To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The polymorphism rs1006737 within the CACNA1C gene is associated with increased risk for bipolar disorder (BD) and variations in brain morphology and function of subcortical regions. Here we sought to investigate the influence of CACNA1C polymorphism on key subcortical brain structures implicated in the pathophysiology of BD.
Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 41 euthymic patients with BD and 40 healthy controls, who were also genotyped for the CACNA1C rs1006737 polymorphism. The effect of diagnosis, genotype and their interaction was examined in predefined volumes of interest in the basal ganglia, hypothalamus and amygdala extracted using SPM5.
Carriers of the CACNA1C rs1006737 risk allele showed increased grey matter density in the right amygdala and right hypothalamus irrespective of diagnosis. An interaction between genotype and diagnosis was observed in the left putamen which was smaller in BD patients carrying the risk allele than in healthy controls.
The CACNA1C rs1006737 polymorphism influences anatomical variation within subcortical regions involved in emotional processing.
To study the reliability of two depression assessment scales, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Psychomotor Retardation Scale, 30 patients with depression according to Feighner's criteria were evaluated, by two groups of raters: 5 were trained psychiatrists or psychologists, and 6 were untrained raters. The experiment lasted three months. The patients were recorded on video-tape by two psychiatrists who did not take part in the experiment, during pre-designed interviews. Each scoring was discussed by the trained group but not by the untrained group. The Kappa test and the sign-test were used for the statistical analysis of global and itemized results, respectively. Intraclass coefficient Q3 was applied to global scores. With regard to global scores, there was no significant difference among the members of the trained group, who scored higher than those of the untrained group; a significant difference between some of the untrained raters, induced a significant difference with the trained group. With regard to each item of both scales, reliability appeared to be slight to moderate, and there was no significant difference between trained and inexpert raters. These results are discussed and modifications are proposed to improve the consistency of the two scales. The authors emphasize the necessity for therapeutic trials to be conducted with permanent groups of assessors who continue training even outside of trial procedures.
Based on a single right cheliped from the Cape de Naze Formation (middle–upper Maastrichtian), Senegal, a new genus and species of hermit crab with capsulated setae is described. Paracapsulapagurus poponguinensis n. gen. n. sp. is characterized by platy, scale-like, non-spinose tubercles with setae arranged in curved rows. This is only the third record of a fossil hermit crab with capsulated setae. These are documented in detail using SEM-imaging. For the first time, capsulated setae are also figured for the Early Jurassic hermit crab Schobertella.
The four scenarios lead to differences in the size of the equine population: maybe twice as many horses as today, in the ‘Everybody on Horseback’ scenario, or half as much in the ‘High-Society Horse’ scenario. Businesses, facilities, as well as the types of employment would also be very different (cf. those in ‘The civic horse’ scenario). Likewise, the location of horses in the French regions or the categories of rural areas would differ to a great extent… They all raise shared concerns in terms of (i) the relationship between man and horse, (ii) economic efficiency, (iii) environmental issues, (iv) the preservation of breeds and pressure on surfaces and (v) health, welfare and caring for animals up to and beyond death. These questions call for research development in the fields of animal behaviour, economic and social sciences, breeding and genetic improvement. They also emphasize the need to enhance knowledge and innovation transfer.
In 2011 the IRSN conducted several assessments of atmospheric
radioactive releases due to the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident (March
11, 2011) and of their impact on Japan’s terrestrial environment.
They were based on the IRSN’s emergency management tools and on
the abundant information and technical data gradually published
in Japan. According to these assessments, the main release phase
lasted from March 12 to 25, 2011 and impacted Japanese land in two
events, the first on 15 and 16 March, in which the main radioactive
deposits were formed, and the second from March 20 to 23, which
was less significant. The highest amounts of radioactive deposits were
found in an area extending upwards of several tens of kilometers
northwest of the plant. Lower amounts were discontinuously scattered
in an area extending up to over 250 km away. Initially composed
mainly of short-lived radionuclides, the deposits’ activity sharply
decreased in the subsequent weeks. Since the summer of 2011, cesium-134
and cesium-137 have become the residual deposits’ main components.
According to IRSN estimates, in the absence of protection, the doses
due to exposure to the radioactive plume during the atmospheric
release phase may have been potentially higher for people who remained
in coastal areas up to several tens of kilometers north and south
of the damaged plant. Thereafter, people living up to 50 km northwest
of the plant, outside the 20-km emergency evacuation zone, were potentially
most vulnerable to residual radioactive deposits over time.
Little is known about the impact of habitual fluid intake on physiology. Specifically, biomarkers of hydration status and body water regulation have not been adequately explored in adults who consume different fluid volumes in everyday conditions, without prolonged exercise or environmental exposure. The purpose of the present study was to compare adults with habitually different fluid intakes with respect to biomarkers implicated in the assessment of hydration status, the regulation of total body water and the risk of kidney pathologies. In the present cross-sectional study, seventy-one adults (thirty-two men, thirty-nine women, age 25–40 years) were classified according to daily fluid intake: thirty-nine low drinkers (LD; ≤ 1·2 litres/d) and thirty-two high drinkers (HD; 2–4 litres/d). During four consecutive days, urinary parameters (first morning urine (FMU) on day 1 and subsequent 24 h urine (24hU) collections), blood parameters, and food and beverage intake were assessed. ANOVA and non-parametric comparisons revealed significant differences between the LD and HD groups in 24hU volume (1·0 (se 0·1) v. 2·4 (se 0·1) litres), specific gravity (median 1·023 v. 1·010), osmolality (767 (se 27) v. 371 (se 33) mOsm/kg) and colour (3·1 (se 0·2) v. 1·8 (se 0·2)). Similarly, in the FMU, the LD group produced a smaller amount of more concentrated urine. Plasma cortisol, creatinine and arginine vasopressin concentrations were significantly higher among the LD. Plasma osmolality was similar between the groups, suggesting physiological adaptations to preserve plasma osmolality despite low fluid intake. The long-term impact of adaptations to preserve plasma osmolality must be examined, particularly in the context of renal health.
Amiodarone can induce severe hyperthyroidism that justifies its withdrawal and the introduction of antithyroid drugs. Continuing amiodarone use, failure to control hyperthyroidism and poor clinical progress may require thyroidectomy. This study aimed to evaluate patients’ post-operative development and mid-term outcome after thyroidectomy for amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis.
Prospective case series.
Tertiary care centre.
Subjects and methods:
We prospectively collected cases of amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis requiring thyroidectomy due to failure of antithyroid treatment, despite amiodarone discontinuation. Post-thyroidectomy complications were compared immediately, 30 days and one year post-operatively, and also for scheduled versus emergency surgery cases.
Of 11 total cases, nine scheduled thyroidectomy cases had no morbidity after elective surgery. Two cases required emergency surgery for multiple organ failure and cardiac problems. Immediate post-operative complications (mostly haemodynamic) occurred in both cases (emergency vs routine surgery, p = 0.018).
In such cases, pre-operative medical treatment is vital to limit peri- and post-operative complications, but surgery should not be delayed if the haemodynamic status deteriorates. Surgery, with careful anaesthesia, is the cornerstone of the treatment.
Cognitive and affective complaints are common in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), but few studies have used psychometric testing to document these symptoms and their response to parathyroidectomy. The current study sought to clarify the nature of cognitive and affective impairments in PHPT and changes postparathyroidectomy. One hundred eleven patients with PHPT underwent neuropsychological evaluation prior to parathyroidectomy with 68 returning for an early postsurgical evaluation. Changes in cognition were assessed using practice effect corrected reliable change indices. Biochemical and anesthesia variables were compared between groups who improved and declined. In a subset of patients, assessment revealed a significant pattern of cognitive slowing, reductions in psychomotor speed, memory impairment, and depression prior to parathyroidectomy. Postsurgical evaluations revealed a trend for improvements on timed tests and depression but a decline in memory. Older patients responded less well to surgical intervention, as did patients who experienced more dramatic changes in biochemical status following surgery. Cognitive changes early postparathyroidectomy are characterized by improved information processing speed and decline in verbal memory, with younger patients more likely to recover during this acute phase. The need for longer-term follow-up studies and increasing utilization of neuropsychological assessments in this population are discussed. (JINS, 2009, 15, 1002–1011.)
Yttrium implanted and unimplanted various reference steels were oxidized at 700 °C,
under controlled atmosphere (oxygen partial pressure: 0.04 Pa), for 24 h to observe the yttrium
implantation and the addition element effects on steel high temperature oxidation behaviours.
Yttrium implantation effects on reference steels were characterized using analytical and
structural techniques such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Reflection High
Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Glancing Angle X-ray
Diffraction (GAXRD). Yttrium implanted and unimplanted reference steel oxidation behaviours
were observed by thermogravimetry and in situ high temperature X-ray diffraction. Our results
clearly show that yttrium implantation and high temperature oxidation induced the formation of
several yttrium mixed oxides which closely depend on the reference steel addition elements.
Moreover, these yttrium mixed oxides seem to be responsible for the improved reference steel
oxidation resistance at high temperature.
The pump-producing industry uses solid SiC combinations for tribological components. Thanks to their outstanding corrosion resistance, hardness, thermal stability and other qualities, such pairings have gained widespread acceptance, particularly for mating and sliding surfaces. For structural reasons, the brittleness and low tenacity of solid SiC limit its range of applications. The ideal solution, of course, would be to find a coating with identical desirable properties.
We present a preliminary report on radial–velocity and infrared interferometric observations, with emphasis on the newly resolved nearby sources Gl 609.2 and Gl 804. We briefly discuss their low–mass companions, their luminosities, and their individual masses inferred from the combined solution of their spectroscopic and visual orbits.
We have prepared BiSrCaCuO superconducting thin films by the pulsed laser evaporation method, using a YAG or an ArF excimer laser. The as-deposited films, which were enriched in Cu with respect to the bulk target composition Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8 (i.e., the “2212” phase), were converted into the superconducting phase by a subsequent high temperature annealing in oxygen. Resistivity measurements showed superconducting transitions near 90 K, and the highest zero resistivity temperature was 83 K. The influence of the deposition parameters (photon wavelength) and annealing conditions (temperature, duration, and atmosphere) have been studied. The composition and in-depth distribution of the various elements were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and the surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
A study of the pulsed laser evaporation process of thin superconducting films using both Nd:YAG and ArF eximer lasers is presented. Nuclear reaction analysis, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize composition, thickness and surface morphology of the deposited films. The influence on the properties of the films, of the various parameters of the method such as photon wavelength, laser power density and geometrical conditions are presented and discussed.
We propose in this work a new approach, named laser-induced forward transfer, for the rapid deposition and patterning in a clean environment of high Tc superconducting thin films. A stoichiometric high Tc compound is initially deposited in a thin layer on an optically transparent support by laser evaporation or another more conventional technique. By irradiating under vacuum or in air the precoated layer with a strongly absorbed single laser pulse through the transparent support, we are able to remove the film from its support to be transferred onto a selected target substrate, held in contact to the original film. Using this technique, we have successfully transferred with one single pulse, provided by an excimer or a Nd:YAG laser, YBaCuO and BiSrCaCuO precoated thin films on various substrates. The Rutherford backscattering spectrometry experiments do not show any strong modification in the composition of the transferred layer against the source material, and the superconducting phases for the two types of compounds were obtained after subsequent thermal annealing carried out in a furnace around 850–900 °C in O2. For the BiSrCaCuO films transferred onto MgO substrates, we have measured an onset critical temperature of about 90 K with a zero resistance at 80 K.
Our Present Understanding of the Mechanisms of the transformation of SiO films under treatments in O2 or Ar plasma at room T, is presented. RBS, IR absorption, XPS, RHEED and TEM techniques have been used to investigate the composition, the chemical and structural nature of the films after oxidizing or non oxidizing treatments. In O2 plasma, SiO is converted into Si02 by room T plasma anodization. The initial step of SiO oxidation, which is believed to be the transformation 2SiO→Si+SiO2, was studied in Ar plasma. We show that the as deposited SiO (not a mixture of Si and SiO2) is subject to disproportionate into the later compounds and that the effects of irradiation by low energy electrons at room T (plasma treatment) are similar to those observed for high T treatments (rapid thermal annealing).
La centralisation au Bureau international de l’Heure des résultats d’observations de l’Opération internationale de 1933 a été très lente, puisque les dernières données attendues ont été reçues vers la fin de 1937.
Le nombre des stations ayant coopéré à l’Opération internationale et ayant transmis leurs observations à l’organisme centralisateur s’élève à soixante et onze. Ainsi qu’il a été expliqué à notre Commission mixte, lors du Congrès de l’Union géodésique et géophysique internationale tenu à Édimbourg en 1936, ces stations ont été réparties en trois groupes:
Le Ier comprenant vingt Observatoires, disposant chacun de plusieurs horloges de première classe (soit à poids sous pression et à température constantes, soit à quartz piézoélectrique);
Durant la période de 1933 à 1936 le Bulletin Horaire a donné les heures définitives des signaux horaires d’après la moyenne de 15 observatoires. A partir du Ier janvier 1937 on introduit trois observatoires en plus (Kharkov, Manille et Tokyo), qui communiquent régulièrement leurs résultats au B.I.H.
Au Bureau International de l’Heure certains perfectionnements sont actuelle ment en voie de réalisation. Il s’agit d’une horloge à diapason d’une part, et, de l’autre, d’un ensemble nouveau pour l’émission des signaux horaires. M. Lambert va donner une communication sur ce sujet.
Trois résolutions ont été adoptées par la 4e Assemblée générale de l’Union astronomique internationale, à Cambridge (Mass.) en 1932.
Elles se rapportaient à l’opération internationale des longitudes (réalisée en 1933) et avaient pour objet:
(1) L’émission d’un trait d’une durée de 10 secondes après tout envoi de signaux horaires.
(2) La mission confiée au Bureau international de l’Heure (B.I.H.) de centraliser, discuter et publier les résultats de l’opération.
(3) L’approbation du programme des opérations, exposé dans le Rapport présenté à Cambridge par le Président et le Secrétaire de la Commission.
Le Président est heureux de constater que les propositions de ce Rapport ont pu être réalisées dans une très large part. Il remercie tous les Observatoires et organismes participants de leur collaboration et les félicite vivement de l’activité qu’ils ont déployée pendant la campagne scientifique de 1933.
Depuis la dernière réunion, notre commission s’est transformée en une commission internationale mixte dépendant à la fois de l’Union astronomique et de l’Union géodésique et géophysique internationales.
On se rappelle que l’Assemblée générale, réunie à Leiden, a émis le vœu que le Président de l’U.A.I. s’entretienne avec le Président de l’Union de Géodésie et de Géophysique et le prie d’examiner s’il serait possible que celle-ci apporte quelque contribution aux dépenses du Bureau international de l’Heure. Comme suite à ce vœu, l’Assemblée générale de cette dernière Union, réunie à Lisboa en 1933, a adopté la résolution suivante:
“L’Union géodésique et géophysique internationale décide qu’une subvention régulière annuelle sera allouée par elle au Bureau international de l’Heure, dans les limites de ses crédits et des besoins du Bureau.