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Effectively addressing public health crises requires dynamic and nimble interdisciplinary collaborations across the translational spectrum, from bench to clinic to community. The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Program hubs are uniquely suited to facilitate interdisciplinary collaborations across universities and academic medical centers. This paper describes the activities at the Columbia University CTSA Program hub to address a current public health crisis, the opioid epidemic. Columbia’s CTSA Program hub led a three-phase approach, based on the Conceptual Model of Transdisciplinary Scientific Collaboration as described by Stokols et al.: (1) a university-wide planning and brainstorming phase to identify key leaders across many domains who are influential in addressing the opioid epidemic, (2) a campus-wide and community outreach to identify all interested parties, and (3) ongoing targeted support for collaboration development. Preliminary metrics of success are interdisciplinary collaborations and grant funding. We describe recent examples of how interdisciplinary collaboration, academic-community partnership, and pilot funding contributed to the development and funding of innovative interdisciplinary research, including the New York site of the HEALing Communities initiative. The processes are now being used to support interdisciplinary approaches for other translational public health issues.
Spatially extensive and intense phytoplankton blooms observed off Iberia, in satellite pictures, are driven by significant nutrient supply by upper-ocean vertical mesoscale activity rather than by horizontal advection by coastal upwelling. Productivity of oligotrophic regions is still poorly depicted by discrete instrumental and model data sets. The paleoproductivity reconstructions of these areas represent the mean productivity over long periods, bringing new insights into the total biomass fluxes. Here, we present paleoproductivity records from the oceanic Tore Seamount region, covering the period from 140 to 60 ka. They show higher nutrient supplies during Termination II, Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 4, MIS 6, and warming transitions of the MIS 5 sub-stages. The highest nutrient content (higher productivity) in phase with tracers of bottom-water ventilation (benthic δ13C,231Pa/230Th) establishes a strong linkage with variability of Southern Ocean-sourced waters. Low productivity and ventilation over warm sub-stages of MIS 5 respond instead to North Atlantic Deep Water. Assuming that the Tore Seamount is representative of oligotrophic regions, the glacial-interglacial relationship observed between paleoproductivity and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation strength opens new insights into the importance of estimating the total biomass in these regions. The subtropical gyres might play a considerable role in the carbon cycle over (sub-)glacial-interglacial time scales than previously thought.
Radiocarbon (14C) measurements of foraminifera often provide the only absolute age constraints in marine sediments. However, they are often challenging as their reliability and accuracy can be compromised by reduced availability of adequate sample material. New analytical advances using the MIni CArbon DAting System (MICADAS) allow 14C dating of very small samples, circumventing size limitations inherent to conventional 14C measurements with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Here we use foraminiferal samples and carbonate standard material to assess the reproducibility and precision of MICADAS 14C analyses, quantify contamination biases, and determine foraminiferal 14C blank levels. The reproducibility of conventional 14C ages for our planktic (benthic) foraminiferal samples from gas measurements is 200 (130) yr, and has good precision as illustrated by the agreement between both standards and their reference values as well as between small gas- and larger graphitized foraminiferal samples (within 100±60 yr). We observe a constant contamination bias and slightly higher 14C blanks for foraminifera than for carbonate reference materials, limiting gas (graphite) 14C age determinations for foraminifera from our study sites to ~38 (~42) kyr. Our findings underline the significance of MICADAS gas analyses for 14C on smaller-than-conventional sized foraminiferal samples for paleoclimate reconstructions and dating.
From its original formulation in 1990 the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (ITASE) has had as its primary aim the collection and interpretation of a continent-wide array of environmental parameters assembled through the coordinated efforts of scientists from several nations. ITASE offers the ground-based opportunities of traditional-style traverse travel coupled with the modern technology of GPS, crevasse detecting radar, satellite communications and multidisciplinary research. By operating predominantly in the mode of an oversnow traverse, ITASE offers scientists the opportunity to experience the dynamic range of the Antarctic environment. ITASE also offers an important interactive venue for research similar to that afforded by oceanographic research vessels and large polar field camps, without the cost of the former or the lack of mobility of the latter. More importantly, the combination of disciplines represented by ITASE provides a unique, multidimensional (space and time) view of the ice sheet and its history. ITASE has now collected >20 000km of snow radar, recovered more than 240 firn/ice cores (total length 7000 m), remotely penetrated to ~4000m into the ice sheet, and sampled the atmosphere to heights of >20 km.
We investigate and quantify the variability of snow accumulation rate around a medium-depth firn core (160 m) drilled in east Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (75°00′ S, 15°00’ E; 3470 m h.a.e. (ellipsoidal height)). We present accumulation data from five snow pits and five shallow (20 m) firn cores distributed within a 3.5–7 km distance, retrieved during the 2000/01 Nordic EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) traverse. Snow accumulation rates estimated for shorter periods show higher spatial variance than for longer periods. Accumulation variability as recorded from the firn cores and snow pits cannot explain all the variation in the ion and isotope time series; other depositional and post-depositional processes need to be accounted for. Through simple statistical analysis we show that there are differences in sensitivity to these processes between the analyzed species. Oxygen isotopes and sulphate are more conservative in their post-depositional behaviour than the more volatile acids, such as nitrate and to some degree chloride and methanesulphonic acid. We discuss the possible causes for the accumulation variability and the implications for the interpretation of ice-core records.
Several lineages of endoparasitoid wasps, which develop inside the body of other insects, have domesticated viruses, used as delivery tools of essential virulence factors for the successful development of their progeny. Virus domestications are major evolutionary transitions in highly diverse parasitoid wasps. Much progress has recently been made to characterize the nature of these ancestrally captured endogenous viruses that have evolved within the wasp genomes. Virus domestication from different viral families occurred at least three times in parasitoid wasps. This evolutionary convergence led to different strategies. Polydnaviruses (PDVs) are viral gene transfer agents and virus-like particles of the wasp Venturia canescens deliver proteins. Here, we take the standpoint of parasitoid wasps to review current knowledge on virus domestications by different parasitoid lineages. Then, based on genomic data from parasitoid wasps, PDVs and exogenous viruses, we discuss the different evolutionary steps required to transform viruses into vehicles for the delivery of the virulence molecules that we observe today. Finally, we discuss how endoparasitoid wasps manipulate host physiology and ensure parasitism success, to highlight the possible advantages of viral domestication as compared with other virulence strategies.
The various modes of spallative LiBeB production are summarized, and classified according to their dependence or independence on the abundance of medium heavy elements (CNO) illustrated by that of oxygen in the interstellar medium. The predictions of the models are confronted to the available observational correlations (Be, B vs O). Clearly, a primary mechanism should lead to a slope one in the lg(Be/H) vs [O/H] plot and a secondary mechanism to a slope two. Due to the ambiguity of the O data, another criterion, based on energetics, can help us to select an adequate model. A purely secondary origin in the very early Galaxy is much more energy demanding than a primary one. Indeed, magnesium seems to be a possible surrogate of oxygen and iron since i) it is spectroscopically more easy to cope with and ii) its nucleosynthetic yield is independent of the mass cut and does not depend on metallicity.
Oxygen is a much better evolutionary index than iron to follow the history of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron (LiBeB) since it is the main producer of these light elements at least in the early Galaxy. The O-Fe relation is crucial to the determination of the exact physical process responsible for the LiBeB production. Calculated nucleosynthetic yields of massive stars, estimates of the energy cost of Be production, and above all recent observations reported in this meeting seem to favor a mechanism in which fast nuclei enriched in He, C and O arising from supernovae are accelerated in superbubbles and fragment on H and He in the interstellar medium.
The enzyme β,β-carotene-15,15′-mono-oxygenase 1 (BCMO1) is responsible for the symmetrical cleavage of β-carotene into retinal. We identified a polymorphism in the promoter of the BCMO1 gene, inducing differences in BCMO1 mRNA levels (high in adenines (AA) and low in guanines (GG)) and colour in chicken breast muscle. The present study was designed to test whether this polymorphism could affect the response to dietary β-carotene. Dietary β-carotene supplementation did not change the effects of the genotypes on breast muscle properties: BCMO1 mRNA levels were lower and xanthophyll contents higher in GG than in AA chickens. Lower vitamin E levels in the plasma and duodenum, plasma cholesterol levels and body weight were also observed in GG than in AA chickens. In both genotypes, dietary β-carotene increased vitamin A storage in the liver; however, it reduced numerous parameters such as SCARB1 (scavenger receptor class B type I) in the duodenum, BCMO1 in the liver, vitamin E levels in the plasma and tissues, xanthophyll contents in the pectoralis major muscle and carcass adiposity. However, several diet × genotype interactions were observed. In the GG genotype, dietary β-carotene increased ISX (intestine-specific homeobox) and decreased BCMO1 mRNA levels in the duodenum, decreased xanthophyll concentrations in the duodenum, liver and plasma, and decreased colour index and HDL-cholesterol concentration in the plasma. Retinol accumulation following dietary β-carotene supplementation was observed in the duodenum of AA chickens only. Therefore, the negative feedback control on β-carotene conversion through ISX appears as functional in the duodenum of GG but not of AA chickens. This could result in a higher availability of β-carotene in the duodenum of GG chickens, reducing the uptake of xanthophylls, liposoluble vitamins and cholesterol.
n-3 PUFA are crucial for health and development. Their effects as regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism are well documented. They also appear to affect protein metabolism, especially by acting on insulin sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of n-3 PUFA, i.e. the precursor α-linolenic acid (ALA) 18 : 3n-3 or long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA), in chickens, by focusing on their potential function as co-regulators of the insulin anabolic signalling cascade. Ross male broilers were divided into six dietary treatment groups. Diets were isoproteic (22 % crude protein) and isoenergetic (12·54 MJ metabolisable energy/kg) and contained similar lipid levels (6 %) provided by different proportions of various lipid sources: oleic sunflower oil rich in 18 : 1n-9 as control; fish oil rich in LC-PUFA; rapeseed and linseed oils providing ALA. The provision of diets enriched with n-3 PUFA, i.e. rich in LC-PUFA or in the precursor ALA, for 3 weeks improved the growth performance of chickens, whereas that of only the ALA diet enhanced the development of the pectoralis major muscle. At 23 d of age, we studied the insulin sensitivity of the pectoralis major muscle and liver of chickens after an intravenous injection of insulin or saline. The present results indicate that the activation patterns of n-3 PUFA are different in the liver and muscles. An ALA-enriched diet may improve insulin sensitivity in muscles, with greater activation of the insulin-induced 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase/ribosomal protein S6 pathway involved in the translation of mRNA into proteins, thereby potentially increasing muscle protein synthesis and growth. Our findings provide a basis on which to optimise dietary fatty acid provision in growing animals.
The growth of thick epitaxial 4H-SiC layers with low defect density is an essential step for the fabrication of SiC based devices. Cold- and hot wall reactors using silane and propane diluted in hydrogen were used in this study. The typical growth temperature range is 1700–1900 K and total pressure range 10–100 kPa. The resulting epilayers exhibit low background doping, low defect density and good thickness uniformity. The main problem is that it is difficult with this first generation of reactors to ensure a constant temperature over large wafer. A 3D simulation approach of heat and mass transfer was used with three objectives. The first one is to have a visualization of the flow, temperature and gaseous species fields in the standard reactor. The second one is to propose solutions for the optimal control of the temperature field and the subsequent uniformity of the epilayers over large dimensions. The third one is to improve the kinetic databases in this temperature range which has been very little investigated.
An accurate modelling and simulation of the sublimation growth process needs a software taking into account a multitude of highly coupled phenomena: fluid mechanics, convective, conductive and radiative heat transfer, electromagnetic, multicomponent species transport, homogeneous and heterogeneous reactivity and finally thermal and transport databases. The objective of this paper is to combine modelling trends with experimental results to propose explanations and solutions to growth problems. Finally, a simple and generic mechanical approach will show the relations between the density of dislocations and the temperature field.
This paper summarizes recent experimental and simulation results on etching, growth rates and aluminum/nitrogen incorporation in SiC epitaxial layers grown in a horizontal LPCVD hotwall reactor commercialized by the Epigress company. The combined use of modeling and experiments allows to identify and to quantify the main growth phenomena. In this paper, a chemistry model including surface deposition and hydrogen etching is first described. It is found that the contribution of the etching of the susceptor to the SiC growth is not negligible. A simple model is used to describe nitrogen incorporation.