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Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a concept for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission that will achieve ground-breaking science in the fields of galaxy evolution, cosmology, Milky Way, and the Solar System. It is the follow-up space mission to Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), boosting its scientific return by obtaining deep 1–4 μm slit spectroscopy for ∼70% of all galaxies imaged by the ∼2 000 deg2 WFIRST High Latitude Survey at z > 0.5. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy will measure accurate and precise redshifts for ∼200 M galaxies out to z < 7, and deliver spectra that enable a wide range of diagnostic studies of the physical properties of galaxies over most of cosmic history. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe and WFIRST together will produce a 3D map of the Universe over 2 000 deg2, the definitive data sets for studying galaxy evolution, probing dark matter, dark energy and modifications of General Relativity, and quantifying the 3D structure and stellar content of the Milky Way. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe science spans four broad categories: (1) Revolutionising galaxy evolution studies by tracing the relation between galaxies and dark matter from galaxy groups to cosmic voids and filaments, from the epoch of reionisation through the peak era of galaxy assembly; (2) Opening a new window into the dark Universe by weighing the dark matter filaments using 3D weak lensing with spectroscopic redshifts, and obtaining definitive measurements of dark energy and modification of General Relativity using galaxy clustering; (3) Probing the Milky Way’s dust-enshrouded regions, reaching the far side of our Galaxy; and (4) Exploring the formation history of the outer Solar System by characterising Kuiper Belt Objects. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a 1.5 m telescope with a field of view of 0.4 deg2, and uses digital micro-mirror devices as slit selectors. It has a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1 000, and a wavelength range of 1–4 μm. The lack of slit spectroscopy from space over a wide field of view is the obvious gap in current and planned future space missions; Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy fills this big gap with an unprecedented spectroscopic capability based on digital micro-mirror devices (with an estimated spectroscopic multiplex factor greater than 5 000). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy is designed to fit within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission cost envelope; it has a single instrument, a telescope aperture that allows for a lighter launch vehicle, and mature technology (we have identified a path for digital micro-mirror devices to reach Technology Readiness Level 6 within 2 yr). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe will lead to transformative science over the entire range of astrophysics: from galaxy evolution to the dark Universe, from Solar System objects to the dusty regions of the Milky Way.
We present the results from the state-of-the-art wide-field survey of the M81 galaxy group that we are conducting with Hyper Suprime-Cam on Subaru Telescope. Our photometry reaches about 2 mag below the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) and reveals the spatial distribution of both old and young stars over an area of 5°2 around the M81. The young main-sequence (MS) stars closely follow the HI distribution and can be found in a stellar stream between M81 and NGC 3077 and in numerous outlying stellar associations. Our survey also reveals for the first time the very extended (>2 × R25) halos of RGB stars around M81, M82, and NGC 3077, as well as faint tidal streams that link these systems. The gravitational interactions between M81, M82 and NGC 3077 galaxies induced star formation in tidally stripped gas, and also significantly perturbed the older stellar components leading to disturbed halo morphologies.
The public health threat posed by zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi appears to be growing: it is increasingly reported across South East Asia, and is the leading cause of malaria in Malaysian Borneo. Plasmodium knowlesi threatens progress towards malaria elimination as aspects of its transmission, such as spillover from wildlife reservoirs and reliance on outdoor-biting vectors, may limit the effectiveness of conventional methods of malaria control. The development of new quantitative approaches that address the ecological complexity of P. knowlesi, particularly through a focus on its primary reservoir hosts, will be required to control it. Here, we review what is known about P. knowlesi transmission, identify key knowledge gaps in the context of current approaches to transmission modelling, and discuss the integration of these approaches with clinical parasitology and geostatistical analysis. We highlight the need to incorporate the influences of fine-scale spatial variation, rapid changes to the landscape, and reservoir population and transmission dynamics. The proposed integrated approach would address the unique challenges posed by malaria as a zoonosis, aid the identification of transmission hotspots, provide insight into the mechanistic links between incidence and land use change and support the design of appropriate interventions.
The application of metabolomics in multi-centre studies is increasing. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of geographical location on the metabolic profiles of individuals with the metabolic syndrome. Blood and urine samples were collected from 219 adults from seven European centres participating in the LIPGENE project (Diet, genomics and the metabolic syndrome: an integrated nutrition, agro-food, social and economic analysis). Nutrient intakes, BMI, waist:hip ratio, blood pressure, and plasma glucose, insulin and blood lipid levels were assessed. Plasma fatty acid levels and urine were assessed using a metabolomic technique. The separation of three European geographical groups (NW, northwest; NE, northeast; SW, southwest) was identified using partial least-squares discriminant analysis models for urine (R2X: 0·33, Q2: 0·39) and plasma fatty acid (R2X: 0·32, Q2: 0·60) data. The NW group was characterised by higher levels of urinary hippurate and N-methylnicotinate. The NE group was characterised by higher levels of urinary creatine and citrate and plasma EPA (20 : 5 n-3). The SW group was characterised by higher levels of urinary trimethylamine oxide and lower levels of plasma EPA. The indicators of metabolic health appeared to be consistent across the groups. The SW group had higher intakes of total fat and MUFA compared with both the NW and NE groups (P≤ 0·001). The NE group had higher intakes of fibre and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids compared with both the NW and SW groups (all P< 0·001). It is likely that differences in dietary intakes contributed to the separation of the three groups. Evaluation of geographical factors including diet should be considered in the interpretation of metabolomic data from multi-centre studies.
We have used high-resolution, HST WFC3/IR, near-infrared imaging to conduct a detailed bulge-disk decomposition of the morphologies of ≃ 200 of the most massive (M* > 1011 M⊙) galaxies at 1 < z < 3 in the CANDELS-UDS field. We find that, while such massive galaxies at low redshift are generally bulge-dominated, at redshifts 1<z<2 they are predominantly mixed bulge+disk systems, and by z > 2 they are mostly disk-dominated. Interestingly, we find that while most of the quiescent galaxies are bulge-dominated, a significant fraction (25–40%) of the most quiescent galaxies, have disk-dominated morphologies. Thus, our results suggest that the physical mechanisms which quench star-formation activity are not simply connected to those responsible for the morphological transformation of massive galaxies.
The objective of this research was to assess current patterns of hospital antibiotic prescribing in Northern Ireland and to determine targets for improving the quality of antibiotic prescribing. A point prevalence survey was conducted in four acute teaching hospitals. The most commonly used antibiotics were combinations of penicillins including β-lactamase inhibitors (33·6%), metronidazole (9·1%), and macrolides (8·1%). The indication for treatment was recorded in 84·3% of the prescribing episodes. A small fraction (3·9%) of the surgical prophylactic antibiotic prescriptions was for >24 h. The results showed that overall 52·4% of the prescribed antibiotics were in compliance with the hospital antibiotic guidelines. The findings identified the following indicators as targets for quality improvement: indication recorded in patient notes, the duration of surgical prophylaxis and compliance with hospital antibiotic guidelines. The results strongly suggest that antibiotic use could be improved by taking steps to address the identified targets for quality improvement.
InGaN/GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes (MWQ LED's) with different levels of p-doping in the contact layer have been characterized using surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS). Due to the high sensitivity of the SPS technique to the electric field, there is a strong correlation between the p-doping level in the contact layer and the magnitude of the SPS signal originating from the MQW region. The experimental results are confirmed by a numerical simulation.
Skeletal fractures represent a significant medical and economic burden for society. It is generally thought that a high incidence of musculoskeletal fatigue loading results in damage accumulation at too high of a rate to be efficiently remodeled, leading to skeletal fracture. The state of damage in bone at a given time is therefore the net result of damage and repair processes, and is dependent upon extrinsic factors such as mechanical history, but also upon intrinsic factors, such as composition of bone mineral and matrix. In this invited paper, we review investigations on the coupling of Raman spectroscopy with mechanical loading of bone, providing insight into mechanisms of ultrastructural deformation in bone at smaller scales than previously understood. We also present new data showing that in-vivo mechanical loading results in increased resistance to fatigue damage, coupled with an increase in phosphate to amide I ratio and decrease in carbonate to phosphate ratio. Taken together, the data demonstrates the ability to modulate the mechanical and chemical properties of bone via exogenous mechanical stimulation.
White spot lesions are clinically detectable areas of demineralized enamel that often form during orthodontic treatment. Fluoride has been shown to prevent demineralization from occurring. Mechanical properties of white spot lesions are not well characterized. Bovine enamel slabs, with and without fluoride treatment, were placed under demineralization conditions. Through a series of microindentations at incremental loads, mechanical strength was measured using a novel method, SVAE. Specific Volume Absorbing Energy (SVAE) is equal to work energy divided by the indentation volume. The supra-surface area (outmost 5 μm) of enamel slabs with fluoride demonstrated decreased mechanical strength compared to those without fluoride. Fluoride may not impart protection over long periods of demineralization.
Intersubband transitions (ISTs) in GaN/AlxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were investigated using an optical absorption technique. Several samples were grown by either Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) or Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) and were investigated using both normal incident and waveguide configurations. The waveguides were fabricated by dicing each sample into 2 mm wide by 5 mm long pieces with two facets polished at 45 degrees with respect to the surface such that light propagates across the sample's width. Preliminary results indicate that ISTs are observable in Si-doped and undoped GaN/AlxGa1-xN MQWs. The source of these charge carriers in the undoped samples are explained as being due to the spontaneous polarization effect which exists at the GaN/AlxGa1-xN interfaces where the GaN surface has Ga-polarity. Scanning Electron Microscopy indicates that a sample containing what appeared to be a large number of cracks and or hexagonal voids lacked the presence of ISTs.
In this paper, threading dislocation densities in GaN and AlGaN epitaxial layers have been evaluated using two different X-ray analysis techniques; a Williamson Hall (WH) plot and reciprocal space mapping (RSM). GaN and AlGaN have crystalline growth composed of columnar structures that can be estimated by coherence length and angular misorientation measured by X-ray. A WH plot can provide information about coherence length and tilt angle from a linear fit to the linewidth of the triple axis rocking curve (000l) symmetric reflections. RSM is typically used to obtain this data, but it is more involved in technique. The two dominant components of threading dislocation densities (screw and edge types) in the GaN and AlGaN epitaxial layers were found to be similar by both techniques. The treading dislocation density correlates to the size of columnar structure as determined by coherence length, tilt angle, and twist angle. The effect of Al composition in AlGaN alloys on these dislocation densities was investigated and found to depend on strongly on the type of nucleation layer, GaN or AlN.
A Raman scattering study for self-organized Ge dots on Si substrate is presented. Raman signals from the Ge islands and Si substrate have been separated, by means of difference Raman spectroscopy technique. The wetting layer thickness and strain were estimated from the line width and the position of the peak. The estimated wetting layer thickness values are comparative with the Ge dot height obtained from microscopy measurements. As explained, the strain is observed to decrease with an increase of the Ge island height and the wetting layer thickness.
This paper describes a study of the photoresponse of long-wavelength (LWIR) and mid-infrared (MWIR) p-type GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) as a function of temperature and QWIP parameters. Using an 8x8 envelope-function model (EFA), we designed and calculated the optical absorption of several bound-to-continuum (BC) structures, with the optimum designs corresponding to the second light hole level (LH2) coincident with the top of the well. For the temperature-dependent study, one non-optimized LWIR and one optimized MWIR samples were grown by MBE and their photoresponse and absorption characteristics measured to test the theory. The theory shows that the placement of the LH2 resonance at the top of the well for the optimized sample and the presence of light-hole-like quasi-bound states within the heavy-hole continuum for the nonoptimized sample account for their markedly different thermal and polarization characteristics. In particular, the theory predicts that, for the LWIR sample, the LH-like quasi-bound states should lead to an increased Ppolarized photoresponse as a function of temperature. Our temperature dependent photoresponse measurements corroborate most of the theoretical findings with respect to the long-wavelength threshold, shape, and polarization and temperature dependence of the spectra.
Sb mid-IR laser can be used in external configuration to achieve wide wavelength tuning range. At low temperature, gain media with band-edge wavelengths between 3.3 to 4 pm have been demonstrated with wavelength tuning up to ∼9% of the center wavelength. Power output from few tens of mW to 0.2-W peak, 20-mW average was achieved. Type-II Sb laser promises the possibility of such performance at higher temperature, e. g. 200 K. However, significant trade-off must be considered between tuning range and power and efficiency. Optimization requires consideration of both basic wafer design and cavity geometry.
Raman spectroscopy has been used to investigate wafers of both 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC. The two-phonon Raman spectra from both 4H- and 6H-SiC have been measured and found to be polytype dependent, consistent with changes in the vibrational density of states. We have observed electronic Raman scattering from nitrogen defect levels in both 4H- and 6H-SiC at room temperature. We have found that electronic Raman scattering from the nitrogen defect levels is significantly enhanced with excitation by red or near IR laser light. These results demonstrate that the laser wavelength is a key parameter in the characterization of SiC by Raman scattering. These results suggest that Raman spectroscopy can be used as a noninvasive, in situ diagnostic for SiC wafer production and substrate evaluation. We also present results on time-resolved photoluminescence spectra of n-type SiC wafers.