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The focus of this commentary is Nettle et al.'s insurance hypothesis linking food insecurity to a high body mass index (BMI). We discuss how the relationship between race/ethnicity and obesity in the United States is consistent with this hypothesis, then present potential ways forward to elucidate the validity of this hypothesis in humans through rigorous controlled trials.
We proposed hierarchical Poisson and binomial models for mapping multiple interacting quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for count traits in experimental crosses. We applied our methods to two counted reproductive traits, live fetuses (LF) and dead fetuses (DF) at 17 days gestation, in an F2 female mouse population. We treated observed number of corpora lutea (ovulation rate) as the baseline and the total trials in our Poisson and binomial models, respectively. We detected more than 10 QTLs for LF and DF, most having epistatic and pleiotropic effects. The epistatic effects were larger, involved more QTLs, and explained a larger proportion of phenotypic variance than the main effects. Our analyses revealed a complex network of multiple interacting QTLs for the reproductive traits, and increase our understanding of the genetic architecture of reproductive characters. The proposed statistical models and methods provide valuable tools for detecting multiple interacting QTLs for complex count phenotypes.
To comprehensively investigate the genetic architecture of growth and obesity, we performed Bayesian analyses of multiple epistatic quantitative trait locus (QTL) models for body weights at five ages (12 days, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks) and body composition traits (weights of two fat pads and five organs) in mice produced from a cross of the F1 between M16i (selected for rapid growth rate) and CAST/Ei (wild-derived strain of small and lean mice) back to M16i. Bayesian model selection revealed a temporally regulated network of multiple QTL for body weight, involving both strong main effects and epistatic effects. No QTL had strong support for both early and late growth, although overlapping combinations of main and epistatic effects were observed at adjacent ages. Most main effects and epistatic interactions had an opposite effect on early and late growth. The contribution of epistasis was more pronounced for body weights at older ages. Body composition traits were also influenced by an interacting network of multiple QTLs. Several main and epistatic effects were shared by the body composition and body weight traits, suggesting that pleiotropy plays an important role in growth and obesity.
“Project Grow-2-Gether” is a child nutrition study of same-sex, 3- to 7-year-old monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. The study attempts to bridge two bodies of literature that have rarely interfaced with respect to obesity and ingestive behavior: the first being behavioral genetic approaches to obesity-related traits, and the second being developmental approaches focusing on parent–child relationships. The overarching aim of Project Grow-2-Gether is to disentangle genetic from potential home-environmental influences on child eating behavior and body fat. This paper reviews the rationale for Project Grow-2-Gether, its procedures, and core phenotypic measurement battery. A focus of the study is acquisition of controlled food intake measurements obtained in the laboratory, measurement of specific home environmental variables, and multi-method evaluation of parent–child feeding relations. Future directions may involve longitudinal assessment of child growth and molecular analyses for specific genes that influence child eating behavior.
A dormitory is not a brothel. You must know how to sleep on a regular schedule. Exhaustion has nothing to do with it. The system will wake you up anyway. Everyone's dreams end at precisely the same hour. That's not much of a sense of community – not even if you consider the last fifteen minutes, when everybody is caught up in the diverse metamorphoses of the morning alarm. The most gifted, the most philosophically crafty among them dream that they hear a bell; the more imaginative (because least self–assured) dream of Descartes as a tea–kettle forgotten on the stove. Every time I try to read, it shrieks in my ears. In fact, it almost scalds me, the damned thing. A sad scenario for hard-pressed dreamers. But what follows is even worse: Bordeaux literary studies. A year of being closed up in grey surroundings. The dull and overcast presentiment of catastrophe, always looming and ever-present. A dead port. But to fight it is to succumb to it. Better to feign being bothered by some inner suffering. A mechanical but no less flexible strategy worked out under a dull grey skirt. Oval calves symmetrically divided lengthwise by the fine seams of flesh-colored stockings. (Like sexology, cosmetic surgery becomes more perfect every day.) All these are bitter victories, however, when confronted by the inevitable corruption of the flesh, the steadfast resistance of the perversions – in short, by anything that perfects us by making us worse.
This major collection of essays on the Marquis de Sade, first published in 1995, encompasses a wide range of critical approaches to his œuvre, including some of the most celebrated texts in Sade scholarship. It focuses on several distinctly contemporary areas of interest: the explicitly libidinal components of Sade's work and the effects they engender, the textual and narrative apparatus which supports these operations, the ethical and political concerns which arise from them, and the problematic issues surrounding the conceptual closure of representation. Sade is placed at the centre of current debates in literary and philosophical criticism, feminist and gender theory, aesthetics, rhetoric and eighteenth-century French cultural history, and this volume will be of interest to a wide range of readers across these disciplines.