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Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the oldest oil crops and is widely cultivated in Asia and Africa. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of 277 sesame core collection accessions collected from 15 countries in four different continents. A total of 158 alleles were detected among the sesame accessions, with the number varying from 3 to 25 alleles per locus and an average of 11.3. Polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.34 to 0.84, with an average of 0.568. These values indicated a high genetic diversity at 14 loci both among and within the populations. Of these, 44 genotype-specific alleles were identified in 12 of the 14 polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers. The core collection preserved a much higher level of genetic variation. Therefore, 10.1% was selected as the best sampling percentage from the whole collection when constructing the core collection. The 277 core collection accessions formed four robust clusters in the unweighted pair group method and the arithmetic averages (UPGMA) dendrogram, although the clustering did not indicate any clear division among the sesame accessions based on their geographical locations. Similar patterns were obtained using model-based structure analysis and country-based dendrograms, as some accessions situated geographically far apart were grouped together in the same cluster. The results of these analyses will increase our understanding of the genotype-specific alleles, genetic diversity and population structure of core collections, and the information can be used for the development of a future breeding strategy to improve sesame yield.
The ultraviolet (UV) color-color relation of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the nearby universe (0.05 < z < 0.12) is re-examined with the latest GALEX GR6 and SDSS DR7 data. By drawing the FUV – NUV (as a measure of UV temperature) versus FUV – r (as a measure of UV amplitude) color-color diagram for the morphologically-cleaned, spectroscopically-cleaned sample of ~3700 quiescent ETGs, we find that the “old and dead“ ETGs consist of a well-defined sequence in UV colors, the “UV red sequence”, so that the stronger UV excess galaxies should have a harder UV spectral shape systematically. However, the observed UV spectral slope is too steep to be reproduced by the canonical models in which the UV flux is mainly controlled by age or metallicity parameters. The observed data support the helium enhancement scenario in which the UV spectral shape of UV upturn (FUV – NUV < 0.9; FUV – r ~ 6) galaxies may be governed by the minority population of helium-enhanced horizontal-branch (HB) stars.
We present new population synthesis models (Chung et al.2011) for quiescent early-type galaxies (ETGs) with UV-upturn phenomenon using relatively metal-poor and helium-enhanced subpopulations in the model. We find that the presence of helium-enhanced subpopulations in ETGs can naturally reproduce the strong UV-upturns observed in giant elliptical galaxies (Figure 1. left panel), without invoking unrealistically old ages (Park & Lee 1997). Our models with helium-enhanced subpopulations also predict that the well-known Burstein relation can be explained by the fraction of helium-enhanced subpopulation, the mean age, and the mean metallicity of the underlying stellar populations (Figure 1. right panel).
To enhance the lifetime of large-sized active matrix organic light emitting
diodes (AMOLEDs), we developed a liquid desiccant for encapsulation. The
liquid desiccant was prepared by mixing nano-sized calcium oxide (CaO)
powders and silicone binder including polyalkylalkenylsiloxane,
polyalkylhydrogensiloxane and platinum compound. It was confirmed that
liquid desiccant had an effect on absorption of penetrated moisture and
oxygen through calcium tests. Also, the test cells encapsulated with only
epoxy sealant dispensed at the edge of the cell developed dark spots within
100 hrs, which grew larger with time at 85 oC and 85 % R.H. On the other hand, the test cell sealed with epoxy
sealant and liquid desiccant showed no dark spots and retained 97% of its
initial luminance even after being stored for 800 hrs at 85 oC and 85 % R.H. Furthermore, the accelerating storage lifetimes of
31-inch bottom-emitting AMOLEDs with epoxy sealant and liquid desiccant
showed about 1000 hrs. These results suggest that the liquid desiccant can
be applied to encapsulation of large-sized AMOLEDs.
We have studied the improvement of the quality of undoped a-Si:H deposited by remote-plasma chemical vapour deposition. The effects of reactant gas concentration, rf power, substrate bias voltage on the electrical and optical properties have been investigated. Some hydrogen dilution of si lane improves the photoeletric property and a high rf power gives rise to the defect creation due to the ion bombardment on the growing surface. The positive substrate bias improves the quality of undoped a-Si:H.
We studied the layer by layer deposition technique of a-Si:H film, where the hydrogen radicals are exposed between the deposition of each layer. The effects of each layer thickness and hydrogen radical exposure time on the electrical and optical properties were studied. With the decrease of the each layer thickness, more hydrogen is involved in the network if the structure is still amorphous, but the hydrogen content is very small for microcrystal Si formed by long exposure to hydrogen radicals in between the depositions of thin layers.
The effects of deposition temperature, rf power and hydrogen dilution ratio on the growth, structure and transport of p-type microcrystal(μc-) Si films deposited by remote plasma CVD have been investigated. While low substrate temperature and low rf power yield small grain sizes, high temperature and high rf power tend to supress the growth of grains. The etching of Si by hydrogen radicals plays an important role to grow μc-Si, but excess etching supresses the growth of crystallites. We obtained 400 A of grain size and 3.5 S/cm of room temperature conductivity for p-type μ-Si.
We have studied the effect of ion doping on the electrical properties for atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) Amorphous silicon (a-Si) films. The room temperature conductivities after ion doping at optimum doping temperatures for n- and p-type a-Si films were found to be > 10−2 and > 10−4 S/cm, respectively. The unintentional hydrogen incorporation into a-Si during ion doping enhances the quality of ion doped APCVD a-Si as compared to that of plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD) a-S.i.H. We obtained the field effect mobility of > 1 cm2/Vs for APCVD a-Si TFT using ion doped n+-layer.
We have studied the effect of ion doping on the electrical properties for atmospheric pressute chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) amorphous silicon (a-Si) films. The room temperature conductivities after ion doping at optimurr doping tenperatures for n− and p-type a-Si films were found to be > 10−2 and >10−4 S/cm, respectively. The unintentional hydrogen incorporation into a-Si during ion doping enhances the quality of ion doped APCVD a-Si as compared to that of plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD) a-Si:H. We obtained the field effect mobility of > 1 cm2/Vs for APCVD a-Si TFT using ion doped n+-layer.
We propose a pre-electrical bias aging to reduce threshold voltage (Vth) shift of hydrogenated- amorphous silicon thin-film transistor (a-Si:H TFT) for AMOLED display. The quantity of Vth shift in the sample subjected to a bias-aging is reduced due to the reduction of created dangling bond density, compared with a sample without a bias-aging. When an identical stress duration of 50,000 sec is applied to a-Si:H TFT with or without a pre-electrical bias-aging, the created dangling bond density (ΔNDB) after a pre-electrical bias-aging is decreased from 1.38 × 1011/cm2 to 0.685 × 1011/cm2. Our experimental results indicate that after the pre-electrical bias aging, a newly created dangling bond during an electrical stress is decreased because a weak bond density and hydrogen diffusion may be decreased.
We investigate the empirical relation between corporate governance and stock market liquidity. We find that firms with better corporate governance have narrower spreads, higher market quality index, smaller price impact of trades, and lower probability of information-based trading. In addition, we show that changes in our liquidity measures are significantly related to changes in the governance index over time. These results suggest that firms may alleviate information-based trading and improve stock market liquidity by adopting corporate governance standards that mitigate informational asymmetries. Our results are remarkably robust to alternative model specifications, across exchanges, and to different measures of liquidity.
Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (PSH) is a relatively benign clinical entity with a low risk of recurrent bleeding. The precise etiology of PSH has not yet been determined. We report here three cases of PSH with clinical and radiological features that support a venous system as a cause.
The first patient, a 72-year-old woman, had PSH and venous hemorrhagic infarct in the left thalamus on non-contrast CT. Subsequent cerebral angiography revealed widespread thrombosis in the cerebral venous system, a potential cause for reflux overflow hemorrhage. The second patient, a 55-year-old man with an established diagnosis of neuro-Behçet's disease, a well-known cause for cerebral venulitis, presented with PSH one year later. The third patient, a 39-year-old female, with incomplete Behçet's disease was admitted with PSH.
Current concepts on the anatomic origin and the possible pathophysiologic mechanism leading to PSH are discussed. The underlying pathological conditions in the venous system in our cases provide theoretical clues to the anatomic origin of PSH in general.
This paper develops a controller for position tracking of a new ball wheel drive mechanism for a robust omnidirectional wheeled mobile platform, an adaptive controller with physical parameter estimation. This platform, integrated with a manipulator, is designed for use in highway maintenance and construction, which is a generally unstructured and congested environment. The proposed ball wheel mechanism can move in all directions on the plane, instantaneously and isotropically. Reconfiguration of the redundant drive system of the ball wheel mechanism is accomplished by altering the contact pressure between the drive wheels and the sphere based on platform heading direction. The system redundancy is resolved through a Weighted Optimal Torque Distribution method allowing for smooth reconfiguration. Finally, experimental and simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.
The hot He-burning horizontal-branch (HB) stars and their progeny are most likely dominant ultraviolet (UV) sources in the old stellar population systems such as globular clusters (GCs). Integrated FUV flux can be an age indicator of GCs and allow us to investigate age distributions of GCs within a given galaxy or between galaxies. The unprecedented set of UV photometry for M31 by Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), coupled with most recent detailed population models enable to study detailed global UV properties of M31 GCs.
The neurobiological mechanism of auditory hallucination (AH) in schizophrenia remains elusive, but AH can be caused by the abnormality in the speech perception system based on the speech perception neural network model.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether schizophrenic patients with AH have the speech processing impairment as compared with schizophrenic patients without AH, and whether the speech perception ability could be improved after AH had subsided.
Twenty-four schizophrenic patients with AH were compared with 25 schizophrenic patients without AH. Narrative speech perception was assessed using a masked speech tracking (MST) task with three levels of superimposed phonetic noise. Sentence repetition task (SRT) and auditory continuous performance task (CPT) were used to assess grammar-dependent verbal working memory and non-language attention, respectively. These tests were measured before and after treatment in both groups.
Before treatment, schizophrenic patients with AH showed significant impairments in MST compared with those without AH. There were no significant differences in SRT and CPT correct (CPT-C) rates between both groups, but CPT incorrect (CPT-I) rate showed a significant difference. The low-score CPI-I group showed a significant difference in MST performance between the two groups, while the high-score CPI-I group did not. After treatment (after AH subsided), the hallucinating schizophrenic patients still had significant impairment in MST performance compared with non-hallucinating schizophrenic patients.
Our results support the claim that schizophrenic patients with AH are likely to have a disturbance of the speech perception system. Moreover, our data suggest that non-language attention might be a key factor influencing speech perception ability and that speech perception dysfunction might be a trait marker in schizophrenia with AH.
Metal contamination in Si and SiO2 films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in the fabrication of low-temperature poly Si thin-film transitor was investigated. Aluminum was the major metal impurity to have the highest concentration. Segregation of Al was always observed in the films deposited at temperatures above 400 °C. The impurity level in the segregated region was 1018 ∼ 1020 atoms/cm3 for Al, while the concentration in matrix was about 1016 atoms/cm3. From the transmission electron microscopy image, the Al segregated region contains small-size Al precipitates. Although the Al impurity level of 1016 atoms/cm3 did not cause any serious degradation of device performance, the level of 1018 atom/cm3 and higher can induce a fatal degradation of the threshold voltage. This study revealed that the Al originated from the PECVD chamber, carbon precipitates provided the preferred sites for Al precipitates, and the solubility and diffusivity of Al in Si accelerated the segregation of Al.
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