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Abnormal reward functioning is central to anhedonia and amotivation symptoms of schizophrenia (SCZ). Reward processing encompasses a series of psychological components. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the brain dysfunction related to reward processing of individuals with SCZ spectrum disorders and risks, covering multiple reward components.
After a systematic literature search, 37 neuroimaging studies were identified and divided into four groups based on their target psychology components (i.e. reward anticipation, reward consumption, reward learning, effort computation). Whole-brain Seed-based d Mapping (SDM) meta-analyses were conducted for all included studies and each component.
The meta-analysis for all reward-related studies revealed reduced functional activation across the SCZ spectrum in the striatum, orbital frontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and cerebellar areas. Meanwhile, distinct abnormal patterns were found for reward anticipation (decreased activation of the cingulate cortex and striatum), reward consumption (decreased activation of cerebellum IV/V areas, insula and inferior frontal gyri), and reward learning processing (decreased activation of the striatum, thalamus, cerebellar Crus I, cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and parietal and occipital areas). Lastly, our qualitative review suggested that decreased activation of the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate cortex was also involved in effort computation.
These results provide deep insights on the component-based neuro-psychopathological mechanisms for anhedonia and amotivation symptoms of the SCZ spectrum.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) hospital outbreaks have been common and devastating during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Understanding SARS-CoV-2 transmission in these environments is critical for preventing and managing outbreaks.
Outbreak investigation through epidemiological mapping and whole-genome sequencing phylogeny.
Hospital in-patient medical unit outbreak in Toronto, Canada, from November 2020 to January 2021.
The outbreak involved 8 patients and 10 staff and was associated with 3 patient deaths.
Patients being cared for in geriatric chairs at the nursing station were at high risk for both acquiring and transmitting SARS-CoV-2 to other patients and staff. Furthermore, given the informal nature of these transmissions, they were not initially recognized, which led to further transmission and missing the opportunity for preventative COVID-19 therapies.
During outbreak prevention and management, the risk of informal patient care settings, such as geriatric chairs, should be considered. During high-risk periods or during outbreaks, efforts should be made to care for patients in their rooms when possible.
Biogeochemical analyses of organisms’ tissues provide direct proxies for diets, behaviors, and environmental interactions that have proven invaluable for studies of extant and extinct species. Applying these to Cretaceous ecosystems has at times produced anomalous results, however, as dinosaurs preserve unusually positive stable carbon isotope compositions relative to extant C3-feeding vertebrates. This has been hypothesized to be a unique property of dinosaur dietary physiology, with potential significance for our interpretations of their paleobiology. We test that hypothesis through multi-taxic stable carbon isotope analyses of a spatiotemporally constrained locality in the Late Cretaceous of Canada, and compare the results to a modern near-analogue environment in Louisiana. The stable carbon isotope anomaly is present in all sampled fossil vertebrates, dinosaur or not. This suggests another more widespread factor is responsible. Examinations of diagenetic effects suggest that, where present, they are insufficient to explain the isotope anomaly. The isotope anomaly is therefore not primarily the result of a unique dietary physiology of dinosaurs, but rather a mix of factors impacting all taxa, such as environmental and/or source-diet differences. Our study underscores the importance of multi-taxic samples from spatiotemporally constrained localities in testing hypotheses of extinct organisms and ecosystems, and in the use of modern data to “ground truth” when evaluating analogue versus non-analogue conditions in greenhouse paleoecosystems.
Assessing how managers discount and evaluate risks is crucial in designing effective managerial policies. In this work, we examine whether risk preferences (RP; both in the domains of gain and loss) and time preferences (TP) are related to managers’ cognitive reflection (CR). To achieve this, the current study focuses on the responses of 601 corporate decision-makers, such as CEO and CFO, of 200 non-financial firms listed at the Pakistan Stock Exchange. Using the three-item of Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005) as a measure of CR, we observe that males perform better on this test than females. Correlation analysis reveals that individuals’ RP in the gain domain are positively associated with their TP, implying that risk-taking individuals are more patient. Our evidence further shows that higher CR is associated with a higher likelihood of increased patience and a lower likelihood of willingness to take risks in the domain of loss. Greater CR is also linked to a higher likelihood of risk-taking in the domain of gain. These findings have important implications regarding the ability of managers to make financial decisions that involve uncertainty and delayed rewards but maximize firm value.
Meat quality is not only influenced by breed but also rearing environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different housing environments on growth performance, carcase traits, meat quality, physiological response pre-slaughter and fatty acid composition in two pig breeds. A total of 120 growing pigs at 60-70 days of age were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design with the breeds (Duroc × Landrace × Large White [D × L × LW] and Duroc × Landrace × Min pig [D × L × M]) and environmental enrichment (barren concrete floor or enriched with straw bedding) as factors. Each treatment was performed in triplicate with ten pigs per replicate. The pigs housed in the enriched environment exhibited a higher average daily gain, average daily feed intake, saturated fatty acid percentage and backfat depth than the pigs reared in the barren environment. Plasma cortisol levels were lower and growth hormone higher in enriched compared to barren pens. The D × L × M pigs showed lower cooking loss compared with the D × L × LW pigs. Moreover, the D × L × M pigs exhibited poor growth performance but had a better water-holding capacity. Only carcase traits and meat quality interaction effects were observed. We concluded that an enriched environment can reduce preslaughter stress and improve the growth performance of pigs and modulate the fatty acid composition of pork products.
Previous studies have suggested that a hospital patient's risk of developing healthcare facility-onset (HCFO) Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs) increases with the number of concurrent spatially proximate patients with CDI, termed CDI pressure. However, these studies were performed either in a single institution or in a single state with a very coarse measure of concurrence. We conducted a retrospective case-control study involving over 17.5 million inpatient visits across 700 hospitals in eight US states. We built a weighted, directed network connecting overlapping inpatient visits to measure facility-level CDI pressure. We then matched HCFO-CDIs with non-CDI controls on facility, comorbidities and demographics and performed a conditional logistic regression to determine the odds of developing HCFO-CDI given the number of coincident patient visits with CDI. On average, cases' visits coincided with 9.2 CDI cases, which for an individual with an average length of stay corresponded to an estimated 17.7% (95% CI 12.9–22.7%) increase in the odds of acquiring HCFO-CDI compared to an inpatient visit without concurrent CDI cases or fully isolated from both direct and indirect risks from concurrent CDI cases. These results suggest that, either directly or indirectly, hospital patients with CDI lead to CDIs in non-infected patients with temporally overlapping visits.
The effect of milorganite, a commercially available organic soil amendment, on soil nutrients, plant growth, and yield has been investigated. However, its effect on soil hydraulic properties remains less understood. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of milorganite amendment on soil evaporation, moisture retention, hydraulic conductivity, and electrical conductivity of a Krome soil. A column experiment was conducted with two milorganite application rates (15 and 30% v/v) and a non-amended control soil. The results revealed that milorganite reduced evaporation rates and the length of Stage I of the evaporation process compared with the control. Moreover, milorganite increased moisture retention at saturation and permanent wilting point while decreasing soil hydraulic conductivity. In addition, milorganite increased soil electrical conductivity. Overall, milorganite resulted in increased soil moisture retention; however, moisture in the soil may not be readily available for plants due to increased soil salinity.
Clinical trials continue to disproportionately underrepresent people of color. Increasing representation of diverse backgrounds among clinical research personnel has the potential to yield greater representation in clinical trials and more efficacious medical interventions by addressing medical mistrust. In 2019, North Carolina Central University (NCCU), a Historically Black College and University with a more than 80% underrepresented student population, established the Clinical Research Sciences Program with support from the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program at neighboring Duke University. This program was designed to increase exposure of students from diverse educational, racial, and ethnic backgrounds to the field of clinical research, with a special focus on health equity education. In the first year, the program graduated 11 students from the two-semester certificate program, eight of whom now hold positions as clinical research professionals. This article describes how leveraging the CTSA program helped NCCU build a framework for producing a highly trained, competent, and diverse workforce in clinical research responsive to the call for increased diversity in clinical trial participation.
This study aimed to examine the independent roles of various childhood maltreatment (CM) subtypes in the development of depression; quantify the joint mediation effect of social support and mastery in the association between subtypes of CM and depression and examine the additional contribution of mastery beyond the effect that is operating through social support to this relationship.
Data analysed were from the Zone d’Épidémiologie Psychiatrique du Sud-Ouest de Montréal, an ongoing longitudinal population-based study. In total, 1351 participants with complete information on the studied variables were included. The propensity score matching and inverse-probability weighted regression adjustment estimation methods were used to minimise the potential confounding in the relationship between CM and major depression. We then used inverse odds ratio-weighted estimation to estimate the direct effects of maltreatment and indirect effects of social support and mastery.
We found that exposures to all maltreatment subtypes increased the risk of subsequent depression. The joint mediating effect of social support and mastery explained 37.63–46.97% of the association between different maltreatment subtypes and depression. The contribution of these two mediators differed by maltreatment subtypes, with social support being the major contributor to the mediating effect.
The findings of the study not only provide scientific evidence on the importance of psychosocial attributes in the development of major depression but also suggest that prevention and invention strategies should focus on these psychosocial attributes to effectively break the vicious cycle of CM on major depression.
Many data-driven patient risk stratification models have not been evaluated prospectively. We performed and compared the prospective and retrospective evaluations of 2 Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) risk-prediction models at 2 large academic health centers, and we discuss the models’ robustness to data-set shifts.
Altered DNA methylation in the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene has been shown to regulate stress response, which may serve as a biomarker of depression and a promising candidate for explaining sexual differences. However, there is no consistent conclusion so far.
The present study aimed to test the associations of FKBP5 DNA methylation with depressive symptoms and whether these associations were influenced by sex.
A nested case-control study comprising 87 cases and 151 controls was conducted in South China from January 2019 and December 2019. Peripheral blood for DNA extraction and DNA methylation analysis of FKBP5 gene promoter was collected, and severity of depressive symptoms was assessed at baseline and after one year follow-up.
Compared to healthy controls, lower methylation percentage of FKBP5-12 CpG 1 was observed in adolescents with depressive symptoms after adjusting covariates (case: 0.94 ± 2.00, control: 0.47 ± 0.92; F = 5.41, P = 0.021). In addition, hypomethylation of FKBP5 CpG sites was not an independent risk factor for depressive symptoms after adjustment for environmental stress factors (P > 0.05). No significant sex differences were found in the association of FKBP5 gene methylation with depressive symptoms.
Lower levels of FKBP5 methylation were found in adolescents with depressive symptoms. Our study supported that the epigenetic factors did not act alone in the development of depressive symptoms. Taken together, these findings contribute to a better understanding of complex mechanisms of gene-environment interactions involved in depression.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is prevalent, often chronic, and requires ongoing monitoring of symptoms to track response to treatment and identify early indicators of relapse. Remote Measurement Technologies (RMT) provide an exciting opportunity to transform the measurement and management of MDD, via data collected from inbuilt smartphone sensors and wearable devices alongside app-based questionnaires and tasks.
To describe the amount of data collected during a multimodal longitudinal RMT study, in an MDD population.
RADAR-MDD is a multi-centre, prospective observational cohort study. People with a history of MDD were provided with a wrist-worn wearable, and several apps designed to: a) collect data from smartphone sensors; and b) deliver questionnaires, speech tasks and cognitive assessments and followed-up for a maximum of 2 years.
A total of 623 individuals with a history of MDD were enrolled in the study with 80% completion rates for primary outcome assessments across all timepoints. 79.8% of people participated for the maximum amount of time available and 20.2% withdrew prematurely. Data availability across all RMT data types varied depending on the source of data and the participant-burden for each data type. We found no evidence of an association between the severity of depression symptoms at baseline and the availability of data. 110 participants had > 50% data available across all data types, and thus able to contribute to multiparametric analyses.
RADAR-MDD is the largest multimodal RMT study in the field of mental health. Here, we have shown that collecting RMT data from a clinical population is feasible.
This research examines maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk for poorer executive function in siblings discordant for exposure. Data (N = 173 families) were drawn from the Missouri Mothers and Their Children study, a sample, identified using birth records (years 1998–2005), in which mothers changed smoking behavior between two pregnancies (Child 1 [older sibling]: Mage = 12.99; Child 2 [younger sibling]: Mage = 10.19). A sibling comparison approach was used, providing a robust test for the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and different aspects of executive function in early-mid adolescence. Results suggested within-family (i.e., potentially causal) associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and one working memory task (visual working memory) and one response inhibition task (color-word interference), with increased exposure associated with decreased performance. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was not associated with stop-signal reaction time, cognitive flexibility/set-shifting, or auditory working memory. Initial within-family associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and visual working memory as well as color-word interference were fully attenuated in a model including child and familial covariates. These findings indicate that exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy may be associated with poorer performance on some, but not all skills assessed; however, familial transmission of risk for low executive function appears more important.
The great demographic pressure brings tremendous volume of beef demand. The key to solve this problem is the growth and development of Chinese cattle. In order to find molecular markers conducive to the growth and development of Chinese cattle, sequencing was used to determine the position of copy number variations (CNVs), bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the function of ZNF146 gene, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for CNV genotyping and one-way analysis of variance was used for association analysis. The results showed that there exists CNV in Chr 18: 47225201-47229600 (5.0.1 version) of ZNF146 gene through the early sequencing results in the laboratory and predicted ZNF146 gene was expressed in liver, skeletal muscle and breast cells, and was amplified or overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, which promoted the development of tumour through bioinformatics. Therefore, it is predicted that ZNF146 gene affects the proliferation of muscle cells, and then affects the growth and development of cattle. Furthermore, CNV genotyping of ZNF146 gene was three types (deletion type, normal type and duplication type) by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). The association analysis results showed that ZNF146-CNV was significantly correlated with rump length of Qinchuan cattle, hucklebone width of Jiaxian red cattle and heart girth of Yunling cattle. From the above results, ZNF146-CNV had a significant effect on growth traits, which provided an important candidate molecular marker for growth and development of Chinese cattle.
We report the experimental results of the commissioning phase in the 10 PW laser beamline of the Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Laser Facility (SULF). The peak power reaches 2.4 PW on target without the last amplifying during the experiment. The laser energy of 72 ± 9 J is directed to a focal spot of approximately 6 μm diameter (full width at half maximum) in 30 fs pulse duration, yielding a focused peak intensity around 2.0 × 1021 W/cm2. The first laser-proton acceleration experiment is performed using plain copper and plastic targets. High-energy proton beams with maximum cut-off energy up to 62.5 MeV are achieved using copper foils at the optimum target thickness of 4 μm via target normal sheath acceleration. For plastic targets of tens of nanometers thick, the proton cut-off energy is approximately 20 MeV, showing ring-like or filamented density distributions. These experimental results reflect the capabilities of the SULF-10 PW beamline, for example, both ultrahigh intensity and relatively good beam contrast. Further optimization for these key parameters is underway, where peak laser intensities of 1022–1023 W/cm2 are anticipated to support various experiments on extreme field physics.
This paper introduces a method to improve the design procedure of axiomatic design theory (AD) with Extenics. A comprehensive review of the AD indicates that the powerful principle of AD has been widely studied and applied to many areas, however, inexperienced practitioners of the AD theory still find it difficult to follow or apply the principles in their design which inadvertently often leads to misunderstanding and skepticism. The lack of definitive descriptions for all the elements and specific approaches to guiding the mapping process restricts the development and application of AD theory. This paper improves the design procedure of AD with Extenics. The elements in AD domain are expressed by basic-elements of Extenics, and the formulations are generated. The mapping process based on AD and Extenics is developed. The improved design procedure provides designers with a theoretical foundation based on the logical and rational thought process, meanwhile the solution space can be expanded and innovative designs are inspired. Based on the proposed design procedure, a computer-aided system is developed, which makes the complex and fuzzy design activity clear and easy to follow by filling in the blanks in a step-by-step manner. An example of a novel corn harvester header design scheme is considered to illustrate the validity of the improved design procedure.
Organ donation after brain death has been practiced in China since 2003 in the absence of brain death legislation. Similar to international standards, China’s brain death diagnostic criteria include coma, absence of brainstem reflexes, and the lack of spontaneous respiration. The Chinese criteria require that the lack of spontaneous respiration must be verified with an apnea test by disconnecting the ventilator for 8 min to provoke spontaneous respiration. However, we have found publications in Chinese medical journals, in which the donors were declared to be brain dead, yet without an apnea test. The organ procurement procedures started with initiating “intratracheal intubation for mechanical ventilation after brain death,” indicating that a brain death diagnosis was not performed. The purpose of the intubation was not to resuscitate the patient but rather was directly related to facilitating the explantation of organs. Moreover, it was unmistakably stated in two of these publications that the cardiac arrest was induced in these patients without brain death determination by cold St. Thomas cardioplegic solution or other cold myocardial protection solutions. This means that the condition of these donors neither met the criteria of brain death nor that of cardiac death. In other words, the “donor organs” may well have been procured in these cases from living human beings. Thus, brain death definition is abused in China by some individuals for organ harvesting, and a systematic investigation is needed to clarify the situation of organ donation after brain death in China.