Dressing, H, Salize, HJ. Compulsory admission of mentally ill patients in European Union Member States. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2004;39(10):797–803.
Priebe, S, Katsakou, C, Glöckner, M, Dembinskas, A, Fiorillo, A, Karastergiou, A, et al.Patients’ views of involuntary hospital admission after 1 and 3 months: prospective study in 11 European countries. Br J Psychiatry. 2010;196(3):179–185.
Fiorillo, A, De Rosa, C, Del Vecchio, V, Jurjanz, L, Schnall, K, Onchev, G, et al.How to improve clinical practice on involuntary hospital admissions of psychiatric patients: suggestions from the EUNOMIA study. Eur Psychiatry. 2011;26(4):201–207.
Georgieva, I, Whittington, R, Lauvrud, C, Steinert, T, Wikman, S, Lepping, P, et al.International variations in mental-health law regulating involuntary commitment of psychiatric patients as measured by the Mental Health Legislation Attitudes Scale. Med Sci Law. 2019;59(2):104–114.
Gaebel, W, Groẞimlinghaus, I, Kerst, A, Cohen, Y, Hinsche-Böckenholt, A, Johnson, B, et al.European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance on the quality of eMental health interventions in the treatment of psychotic disorders. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2016;266:125–137.
Jobst, A, Brakemeier, EL, Buchheim, A, Caspar, F, Cuijpers, P, Ebmeier, KP, et al.European Psychiatric Association guidance on psychotherapy in chronic depression across Europe. Eur Psychiatry. 2016;33:18–36.
Heun, R, Gaebel, W. The relevance of EPA guidance papers in the framework of the European Psychiatric Association. Eur Psychiatry. 2015;30:357–359.
Gaebel, W, Groẞimlinghaus, I, Heun, R, Janssen, B, Johnson, B, Kurimay, T, et al.European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance on quality assurance in mental health care. Eur Psychiatry. 2015;30:360–387.
Schmidt, SJ, Schultze-Lutter, F, Schimmelmann, BG, Maric, NP, Salokangas, RKR, Riecher-Rössler, A, et al.EPA guidance on early intervention in clinical high risk states of psychoses. Eur Psychiatry. 2015;30:388–404.
Schultze-Lutter, F, Michel, C, Schmidt, SJ, Schimmelmann, BG, Maric, NP, Salokangas, RKR, et al.EPA guidance on the early detection of high risk states of psychoses. Eur Psychiatry. 2015;30:405–416.
Bhugra, D, Ventriglio, A, Kuzman, MR, Ikkos, G, Hermans, MHM, Falkai, P, et al.EPA guidance on the role and responsibilities of psychiatrists. Eur Psychiatry. 2015;30:417–422.
Schouler-Ocak, M, Graef-Calliess, IT, Tarricone, I, Qureshi, A, Kastrup, MC, Bhugra, D. EPA guidance on cultural competence training. Eur Psychiatry. 2015;30:431–440.
Campion, J, Bhui, K, Bhugra, D. European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance on prevention of mental disorders. Eur Psychiatry. 2012;27:68–80.
Gaebel, W, Becker, T, Janssen, B, Munk-Jorgensen, P, Musalek, M, Rössler, W, et al.EPA guidance on the quality of mental health services. Eur Psychiatry. 2012;27:87–113.
Kalra, G, Christodoulou, G, Jenkins, R, Tsipas, V, Christodoulou, N, Lecic-Tosevski, D, et al.Mental health promotion, guidance and strategies. Eur Psychiatry 2012;27:81–86.
Wasserman, D, Rihmer, Z, Rujescu, D, Sarchiapone, M, Sokolowski, M, Titelman, D, et al.The European Psychiatry Association (EPA) guidance on suicide treatment and prevention. Eur Psychiatry. 2012;27:129–141.
Abas, MA, Vanderpyl, J, Robinson, E, Le Prou, T, Crampton, P. Socioeconomic deprivation and duration of hospital stay in severe mental disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 2006;188:581–582.
Kallert, TW, Glöckner, M, Schützwohl, M. Involuntary vs. voluntary hospital admission. A systematic review on outcome diversity. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008;258:195–209.
Priebe, S, Badesconyi, A, Fioritti, A, Hansson, L, Kilian, R, Torres-Gonzales, F, et al.Reinstitutionalisation in mental health care: comparison of data on service provision from six European countries. BMJ. 2005;15(330):123–126.
Kallert, TW, Rymaszewska, J, Torres-González, F. Differences of legal regulations concerning involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in twelve European countries: implications for clinical practice. Int J Forensic Ment Health. 2007;6:197–207.
McLaughlin, P, Giacco, D, Priebe, S. Use of coercive measures during involuntary psychiatric admission and treatment outcomes: data from a prospective study across 10 European countries. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(12):e0168720.
World Health Organization. Mental health legislation & human rights (Mental health policy and service guidance package); 2003.
Hotzy, F, Moetteli, S, Theodoridou, A, Schneeberger, AR, Seifritz, E, Hoff, P, et al.Clinical course and prevalence of coercive measures: an observational study among involuntarily hospitalised psychiatric patients. Swiss Med Wkly. 2018;148:w14616.
Wasserman, D, Iosue, M, Wuestefeld, A, Carli, V. Adaptation of evidence-based suicide prevention strategies during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. World Psychiatry. in press.
Möller‑Leimkühler, AM, , HJ, Maier, W, Gaebel, W, Falkai, P. EPA guidance on improving the image of psychiatry. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2016;266:139–54.
Sartorius, N, Gaebel, W, Cleveland, HR, Stuart, H, Akiyama, T, Arboleda-Florez, J, et al.WPA guidance on how to combat stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists. World Psychiatry. 2010;9(3):131–44.
Gaebel, W, Muijen, M, Baumann, AE, Bhugra, D, Wasserman, D, van der Gaag, RJ, et al.EPA guidance on building trust in mental health services. Eur Psychiatry. 2014;29:83–100.
Stuart, R, Akther, SF, Machin, K, Persuad, K, Simpson, A, Johnson, S, et al.Carers’ experiences of involuntary admission under mental health legislation: systematic review and qualitative meta-synthesis. BJPsych Open. 2020;6(2),e19:1–9.
Sashidharan, SP, Mezzina, R, Puras, D. Reducing coercion in mental healthcare. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2019;28(6):605–612.
Sheridan Rains, L, Zenina, T, Dias, MC, Jones, R, Jeffreys, S, Branthonne-Foster, S, et al.Variations in patterns of involuntary hospitalisation and in legal frameworks: an international comparative study. Lancet Psychiatry. 2019;6(5):403–417.
Lecy, JD, Beatty, KE. Representative literature reviews using constrained snowball sampling and citation network analysis; SSRN 2012.
Saya, A, Brugnoli, C, Piazzi, G, Liberato, D, Di Ciaccia, G, Niolu, C, et al.Criteria, procedures, and future prospects of involuntary treatment in psychiatry around the world: a narrative review. Front Psychiatry. 2019;29(10):271.
Fioritti, A, Marcacci, T. Coercion in Europe. In: Molodynski, A, Rugkåsa, J, Burns, T, editors. Coercion in community mental health care: International perspectives, Oxford University Press, United Kingdom 2016.
Hatling, T, Douzenis, A, Maguire, J. Diversity and consistency in the legal management of involuntary admission and treatment across Europe. Violence in mental health settings, New York, NY: Springer, 2006;p. 95–109.
de Stefano A, , Ducci, G. Involuntary admission and compulsory treatment in Europe: an overview. Int J Ment Health. 2008;37(3):10–21.
Zhang, S, Mellsop, G, Brink, J, Wang, X. Involuntary admission and treatment of patients with mental disorder. Neurosci Bull. 2015;31(1):99–112.
Helmchen, H, Okasha, A. From the Hawaii declaration to the declaration of Madrid. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2000;101(399):20–3.
World Health Organization. Mental health care law: ten basic principles. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1996.
Stylianidis, S, editor. Social and community psychiatry: towards a critical, patient-oriented approach. Springer, Switzerland 2016.
Johnson, SB, De Rosa, C, Musalek, M. Involuntary hospitalizations in psychiatry: what to do and what to avoid. In: Fiorillo, A, Volpe, U, Bhugra, D, editors. Psychiatry in practice: education, experience, and expertise, Oxford University Press, United Kingdom 2016.
Jacobsen, TB. Involuntary treatment in Europe: different countries, different practices. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2012;25(4):307–310.
Salize, HJ, Dressing, H. Epidemiology of involuntary placement of mentally ill people across the European Union. Br J Psychiatry. 2004;184(2):163–168.
Large, MM, Ryan, CJ, Nielssen, OB, Hayes, RA. The danger of dangerousness: why we must remove the dangerousness criterion from our mental health acts. J Med Ethics. 2008;34(12):877–881.
Kearns, M, Muldoon, OT, Msetfi, RM, Surgenor, PW. Identification reduces stigma of mental ill‐health: a community‐based study. Am. J Community Psychol. 2018;61(1–2):229–239.
de Brito, ES, Ventura, CA. Involuntary psychiatric admission: comparative study of mental health legislation in Brazil and in England/Wales. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2019;64:184–97.
Chow, WS, Priebe, S. Understanding psychiatric institutionalization: a conceptual review. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13(1):169.
Rüsch, N, Müller, M, Lay, B, Corrigan, PW, Zahn, R, Schönenberger, T, et al.Emotional reactions to involuntary psychiatric hospitalization and stigma-related stress among people with mental illness. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2014;264(1):35–43.
Xu, Z, Lay, B, Oexle, N, Drack, T, Bleiker, M, Lengler, S, et al.Involuntary psychiatric hospitalisation, stigma stress and recovery: a 2-year study. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2019;28(4):458–465.
Rodrigues, R, MacDougall, AG, Zou, G, Lebenbaum, M, Kurdyak, P, Li, L, et al.Involuntary hospitalization among young people with early psychosis: a population-based study using health administrative data. Schizophr Res. 2019;208:276–284.