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Review findings on the role of dietary patterns in preventing depression are inconsistent, possibly due to variation in assessment of dietary exposure and depression. We studied the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in six population-based cohorts and meta-analysed the findings using a standardised approach that defined dietary exposure, depression assessment and covariates.
Included were cross-sectional data from 23 026 participants in six cohorts: InCHIANTI (Italy), LASA, NESDA, HELIUS (the Netherlands), ALSWH (Australia) and Whitehall II (UK). Analysis of incidence was based on three cohorts with repeated measures of depressive symptoms at 5–6 years of follow-up in 10 721 participants: Whitehall II, InCHIANTI, ALSWH. Three a priori dietary patterns, Mediterranean diet score (MDS), Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet were investigated in relation to depressive symptoms. Analyses at the cohort-level adjusted for a fixed set of confounders, meta-analysis used a random-effects model.
Cross-sectional and prospective analyses showed statistically significant inverse associations of the three dietary patterns with depressive symptoms (continuous and dichotomous). In cross-sectional analysis, the association of diet with depressive symptoms using a cut-off yielded an adjusted OR of 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.84–0.91) for MDS, 0.93 (0.88–0.98) for AHEI-2010, and 0.94 (0.87–1.01) for DASH. Similar associations were observed prospectively: 0.88 (0.80–0.96) for MDS; 0.95 (0.84–1.06) for AHEI-2010; 0.90 (0.84–0.97) for DASH.
Population-scale observational evidence indicates that adults following a healthy dietary pattern have fewer depressive symptoms and lower risk of developing depressive symptoms.
Emotion regulation dysfunction is characteristic of psychotic disorders, but little is known about how the use of specific types of emotion regulation strategies differs across phases of psychotic illness. This information is vital for understanding factors contributing to psychosis vulnerability states and developing targeted treatments. Three studies were conducted to examine emotion regulation across phases of psychosis, which included (a) adolescent community members with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs; n = 262) and adolescents without PLEs (n = 1,226); (b) adolescents who met clinical high-risk criteria for a prodromal syndrome (n = 29) and healthy controls (n = 29); and (c) outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SZ; n = 61) and healthy controls (n = 67). In each study, participants completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and measures of psychiatric symptoms and functional outcome. The three psychosis groups did not differ from each other in reported use of suppression; however, there was evidence for a vulnerability-related, dose-dependent decrease in reappraisal. Across each sample, a lower use of reappraisal was associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Findings indicate that emotion regulation abnormalities occur across a continuum of psychosis vulnerability and represent important targets for intervention.
This study investigated bidirectional associations between intake of food groups and depressive symptoms in 1058 Italian participants (aged 20–102 years) of the Invecchiare in Chianti study. Dietary intake, assessed with a validated FFQ, and depressive symptoms, measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D), were assessed at baseline and after 3, 6 and 9 years. Associations of repeated measurements of intakes of thirteen food groups with 3-year changes in depressive symptoms, and vice versa, were analysed using linear mixed models and logistic generalised estimating equations. Fish intake was inversely (quartile (Q)4 v. Q1, B=–0·97, 95 % CI –1·74, –0·21) and sweet food intake positively (Q4 v. Q1, B=1·03, 95 % CI 0·25, 1·81) associated with subsequent CES-D score. In the other direction, higher CES-D scores were associated with decreases in intakes of vegetables (ratio: 0·995, 95 % CI 0·990, 0·999) and red and processed meat (B=–0·006, 95 % CI –0·010, –0·001), an increase in dairy product intake (ratio: 1·008, 95 % CI 1·004, 1·013), and increasing odds of eating savoury snacks (OR: 1·012, 95 % CI 1·000, 1·024). Fruit, nuts and legumes, potatoes, wholegrain bread, olive oil, sugar-sweetened beverages, and coffee and tea were not significantly associated in either direction. Our study confirmed bidirectional associations between food group intakes and depressive symptoms. Fish and sweet food intakes were associated with 3-year improvement and deterioration in depressive symptoms, respectively. Depressive symptoms were associated with 3-year changes in vegetable, meat, dairy product and savoury snack intakes. Trials are necessary to examine the causal associations between food groups and depression.
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) appear to be at increased risk of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, most previous studies examined the co-occurrence of ASD and NAPD or BD, ignoring possible diagnostic bias and selection bias. We used longitudinal data from Dutch psychiatric case registers to assess the risk of NAPD or BD among individuals with ASD, and compared the results to those obtained for the Dutch population in earlier studies.
Individuals with ASD (n = 17 234) were followed up between 16 and 35 years of age. Kaplan–Meier estimates were used to calculate the risk of NAPD or BD. We conducted separate analyses to reduce possible bias, including an analysis among individuals diagnosed with ASD before age 16 years (n = 8337).
Of the individuals with ASD, 23.50% (95% confidence interval 21.87–25.22) were diagnosed with NAPD and 3.79% (3.06–4.69) with BD before age 35 years. The corresponding figures for the general population were 0.91% (0.63–1.28) and 0.13% (0.08–0.20). Risk estimates were substantially lower, but still higher than general population estimates, when we restricted our analyses to individuals diagnosed with ASD before age 16, with 1.87% (1.33–2.61) being diagnosed with NAPD and 0.57% (0.21–1.53) with BD before age 25 years. The corresponding figures for the general population were 0.63% (0.44–0.86) and 0.08% (0.05–0.12).
Individuals with ASD are at increased risk of NAPD or BD. This is likely not the result of diagnostic or selection bias.
To investigate socio-economic differences in changes in fruit and vegetable intake between 2004 and 2011 and explore the mediating role of financial barriers in this change.
Respondents completed a self-reported questionnaire in 2004 and 2011, including questions on fruit and vegetable intake (frequency per week), indicators of socio-economic position (education, income) and perceived financial barriers (fruits/vegetables are expensive, financial distress). Associations were analysed using ordinal logistic regression. The mediating role of financial barriers in the association between socio-economic position and change in fruit and vegetable intake was studied with the Baron and Kenny approach.
Longitudinal GLOBE study.
A total of 2978 Dutch adults aged 25–75 years.
Respondents with the lowest income in 2004 were more likely to report a decrease in intake of cooked vegetables (P-trend<0·001) and raw vegetables (P-trend<0·001) between 2004 and 2011, compared with those with the highest income level. Respondents with the lowest education level in 2004 were more likely to report a decrease in intake of fruits (P-trend=0·021), cooked vegetables (P-trend=0·033), raw vegetables (P-trend<0·001) and fruit juice (P-trend=0·027) between 2004 and 2011, compared with those with the highest education level. Financial barriers partially mediated the association between income and education and the decrease in fruit and cooked vegetable intake between 2004 and 2011.
These results show a widening of relative income and educational differences in fruit and vegetable intake between 2004 and 2011. Financial barriers explained a small part of this widening.
The major histocompatibility complex region has been implicated in explaining some of the variation observed in adaptability and tick susceptibility of cattle. The bovine leukocyte antigen region of 192 cattle representing indigenous, composite and exotic breeds used in commercial beef production in Namibia and South Africa was investigated using four microsatellite markers. Ticks counted under the tail were taken as an indicator of tick susceptibility. Tick scores of all but one population was low (11 to 20 ticks), with only the South African Bonsmara population having an average score of 31 to 40 ticks per animal. The observed variation based on four microsatellite markers ranged from 5.5 alleles in Namibian Afrikaner to 7.7 alleles in South African Nguni and Bonsmara cattle. Unbiased heterozygosity values ranged from 0.66 (Namibian Afrikaner) to 0.76 (South African Bonsmara). Structure analyses grouped the five populations into three indistinct clusters with limited genetic variation between the populations.
The most popular beef breed in South Africa is the Bonsmara, a locally developed composite breed adapted to sub-tropical conditions. The establishment of a genomic reference population is currently ongoing for the application of genomic selection. To date, 583 Bonsmara cattle (388 bulls and 195 cows) have been genotyped with the GeneSeek® Genomic Profiler Bovine HD™ Chip (GGP-HD) 80 K chip, and the population structure of the reference population was studied. The average minor allele frequency for the Bonsmara was 0.280 across 56 248 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), whereas the observed and expected heterozygosity values were 0.361 and 0.365, respectively. After pruning the data set for SNPs in linkage disequilibrium, 19 119 SNPs were retained, averaging 659 SNPs per autosomal chromosome. This generated an average SNP density of 1 SNP per 90 kb. Structure analysis revealed a non-homogenous population with a high level of genetic admixture, which may negatively influence genomic breeding value prediction accuracy. Genotyping of a further 990 Bonsmara cattle are pending, using the GeneSeek® GGP-HD 150 K chip. As more animals will be added to the reference population, the profile of the reference population are expected to change in such a way to ensure improved genomic estimated breeding value accuracies.
Nutritional intakes of food bank recipients and consequently their health status largely rely on the availability and quality of donated food in provided food parcels. In this cross-sectional study, the nutritional quality of ninety-six individual food parcels was assessed and compared with the Dutch nutritional guidelines for a healthy diet. Furthermore, we assessed how food bank recipients use the contents of the food parcel. Therefore, 251 Dutch food bank recipients from eleven food banks throughout the Netherlands filled out a general questionnaire. The provided amounts of energy (19 849 (sd 162 615) kJ (4744 (sd 38 866) kcal)), protein (14·6 energy percentages (en%)) and SFA (12·9 en%) in a single-person food parcel for one single day were higher than the nutritional guidelines, whereas the provided amounts of fruits (97 (sd 1441) g) and fish (23 (sd 640) g) were lower. The number of days for which macronutrients, fruits, vegetables and fish were provided for a single-person food parcel ranged from 1·2 (fruits) to 11·3 (protein) d. Of the participants, only 9·5 % bought fruits and 4·6 % bought fish to supplement the food parcel, 39·4 % used all foods provided and 75·7 % were (very) satisfied with the contents of the food parcel. Our study shows that the nutritional content of food parcels provided by Dutch food banks is not in line with the nutritional guidelines. Improving the quality of the parcels is likely to positively impact the dietary intake of this vulnerable population subgroup.
Timely recognition and treatment of mental disorders with an onset in childhood and adolescence is paramount, as these are characterized by greater severity and longer persistence than disorders with an onset in adulthood. Studies examining time-to-treatment, also referred to as treatment delay, duration of untreated illness or latency to treatment, and defined as the time between disorder onset and initial treatment contact, are sparse and all based on adult samples. The aim of this study was to describe time-to-treatment and its correlates for any health care professional (any care) and secondary mental health care (secondary care), for a broad range of mental disorders, in adolescents.
Data from the Dutch community-based cohort study TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS; N = 2230) were used. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to assess DSM-IV disorders, the age of onset, and the age of initial treatment contact with any health care professional in 1584 adolescents of 18–20 years old. In total 43% of the adolescents (n = 675) were diagnosed with a lifetime DSM-IV disorder. The age of initial treatment contact with secondary care was based on administrative records from 321 adolescents without a disorder onset before the age of 10. Descriptive statistics, cumulative lifetime probability plots, and Cox regression analyses were used analyze time-to-treatment.
The proportion of adolescents who reported lifetime treatment contact with any care varied from 15% for alcohol dependence to 82% for dysthymia. Regarding secondary care, proportions of lifetime treatment contact were lower for mood disorders and higher for substance dependence. Time-to-treatment for any care varied considerably between and within diagnostic classes. The probability of lifetime treatment contact for mood disorders was above 90%, whereas for other mental disorders this was substantially lower. An earlier age of onset predicted a longer, and the presence of a co-morbid mood disorder predicted a shorter time-to-treatment in general. Disorder severity predicted a shorter time-to-treatment for any care, but not for secondary care. Time-to-treatment for secondary care was shorter for adolescents from low and middle socioeconomic background than for adolescents from a high socioeconomic background.
Although the time-to-treatment was shorter for adolescents than for adults, it was still substantial, and the overall patterns were remarkably similar to those found in adults. Efforts to reduce time-to-treatment should therefore be aimed at children and adolescents. Future research should address mechanisms underlying time-to-treatment and its consequences for early-onset disorders in particular.
The dissolution process of small (initial (equivalent) radius
mm) long-chain alcohol (of various types) sessile droplets in water is studied, disentangling diffusive and convective contributions. The latter can arise for high solubilities of the alcohol, as the density of the alcohol–water mixture is then considerably less than that of pure water, giving rise to buoyancy-driven convection. The convective flow around the droplets is measured, using micro-particle image velocimetry (
PIV) and the schlieren technique. When non-dimensionalizing the system, we find a universal
scaling relation for all alcohols (of different solubilities) and all droplets in the convective regime. Here
is the Sherwood number (dimensionless mass flux) and
is the Rayleigh number (dimensionless density difference between clean and alcohol-saturated water). This scaling implies the scaling relation
of the convective dissolution time
, which is found to agree with experimental data. We show that in the convective regime the plume Reynolds number (the dimensionless velocity) of the detaching alcohol-saturated plume follows
, which is confirmed by the
PIV data. Here,
is the Schmidt number. The convective regime exists when
is the transition
number as extracted from the data. For
and smaller, convective transport is progressively overtaken by diffusion and the above scaling relations break down.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be associated with lower heart rate variability (HRV), a condition associated with increased mortality risk. We aimed to investigate the association between TCAs, SSRIs and HRV in a population-based study.
In the prospective Rotterdam Study cohort, up to five electrocardiograms (ECGs) per participant were recorded (1991–2012). Two HRV variables were studied based on 10-s ECG recordings: standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN) and root mean square of successive RR interval differences (RMSSD). We compared the HRV on ECGs recorded during use of antidepressants with the HRV on ECGs recorded during non-use of any antidepressant. Additionally, we analysed the change in HRV on consecutive ECGs. Those who started or stopped using antidepressants before the second ECG were compared with non-users on two ECGs.
We included 23 647 ECGs from 11 729 participants (59% women, mean age 64.6 years at baseline). Compared to ECGs recorded during non-use of antidepressants (n = 22 971), SDNN and RMSSD were lower in ECGs recorded during use of TCAs (n = 296) and SSRIs (n = 380). Participants who started using TCAs before the second ECG had a decrease in HRV and those who stopped had an increase in HRV compared to consistent non-users (p < 0.001). Starting or stopping SSRIs was not associated with HRV changes.
TCAs were associated with a lower HRV in all analyses, indicating a real drug effect. For SSRIs the results are mixed, indicating a weaker association, possibly due to other factors.
Few studies have investigated the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment for negative symptoms of schizophrenia, reporting inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate whether 10 Hz stimulation of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during 3 weeks enhances treatment effects.
A multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial was performed in 32 patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder, and moderate to severe negative symptoms [Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative subscale ⩾15]. Patients were randomized to a 3-week course of active or sham rTMS. Primary outcome was severity of negative symptoms as measured with the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the PANSS negative symptom score. Secondary outcome measures included cognition, insight, quality of life and mood. Subjects were followed up at 4 weeks and at 3 months. For analysis of the data a mixed-effects linear model was used.
A significant improvement of the SANS in the active group compared with sham up to 3 months follow-up (p = 0.03) was found. The PANSS negative symptom scores did not show a significant change (p = 0.19). Of the cognitive tests, only one showed a significant improvement after rTMS as compared with sham. Finally, a significant change of insight was found with better scores in the treatment group.
Bilateral 10 Hz prefrontal rTMS reduced negative symptoms, as measured with the SANS. More studies are needed to investigate optimal parameters for rTMS, the cognitive effects and the neural basis.
We aimed to identify barriers for meeting the fruit, vegetable and fish guidelines in older Dutch adults and to investigate socio-economic status (SES) differences in these barriers. Furthermore, we examined the mediating role of these barriers in the association between SES and adherence to these guidelines.
Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), the Netherlands.
We used data from 1057 community-dwelling adults, aged 55–85 years. SES was measured by level of education and household income. An FFQ was used to assess dietary intake and barriers were measured with a self-reported lifestyle questionnaire.
Overall, 48·9 % of the respondents perceived a barrier to adhere to the fruit guideline, 40·0 % for the vegetable and 51·1 % for the fish guideline. The most frequently perceived barriers to meet the guidelines were the high price of fruit and fish and a poor appetite for vegetables. Lower-SES groups met the guidelines less often and perceived more barriers. The association between income and adherence to the fruit guideline was mediated by ‘perceiving any barrier to meet the fruit guideline’ and the barrier ‘dislike fruit’. The association between income and adherence to the fish guideline was mediated by ‘perceiving any barrier to meet the fish guideline’ and the barrier ‘fish is expensive’.
Perceived barriers for meeting the dietary guidelines are common in older adults, especially in lower-SES groups. These barriers and in particular disliking and cost concerns explained the lower adherence to the guidelines for fruit and fish in lower-income groups in older adults.