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Employing atomic-scale simulations, the response of a high-angle grain boundary (GB), the soft/hard GB, against external loading was systematically investigated. Under tensile loading close to the hard orientation, strain-induced dynamic recrystallization was observed to initiate through direct soft-to-hard grain reorientation, which was triggered by stress mismatch, inhibited by surface tension from the soft-hard GB, and proceeded by interface ledges. Such grain reorientation corresponds with expansion and contraction of the hard grain along and perpendicular to the loading direction, respectively, accompanied by local atomic shuffling, providing relatively large normal strain of 8.3% with activation energy of 0.04 eV per atom. Tensile strain and residual dislocations on the hard/soft GB facilitate the initiation of dynamic recrystallization by lowering the energy barrier and the critical stress for grain reorientation, respectively.
The nonlinear dynamics of energetic-particle (EP) driven geodesic acoustic modes (EGAM) in tokamaks is investigated, and compared with the beam-plasma system (BPS). The EGAM is studied with the global gyrokinetic (GK) particle-in-cell code ORB5, treating the thermal ions and EP (in this case, fast ions) as GK and neglecting the kinetic effects of the electrons. The wave–particle nonlinearity is only considered in the EGAM nonlinear dynamics. The BPS is studied with a one-dimensional code where the thermal plasma is treated as a linear dielectric, and the EP (in this case, fast electrons) with an N-body Hamiltonian formulation. A one-to-one mapping between the EGAM and the BPS is described. The focus is on understanding and predicting the EP redistribution in phase space. We identify here two distinct regimes for the mapping: in the low-drive regime, the BPS mapping with the EGAM is found to be complete, and in the high-drive regime, the EGAM dynamics and the BPS dynamics are found to differ. The transition is described with the presence of a non-negligible frequency chirping, which affects the EGAM but not the BPS, above the identified drive threshold. The difference can be resolved by adding an ad hoc frequency modification to the BPS model. As a main result, the formula for the prediction of the nonlinear width of the velocity redistribution around the resonance velocity is provided. This article is written as the second of a series of articles (the first being Biancalani et al. (J. Plasma Phys., vol. 83 (6), 2017, 725830602)) on the saturation of EGAMs due to wave–particle nonlinearity.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity associated with liver disease. Risk factors identified for the transmission of HCV include contaminated blood products, intravenous drug use, body piercing, an infected mother at birth, sexual activity, and dental therapy, among others. However, the exact diversity of the HCV genotype and genetic variation among patients with low-risk factors is still unknown. In this study, we briefly described and analysed the genotype distribution and genetic variation of HCV infections with low-risk factors using molecular biology techniques. The results suggested that genotype 1b was predominant, followed by genotypes 2a and 1a. Genetic variations in the 5′ UTR sequences of HCV were identified, including point mutations, deletions, and insertions. The frequency of genetic variations in 1b was higher than in 2a. This study provides considerable value for the prevention and treatment of liver disease caused by HCV among patients with low-risk factors and for the development of HCV diagnostic reagents and vaccines.
Based on the high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra collected with the coudé echelle spectrograph attached to the 2.16m telescope at Beijing Astronomical Observatory, we determined the chemical abundance patterns for a sample of six planet-harboring stars. The result is used to investigate the connection between giant planet and high metallicity and to probe the influence of this process on other elements.
Magnetostriction and thin film stress have been studied in high moment single layer FeTaN films deposited by high rate reactive dc magnetron sputtering. Low Magnetostriction (Magnitude less than 1 × 10-6) can be obtained over a fairly large range of nitrogen flow rates during film deposition by vacuum annealing at 500°C. After annealing at 500°C for two hours, all films were found to be in a state of tensile stress. Stress versus temperature measurements up to 400°C show film stress in as-deposited films to be highly hysteretic during the first temperature cycle reflecting the films' processing history. Stress-temperature cycles on annealed samples indicate that extremely stable films are produced in an intermediate range of nitrogen content.
High Moment single layer FeTaN films with excellent soft magnetic properties have been grown by high rate reactive dc magnetron sputtering. The best combination of properties (easy and hard axis coercivities < 1 Oe, saturation Magnetization > 1650 emu/cc, anisotropy field of 5 Oe, and initial permeability of 4800) are found in films containing ∼3.2 a/O Ta and ∼7.5 a/o N after 400°C annealing in a 200 Oe dc field for two hours. These properties are associated with a single phase, random, nanocrystalline structure consisting of a-Fe crystallites (grain size of ∼ 100Å) whose lattice is expanded by both Ta and N.
Teflon amorphous fluoropolymer (TAF) multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) suspensions have the potential for creating conductive coatings on insulating films for numerous applications. However, there are few studies on polymer MWCNT suspension properties and even fewer that use Teflon. To define mechanical and electrical property relationships, bilayer films of TAF-MWCNT were created with differing concentrations of MWCNTs. Nanoindentation revealed that addition of 8 wt% MWCNTs to TAF increased the elastic modulus by about 25% and hardness by about 15%. Conducting indentation showed 8 wt% MWCNT films exhibit uniform stable conductance once indentation depth exceeds several hundred nanometers. Films with lower concentrations of CNTs were insulating. The two techniques provide a unique description of structure property relationships in this suspension film system.
The thickness of the Al2O3 layer used in the magnetic tunneling junctions FM1/Al2O3/FM2 is less than 2 nm, here FM1 is for the ferromagnetic layer 1 and FM2 is for ferromagnetic layer 2. In order to obtain ultra-thin Al2O3 layer with higher breakdown voltage and pinhole free, extremely smooth surface roughness of this layer is required. The influence of the sputtering gas pressure, DC pulsed frequency, DC pulsed power, substrate bias and buffer layer on surface roughness and properties of Al thin films were studied. The single layer Al films are usually amorphous, texture (111) Al films can be obtained while using thin Ta 5 nm or Ta5/NiFe2 as underlayer. Very smooth Al thin film can be sputtered on Si/SiO2 (100) wafer with Ta/NiFe buffer layer at f=15 kHz (DC pulsed frequency) and with RF substrate biasing (Vpp is about 21 V). High quality MTJs with high MR ratio up to 44.6% and high field sensitivity up to 19.3%/Oe were finally demonstrated after optimization of thin film deposition process.
Free and bound exciton luminescences as well as donor-acceptor pair recombination of GaN epitaxial layers on 6H-SiC and sapphire substrates were investigated using time integrated and time resolved photoluminescence measurements at low temperatures. Lifetimes are determined for the donor bound exciton at 3.4722eV and for two acceptor bound excitons with energies of 3.4672eV and 3.459eV. Luminescences between 3.29eV and 3.37eV are identified as due to excitons deeply bound to centers located near the substrate-epilayer interface.
Multilayers of Fe(100)/Ag(100) were grown by MBE and analyzed with in situ RHEED and MÖssbauer spectroscopy. These films had a constant Ag layer thickness of 40 monolayers (ML) and varying Fe layer thicknesses of 3, 6, and 9 ML. Using MÖssbauer spectroscopy the presence of three Fe sites was inferred. From considerations of the hyperflne parameters and the relative intensities of the sextets, we assign one site to the bulk, and one to each interface: Fe on Ag and Ag on Fe. We believe that one explanation of this is differing tetragonal distortions at the two interfaces. Consequently, another series of films was grown in an attempt to distinguish these sites. These films were essentially identical to the 9 ML film above, but the Fe layers were composed of 56Fe, with a 2 ML 57Fe probe layer effused at the bulk and at each interface in turn. At this point 57Fe MÖssbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the hyperfine field and its temperature dependence for each of the three sites.
Two series of Fe/Ag multilayers were grown in a Perkin-Elmer 430B MBE system, one of the Fe(110)/Ag(lll) orientation and another of the Fe(100)/Ag(100) orientation. Vastly different techniques were developed by this group and others to achieve epitaxial growth of both of these systems. Using RHEED, it was inferred that the optimal growth of Fe(110) on Ag(lll) occurred at a substrate temperature of 180° C. In contrast, the growth of Fe(lO0)/Ag(100) proceeded with the sharpest RHEED streaks at a reduced substrate temperature. We believe that these fundamentally different growth parameters are the result of physically different growth modes, conjectured to be: edge growth (Fe 110), and a more nucleated growth (Fe 100).
Accordingly, dissimilar magnetic interfacial properties are also strongly in evidence, accounted for by the structural differences associated with the different Fe planes. Furthermore, Fe(110) layers as thin as 3 ML were grown on Ag(lll) and showed no superparamagnetism and a genuine 2-dimensional behavior of M(T). However, the Fe(100) on Ag(100) multilayers in a similar thickness range exhibited strong relaxation and a comparatively reduced Curie temperature.
We have grown a series of Fe(110)/Ag(111)/Fe(110) sandwich structures using a PHI 430B MBE system and analyzed their magnetic properties using transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy. The heterostructures consisted of two 30-monolayer (ML) 56Fe(110) slabs separated by an intervening Ag(111) layer 2 to 35 ML thick, with a 2 ML 57Fe Mössbauer probe layer placed at one of the Fe/Ag interfaces. We found that temperature dependence of the hyperfine field in the probe layer and the saturation hyperfine field value as well stronly depend on the Ag interlayer thickness. This result demonstrates that there exists an interlayer magnetic exchange interaction between the Fe layers across Ag. In addition, preliminary evidence suggests that this is probably an RKKY interaction.
Nanocrytslline composite films of Ag-Mo and Ag-Ni have been made by a co-deposition technique in UHV. The structure and composition have been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). For practical applications, the friction coefficient and wear rate were measured using a pin-on-plate machine for Ag-Mo composites deposited on steel. For fundamental studies, the hardness of the Ag-Ni composites deposited on oxidized Si wafers was measured using a nanoindenter. Experiments show that (1) reduction of friction and wear rate can be achieved using these nanocomposite coatings and (2) the hardness of the nanocomposites depends on the grain size. As the grain size of the Ag decreases from 100 to 10 nm, the hardness increases about 4 times.
A variety of recent measurements has shown that the phase diagrams of Langmuir monolayers of relatively simple amphiphiles such as fatty acids and their methyl and ethyl esters are remarkably complex. Nine condensed phases have been identified; their structures can be related to those of known smectic phases. A key distinction between phases is the orientation of the molecular tilt azimuth with respect to the local hexagonal order of the head groups. When monolayers are examined by fluorescence microscopy, regions of uniform tilt can be observed if the exciting radiation is polarized with respect to the surface normal. The tilt regions form patterns similar to those observed in freely suspended films of smectic liquid crystals. The patterns can be changed by compressing the film and by changing the temperature. Transitions between different phases can be observed.
Oxygen permeation fluxes through dense SrCo0.80Fe0.20O3-δ discs have been measured in the temperature range of 620-920 °C under various oxygen partial pressure gradients. The permeation results are compared with the previous measurements. Below 800 °C, the apparent activation energy for the overall permeation is 22±4 kcal/mol. The permeation results are discussed in light of the phase diagram of SrCo0.80Fe0.20O3-δ. Based on experiments in which the membrane thickness is varied, we propose that the surface exchange process is the ratelimiting step in the overall permeation reaction. Preliminary catalytic studies of methane partial oxidation in a membrane reactor are reported.
While gas condensation and mechanical alloying have been used to produce nano-phase powders, an effective method of applying these powders as coatings is still lacking. Furthermore, fundamental studies of the mechanical properties of nano-phase powders may be complicated by the porosity associated with consolidation processes. Recently, we have made nano-crystalline composite thin films of Ag-Mo and Ag-Ni by depositing two immiscible elements simultaneous onto substrates. We found, using XRD and TEM, that the average grain size varies from 10 to 100 nm by choosing an appropriate substrate temperature. Nanoindentation measurements showed the hardness of the composite is increased four times by reducing the grain-size of both phases from 100 to 10 nm. The load vs. displacement curves were simulated using a finite element method (ABAQUS). A relationship between the hardness of the two-phase composite and the yield strength of each phase is obtained.
The effects of charged substrates on the attachment of rat primary bone marrow stromal cells have been investigated using a novel cell culture chamber. Cells were cultured on the surfaces of a conductive and optically transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) coating. When a voltage was applied to the ITO electrodes, positive and negative charges were induced on the ITO electrodes. After 24 hours exposure to 0.8V, more cells attached to the anode than either the cathode or control both in presence or absence of serum in the culture medium. Protein desorption profiles also indicated that the enhanced attachment of cells to the anode was not controlled by the adsorption of serum proteins. The surface texture of ITO was analyzed using atomic force microscopy, the thickness by transmission electron microscopy, and crystallinity using glancing angle x-ray diffraction.
Organisms can precipitate a wide array of minerals which they use to build calcified tissues (i.e., bone, mollusk shell, eggshell, coccolith) having highly sophisticated microstructures. The disposition of organic and mineral components building these materials is highly organized from the nano- to the millimeter scale. Their ordered assembly implies self-organization processes accorded in space and time, giving rise to highly sophisticated textured materials. The objective of our work is the study of fundamental processes in biomineralization such as self-organization processes and texture control in biomineral crystal aggregates. To study the order in the arrangement of shell making crystals we used area detectors available today in modern X-ray diffractometers. The 2D diffraction patterns, collected using such detectors, contain detailed information not only about the mineralogy but also about the microstructure characteristics of polycrystalline materials – crystal size, stress, crystallinity and crystallographic-texture. For instance, to understand microstructure development in mollusk shells, we use this type of detector to do microdiffraction analyses combined with high resolution SEM in order to follow the ordering mechanisms of crystals making these biomaterials.
Poly(urea-formaldehyde) capsules enclosing electrophoretic particle dispersion were formed by carrying out an in-situ polymerization reaction in an oil-in-water emulsion. The internal dispersion was composed of pigment particles Yellow-14 modified by charge control agent to have superior electrophoresis velocity and the mixture of tetrachloroethylene and sec-butylbenzene, using Span 80 as the stabilizer and emulsifier. FE-SEM, TEM, and optical microscope (OM) were performed to investigate on the capsule size and surface morphology. Contact angle measurements showed that UF prepolymer deposited at the o/w interface to form hollow capsules only when the interfacial tension is large enough.