding of the underlying atomic structure.
As my title suggests, I will examine a lesson from Feyerabend’s controversial work, Science in a Free Society: that free societies should not invest scientific experts with special epistemic or social authority. At least, I will ask, should we take this claim from Feyerabend as a lesson? In particular, I see Feyerabend’s argument about expert authority as a substantive challenge to a central commitment of many philosophers of science who reject the ideal of value-free science, a commitment to the ineliminability of expert judgment. An argument against this principle is articulated clearly and forcefully, if somewhat roughly, in both his Science in a Free Society (1978, hereafter SFS) and a related article, “How to Defend Society against Science,” originally published in Radical Philosophy (1975c, hereafter HDSS).
When presenting with a first episode of psychosis (FEP), migrants can have different demographic and clinical characteristics to the native-born population and this was examined in an Irish Early Intervention for Psychosis service.
All cases of treated FEP from three local mental health services within a defined catchment area were included. Psychotic disorder diagnoses were determined using the SCID and symptom and functioning domains were measured using validated and reliable measures.
From a cohort of 612 people, 21.1% were first-generation migrants and there was no difference in the demographic characteristics, diagnoses, symptoms or functioning between migrants and those born in the Republic of Ireland, except that migrants from Africa presented with less insight. Of those admitted, 48.6% of admissions for migrants were involuntary compared to 37.7% for the native-born population (p = 0.09).
First-generation migrants now make up a significant proportion of people presenting with a FEP to an Irish EI for psychosis service. Broadly the demographic and clinical characteristics of migrants and those born in the Republic of Ireland are similar, except for less insight in migrants from Africa and a trend for a higher proportion of involuntary admissions in the total migrant group.
Antidepressant medication and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) are both recommended interventions in depression treatment guidelines based on literature reviews and meta-analyses. However, ‘conventional’ meta-analyses comparing their efficacy are limited by their reliance on reported study-level information and a narrow focus on depression outcome measures assessed at treatment completion. Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis, considered the gold standard in evidence synthesis, can improve the quality of the analyses when compared with conventional meta-analysis.
We describe the protocol for a systematic review and IPD meta-analysis comparing the efficacy of antidepressants and IPT for adult acute-phase depression across a range of outcome measures, including depressive symptom severity as well as functioning and well-being, at both post-treatment and follow-up (PROSPERO: CRD42020219891).
We will conduct a systematic literature search in PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and the Cochrane Library to identify randomised clinical trials comparing antidepressants and IPT in the acute-phase treatment of adults with depression. We will invite the authors of these studies to share the participant-level data of their trials. One-stage IPD meta-analyses will be conducted using mixed-effects models to assess treatment effects at post-treatment and follow-up for all outcome measures that are assessed in at least two studies.
This will be the first IPD meta-analysis examining antidepressants versus IPT efficacy. This study has the potential to enhance our knowledge of depression treatment by comparing the short- and long-term effects of two widely used interventions across a range of outcome measures using state-of-the-art statistical techniques.
We aimed to investigate the associations of poor oral health cross-sectionally with diet quality and intake in older people. We also examined whether change in diet quality is associated with oral health problems. Data from the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS) comprising British males aged 71–92 years and the Health, Aging and Body Composition (HABC) Study comprising American males and females aged 71–80 years were used. Dental data included tooth loss, periodontal disease, dry mouth and self-rated oral health. Dietary data included diet quality (based on Elderly Dietary Index (BRHS) and Healthy Eating Score (HABC Study)) and several nutrients. In the BRHS, change in diet quality over 10 years (1998–2000 to 2010–2012) was also assessed. In the BRHS, tooth loss, fair/poor self-rated oral health and accumulation of oral health problems were associated with poor diet quality, after adjustment. Similar associations were reported for high intake of processed meat. Poor oral health was associated with the top quartile of percentage of energy content from saturated fat (self-rated oral health, OR 1·34, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·77). In the HABC Study, no significant associations were observed for diet quality after adjustment. Periodontal disease was associated with the top quartile of percentage of energy content from saturated fat (OR 1·48, 95 % CI 1·09, 2·01). In the BRHS, persistent low diet quality was associated with higher risk of tooth loss and accumulation of oral health problems. Older individuals with oral health problems had poorer diets and consumed fewer nutrient-rich foods. Persistent poor diet quality was associated with oral health problems later in life.
Histories of West Indian writing have traditionally put particular focus on the migration of a group of writers often labelled in shorthand as the Windrush generation, after the 1948 arrival of the Empire Windrush that began the post-World War II arrival of large amounts of Caribbean people in Britain. Finding opportunities in the British literary scene – most notably, with the BBC’s Caribbean Voices programme – these migrant writers were able to establish themselves, promote each other, and reach a wide audience, even as their encounter with British racism intensified their anticolonial vision. These writers’ experience was frequently refracted through the idea of exile, which in the Caribbean critical imaginary came to define the writers of the period. This chapter takes up an examination of this remarkably prolific and influential generation of anglophone Caribbean writers, with particular focus on the extent to which exile is an adequate concept for thinking about their writing. It discusses the different levels of geographical and cultural identification with which these writers grappled, remarking the process by which interacting with Caribbean people from throughout the region in Britain helped foster a West Indian cultural identity beyond any single island, as well as the tension between regionalism and localized nationalism that resulted. Going further, it will also illustrate the sense of an emergent ‘rooting’ of the Caribbean in Britain, a process that was self-consciously addressed in the writing of many of these authors and subsequently formalized in the formation of alternative publishing and cultural institutions in Britain in the 1960s and 1970s. The chapter provides readings of works by Kamau Brathwaite, George Lamming, V. S. Naipaul, Andrew Salkey, and Samuel Selvon, and puts them into context with the much larger population of less celebrated writers, as well as Caribbean literary figures who came to England before the post-World War II period of mass migration. In illustrating the complexity of the Windrush writers’ engagements with notions of home, citizenship, belonging, and cultural ownership, the essay argues that a more fluid, multi-directional understanding of the concept of exile is necessary in order for the era’s important contributions, not just to the project of anticolonial nationalism, but also to the nascent discourses of diaspora and black Britishness, to be properly understood.
This paper critically reviews the opportunities and challenges in designing and conducting actionable research on the learning and development of children in conflict- and crisis-affected countries. We approached our review through two perspectives championed by Edward Zigler: (a) child development and social policy and (b) developmental psychopathology in context. The aim of the work was to answer the following questions: What works to enhance children's learning and development in such contexts? By what mechanisms? For whom? Under what conditions? How do experiences and conditions of crisis affect the basic processes of children's typical development? The review is based on a research–practice partnership started in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2010 and expanded to research in Niger and Lebanon in 2016. The focus of the research is on the impact of Healing Classrooms (a set of classroom practices) and Healing Classrooms Plus (an additional set of targeted social and emotional learning activities), developed by the International Rescue Committee, on children's academic outcomes and social and emotional learning. We sought to extract lessons from this decade of research for building a global developmental science for action. Special attention is paid to the importance of research–practice partnerships, conceptual frameworks, measurement and methodology. We conclude by highlighting several essential features of a global developmental science for action.
The aim of this review is to present the current options for cardiac output (CO) monitoring in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Current technologies for monitoring identified were a range of invasive, minimally invasive, and non-invasive technologies. These include pulmonary artery catheter, transoesophageal echocardiography, pulse contour analysis, electrical cardiography, and thoracic bioreactance. A literature search was conducted using evidence databases which identified two current guidelines; the NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde guideline and Royal College of Anaesthetics Guideline. These were appraised using the AGREE II tool and the evidence identified was used to create an overview summary of each technological option for CO monitoring. There is limited evidence regarding the accuracy of modalities available for CO monitoring in paediatric patients during cardiac surgery. Each technology has advantages and disadvantages; however, none could be championed as the most beneficial. Furthermore, a gold standard for CO monitoring has not yet been identified for paediatric populations, nor is it apparent whether one modality is preferable based on the available evidence. Additional evidence using a standardised method for comparing CO measurements should be conducted in order to determine the best option for CO monitoring in paediatrics. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness assessment of each modality should be conducted. Only then will it be possible for clear, evidence-based guidance to be written.
To assess the effect on hearing of non-functioning ventilation tubes due to blockage during the first six months post-operatively, using UK national guidelines.
A prospective, observational study was conducted on 37 children who underwent bilateral ventilation tube insertion. Air and bone conduction thresholds were measured before and following surgery, and at one, three and six months post-operatively. Tube non-function was assessed by tympanometry supported by otoscopy.
Post-operatively, an average of 21 per cent of ventilation tubes were non-functioning. Ears with non-functioning tubes had significantly (p = 0.0001) poorer mean air conduction thresholds than functioning tubes, with a magnitude of 6 dB HL. Ears with otorrhoea were most affected (15 per cent). At any one visit, the air–bone gap was closed to 10 dB or less in 76 per cent of ears. Non-functioning tubes reduced this to 56 per cent. Compared with tympanometry, otoscopy underdiagnosed tube non-function due to blockage by 22 per cent.
Non-functioning of ventilation tubes occurs frequently and can be missed on otoscopy. Although it is associated with poorer air conduction thresholds, the magnitude of this difference is unlikely to warrant further intervention unless there is otorrhoea or recurrence of bilateral hearing impairment.
Experiencing poverty increases vulnerability for dysregulated hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and compromises long-term health. Positive parenting buffers children from HPA axis reactivity, yet this has primarily been documented among families not experiencing poverty. We tested the theorized power of positive parenting in 124 parent–child dyads recruited from Early Head Start (Mage = 25.21 months) by examining child cortisol trajectories using five samples collected across a standardized stress paradigm. Piecewise latent growth models revealed that positive parenting buffered children's stress responses when controlling for time of day, last stress task completed, and demographics. Positive parenting also interacted with income such that positive parenting was especially protective for cortisol reactivity in families experiencing greater poverty. Findings suggest that positive parenting behaviors are important for protecting children in families experiencing low income from heightened or prolonged physiologic stress reactivity to an acute stressor.
Typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (tEPEC) infection is a major cause of diarrhoea and contributor to mortality in children <5 years old in developing countries. Data were analysed from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study examining children <5 years old seeking care for moderate-to-severe diarrhoea (MSD) in Kenya. Stool specimens were tested for enteric pathogens, including by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for gene targets of tEPEC. Demographic, clinical and anthropometric data were collected at enrolment and ~60-days later; multivariable logistic regressions were constructed. Of 1778 MSD cases enrolled from 2008 to 2012, 135 (7.6%) children tested positive for tEPEC. In a case-to-case comparison among MSD cases, tEPEC was independently associated with presentation at enrolment with a loss of skin turgor (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37–3.17), and convulsions (aOR 2.83, 95% CI 1.12–7.14). At follow-up, infants with tEPEC compared to those without were associated with being underweight (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.6) and wasted (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3–4.6). Among MSD cases, tEPEC was associated with mortality (aOR 2.85, 95% CI 1.47–5.55). This study suggests that tEPEC contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Interventions aimed at defining and reducing the burden of tEPEC and its sequelae should be urgently investigated, prioritised and implemented.
Few options are available for controlling bermudagrass invasion of seashore paspalum. Bermudagrass and seashore paspalum tolerance to topramezone, triclopyr, or the combination of these two herbicides were evaluated in both greenhouse and field conditions. Field treatments included two sequential applications of topramezone (15.6 g ai ha−1) alone and five rates of topramezone + triclopyr (15.6 + 43.2, 15.6 + 86.3, 15.6 + 172.6, 15.6 + 345.2, or 15.6 g ai ha−1 + 690.4 g ae ha−1). Secondary greenhouse treatments included a single application of topramezone (20.8 g ha−1) or triclopyr (258.9 g ha−1) alone, or in combination at 20.8 + 258.9 or 20.8 + 517.8 g ha−1, respectively. Greenhouse and field results showed that topramezone applications in combination with triclopyr present opposite responses between bermudagrass and seashore paspalum. Topramezone increased bermudagrass injury and decreased seashore paspalum bleaching injury compared to topramezone alone. In field evaluations, topramezone + triclopyr at 15.6 + 690.4 g ha−1 used in sequential applications resulted in >90% injury to bermudagrass, however, injury decreased over time. Furthermore, sequential applications of topramezone + triclopyr at 15.6 + 690.4 g ha−1 resulted in >50% injury to seashore paspalum. Application programs including topramezone plus triclopyr should increase bermudagrass suppression and reduce seashore paspalum injury compared to topramezone alone. However, additional studies are needed because such practices will likely require manipulation of topramezone rate, application timing, application interval, and number of applications in order to maximize bermudagrass control and minimize seashore paspalum injury.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
To identify risk factors for asymptomatic Clostridioides difficile colonization among hospitalized adults utilizing a meta-analysis, which may enable early identification of colonized patients at risk of spreading C. difficile.
Meta-analysis and systematic review.
We systematically searched MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and EMBASE from January 1, 1975, to February 15, 2020, for articles related to C. difficile colonization among hospitalized adults. Studies with multivariable analyses evaluating risk factors for asymptomatic colonization were eligible.
Among 5,506 studies identified in the search, 19 studies met the inclusion criteria. Included studies reported 20,334 adult patients of whom 1,588 were asymptomatically colonized with C. difficile. Factors associated with an increased risk of colonization were hospitalization in the previous 6 months (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.86–2.56; P < .001), use of gastric acid suppression therapy within the previous 8 weeks (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.17–1.73; P < .001), tube feeding (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.06–3.85; P = .03), and corticosteroid use in the previous 8 weeks (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.14–2.17; P = .006). Receipt of antibiotics in the previous 3 months (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.94–2.01; P = .10) was not associated with statistically significant effects on risk of colonization.
C. difficile colonization was significantly associated with previous hospitalization, gastric acid suppression, tube feeding, and corticosteroid use. Recognition of these risk factors may assist in identifying asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile and taking appropriate measures to reduce transmission.