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During ice-structure interaction, ice will fail in a brittle manner dominated by two processes. The first corresponds to the formation of macrocracks and the consequent spalling-off of large ice pieces. The second includes an intense shear-damage process in zones, termed critical zones, where high pressures are transmitted to the structure. The shear-damage process results in microstructural changes including microcrack formation and recrystallization. A range of tests on laboratory-prepared granular ice have been conducted to determine the fundamental behaviour of ice under various stress states and stress history, particularly as it relates to changes in microstructure. The test series was designed to study three aspects: the intrinsic creep properties of intact, undamaged ice; the enhancement of creep and changes in microstructure due to damage; and the effects of different stress paths. Tests on intact ice with triaxial confining pressures and low deviatoric stresses, aimed at defining the intrinsic creep response in the absence of microcracking, showed that an accelerated creep rate occurred at relatively low deviatoric stresses. Hence, a minimum Creep rate occurred under these conditions. Recrystallization to a smaller grain-size and void formation were observed. Ice damaged uniaxially and triaxially prior to testing showed enhancement of creep under both uniaxial and triaxial loading conditions Creep rates in triaxially damaged ice were found to be non-linear with high deviatoric stresses, corresponding to a power-law dependence of creep rate. Uniaxially damaged specimens contained microcracks parallel to the stressed direction which tended to close under triaxial confinement. Damage under triaxial conditions at low confining pressures produced small recrystallized grains near zones of microcracking. At high confining pressures, a fine-grained recrystallized structure with no apparent cracking was observed uniformly across the specimen. The recrystallization process contributes significantly to the enhanced creep rates found in damaged specimens.
Trigonometric parallaxes have been measured by Dahn et al. (2002) for 28 cool dwarfs and brown dwarfs, including 17 L dwarfs and three T dwarfs. Broadband CCD and near-IR photometry (VRIz*JHK) have been obtained for these objects and for 24 additional late-type dwarfs. These data have been supplemented with astrometry and photometry from the literature, including parallaxes for the brighter companions of ten L and two T dwarfs. The absolute magnitudes and colors are reviewed here. The I - J color and the spectral type are both good predictors of absolute magnitude for late-M and L dwarfs. MJ becomes monotonically fainter with I - J color and with spectral type through late-L dwarfs, then brightens for early-T dwarfs. In contrast, the J - K color correlates poorly with absolute magnitude for L dwarfs. Using several other parameters from the literature (Li detection, Hα emission strength, projected rotation velocity, and tangential velocity), we fail to uncover any measurable parameter that correlates with the anomalous J - K color.
We have recently used the atmospheric air-shower Cerenkov technique in an attempt to observe pulsed gamma radiation from two southern pulsars, PSR 0833—45 and MP 0959. Northern hemisphere observers do not agree whether the pulsars CP 0950, CP 1133 and CP 1919 are sources of gamma emission, either pulsed or uniform in time.
This paper is a progress report on an examination of the short-term variability of solar proton flux in interplanetary space at times of solar flare activity. The data are from the GRCSW cosmic-ray detector on board the Pioneer 7 space probe, which, at the times to be discussed, was more than a million miles from the Earth.
The ALFA mission is designed to map the entire sky at frequencies between approximately 0.3 and 30 MHz with angular resolution limited by interstellar and interplanetary scattering. Most of this region of the spectrum is inaccessible from the ground because of absorption and refraction by the Earth’s ionosphere. A wide range of astrophysical questions concerning solar system, galactic, and extragalactic objects could be answered with high resolution images at low frequencies, where absorption effects and coherent emission processes become important and the synchrotron lifetimes of electrons are comparable to the age of the universe.
We report a study on the wetting and spreading of hydrazine-CZTS solution on a series of solid surfaces. The work of adhesion between a hydrazine solution and soda-lime glass, Si, graphite, ITO, SnO2, ZnO, CdS, In2S3, Cu, Au, Ag, Al, Ni, Mo, and carbon single-walled nanotubes was calculated using observed contact angles and the areas of the interface. The surface roughness of drop-casted CZTS precursor films was lower on surfaces with better hydrazine wettability. This suggests that the surface roughness of solution-processed films can be controlled by altering the wetting behavior of the solution on the substrate.
A novel approach to fabricate CuIn(S,Se)2 (CIS) thin films through ultrasonically spraying a hydrazine-based precursor solution onto a heated substrate is reported. The effects of the composition of the precursor solutions and the deposition temperature on the CIS film properties were investigated by comparing thin films fabricated using aqueous metal salt solution, anhydrous hydrazine solution, and hydrazine hydrate solution at various deposition temperatures. Crystallite size and texture coefficient in the preferred (112) orientation in the sprayed films increased when the aqueous solution was replaced by hydrazine-based solutions. Additionally, the hydrazine-based precursor solutions resulted in films with better surface smoothness and compositional uniformity than those fabricated using water-based solutions and the hydrazine hydrate solution resulting in the smoothest, most uniform films. The sprayed films were used to fabricate preliminary solar cells that demonstrated a modest photovoltaic response. With optimization, the synthesis of high-quality CIS films by spray pyrolysis from a hydrazine hydrate solution could demonstrate the potential for a low-cost, high-throughput manufacturing process.
Smoking is highly prevalent in people diagnosed with schizophrenia, but the reason for this co-morbidity is currently unclear. One possible explanation is that a common abnormality underpins the development of psychosis and independently enhances the incentive motivational properties of drugs and their associated cues. This study aimed to investigate whether incentive salience attribution towards smoking cues, as assessed by attentional bias, is heightened in schizophrenia and associated with delusions and hallucinations.
Twenty-two smokers diagnosed with schizophrenia and 23 control smokers were assessed for smoking-related attentional bias using a modified Stroop task. Craving, nicotine dependence, smoking behaviour and positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were also recorded.
Both groups showed similar craving scores and smoking behaviour according to self-report and expired carbon monoxide (CO), although the patient group had higher nicotine dependence scores. Attentional bias, as evidenced by significant interference from smoking-related words on the modified Stroop task, was similar in both groups and correlated with CO levels. Attentional bias was positively related to severity of delusions but not hallucinations or other symptoms in the schizophrenia group.
This study supports the hypothesis that the development of delusions and the incentive motivational aspects of smoking may share a common biological substrate. These findings may offer some explanation for the elevated rates of smoking and other drug use in people with psychotic illness.
Cannabis use has been reported to be associated with an earlier onset of symptoms in patients with first-episode psychosis, and a worse outcome in those who continue to take cannabis. In general, studies have concentrated on symptoms of psychosis rather than mania. In this study, using a longitudinal design in a large naturalistic cohort of patients with first-episode psychosis, we investigated the relationship between cannabis use, age of presentation to services, daily functioning, and positive, negative and manic symptoms.
Clinical data on 502 patients with first-episode psychosis were collected using the MiData audit database from seven London-based Early Intervention in psychosis teams. Individuals were assessed at two time points – at entry to the service and after 1 year. On each occasion, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale disability subscale were rated. At both time points, the use of cannabis and other drugs of abuse in the 6 months preceding each assessment was recorded.
Level of cannabis use was associated with a younger age at presentation, and manic symptoms and conceptual disorganization, but not with delusions, hallucinations, negative symptoms or daily functioning. Cannabis users who reduced or stopped their use following contact with services had the greatest improvement in symptoms at 1 year compared with continued users and non-users. Continued users remained more symptomatic than non-users at follow-up.
Effective interventions for reducing cannabis use may yield significant health benefits for patients with first-episode psychosis.
Infection surveillance definitions for long-term care facilities (ie, the McGeer Criteria) have not been updated since 1991. An expert consensus panel modified these definitions on the basis of a structured review of the literature. Significant changes were made to the criteria defining urinary tract and respiratory tract infections. New definitions were added for norovirus gastroenteritis and Clostridum difficile infections.
We present experimental results supporting physics-based ejecta model development, where our main assumption is that ejecta form as a special limiting case of a Richtmyer–Meshkov (RM) instability at a metal–vacuum interface. From this assumption, we test established theory of unstable spike and bubble growth rates, rates that link to the wavelength and amplitudes of surface perturbations. We evaluate the rate theory through novel application of modern laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) techniques, where we coincidentally measure bubble and spike velocities from explosively shocked solid and liquid metals with a single LDV probe. We also explore the relationship of ejecta formation from a solid material to the plastic flow stress it experiences at high-strain rates () and high strains (700 %) as the fundamental link to the onset of ejecta formation. Our experimental observations allow us to approximate the strength of Cu at high strains and strain rates, revealing a unique diagnostic method for use at these extreme conditions.
The synergistic interaction between mesotrione, a hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicide, and atrazine, a photosystem II (PS II)-inhibiting herbicide, has been identified in the control of several weed species. A series of dose–response studies examined the synergistic effect of these herbicides on a susceptible (S) wild radish population. The potential for this interaction to overcome target-site psbA gene-based atrazine resistance in a resistant (R) wild radish population was also investigated. Control of S wild radish with atrazine was enhanced by up to 40% when low rates (1.0 to 1.5 g ha−1) of mesotrione were applied in combination. This synergistic response was demonstrated across a range of atrazine–mesotrione rate combinations on this S wild radish population. Further, the efficacy of 1.5 g ha−1 mesotrione increased control of the R population by a further 60% when applied in combination with 400 g ha−1 of atrazine. This result clearly demonstrated the synergistic interaction of these herbicides in overcoming the target-site resistance mechanism. The mechanism responsible for the observed synergistic interaction between mesotrione and atrazine remains unknown. However, it is speculated that an alternate atrazine binding site may be responsible. Regardless of the biochemical nature of this interaction, evidence from whole-plant bioassays clearly demonstrated that synergistic herbicide combinations improve herbicide efficiency, with lower application rates required to control weed populations. This, combined with the potential to overcome psbA gene-based triazine resistance, and, thereby, regain the use of these herbicides, will result in more sustainable herbicide use.
In substantial numbers of affected populations, disasters adversely affect well-being and influence the development of emotional problems and dysfunctional behaviors. Nowhere is the integration of mental and behavioral health into broader public health and medical preparedness and response activities more crucial than in disasters such as the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic. The National Biodefense Science Board, recognizing that the mental and behavioral health responses to H1N1 were vital to preserving safety and health for the country, requested that the Disaster Mental Health Subcommittee recommend actions for public health officials to prevent and mitigate adverse behavioral health outcomes during the H1N1 pandemic. The subcommittee's recommendations emphasized vulnerable populations and concentrated on interventions, education and training, and communication and messaging. The subcommittee's H1N1 activities and recommendations provide an approach and template for identifying and addressing future efforts related to newly emerging public health and medical emergencies. The many emotional and behavioral health implications of the crisis and the importance of psychological factors in determining the behavior of members of the public argue for a programmatic integration of behavioral health and science expertise in a comprehensive public health response.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:67–71)
The close interplay between mental health and physical health makes it critical to integrate mental and behavioral health considerations into all aspects of public health and medical disaster management. Therefore, the National Biodefense Science Board (NBSB) convened the Disaster Mental Health Subcommittee to assess the progress of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in integrating mental and behavioral health into disaster and emergency preparedness and response activities. One vital opportunity to improve integration is the development of clear and directive national policy to firmly establish the role of mental and behavioral health as part of a unified public health and medical response to disasters. Integration of mental and behavioral health into disaster preparedness, response, and recovery requires it to be incorporated in assessments and services, addressed in education and training, and founded on and advanced through research. Integration must be supported in underlying policies and administration with clear lines of responsibility for formulating and implementing policy and practice.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:60–66)
In their account of the Orlock Bridge Fault of Northern Ireland and its presumed continuation into the Scottish Southern Uplands (the Kingledores Fault) Anderson and Oliver (1986) provide welcome detail in support of major strike-slip movement. However, their identification of the Kingledores Fault as a line of massive strike-slip movement is based on a number of assumptions which are permissible only because biostratigraphical control is generally sparse. In particular the assertion that the Kingledores Fault is a “giant step in the diachronous southerly ascent of the turbidite base” is founded largely on a misinterpretation of evidence recorded by Peach and Horne (1899), Griffith and Wilson (1982) and others.