The four scenarios lead to differences in the size of the equine population: maybe twice as many horses as today, in the ‘Everybody on Horseback’ scenario, or half as much in the ‘High-Society Horse’ scenario. Businesses, facilities, as well as the types of employment would also be very different (cf. those in ‘The civic horse’ scenario). Likewise, the location of horses in the French regions or the categories of rural areas would differ to a great extent… They all raise shared concerns in terms of (i) the relationship between man and horse, (ii) economic efficiency, (iii) environmental issues, (iv) the preservation of breeds and pressure on surfaces and (v) health, welfare and caring for animals up to and beyond death. These questions call for research development in the fields of animal behaviour, economic and social sciences, breeding and genetic improvement. They also emphasize the need to enhance knowledge and innovation transfer.