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Let H0 be the mth power (m a positive integer) of the self-adjoint operator defined in the Hilbert space L2(0, π) by the differential operator — (d2/dx2) and the boundary conditions u(0) = u(π) = 0. The eigenvalues of H0 are μn = n2m and the corresponding eigenfunctions are ϕn = (2/π)1/2 sin nx, n = 1 , 2 , . . ..
Let p be a (2m — 2)-times continuously differentiate real valued function defined over the interval [0, π] satisfying the conditions p(j)(0) = p(j)(π) = 0 for j odd and less than 2m — 4.
To investigate the potential dietary impact of the opening of new retailers of healthy foods.
Systematic review of the peer-reviewed research literature.
References published before November 2015 were retrieved from MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases using keyword searches.
The outcome of the review was change in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults.
Of 3514 references retrieved, ninety-two articles were reviewed in full text, and twenty-three articles representing fifteen studies were included. Studies used post-test only (n 4), repeated cross-sectional (n 4) and repeated measures designs (n 7) to evaluate the dietary impact of supermarket (n 7), farmers’ market (n 4), produce stand (n 2) or mobile market (n 2) openings. Evidence of increased fruit and vegetable consumption was most consistent among adults who began shopping at the new retailer. Three of four repeated measures studies found modest, albeit not always statistically significant, increases in fruit and vegetable consumption (range 0·23–0·54 servings/d) at 6–12 months after baseline. Dietary change among residents of the broader community where the new retailer opened was less consistent.
The methodological quality of studies, including research designs, sampling methods, follow-up intervals and outcome measures, ranged widely. Future research should align methodologically with previous work to facilitate meta-analytic synthesis of results. Opening a new retailer may result in modest short-term increases in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults who choose to shop there, but the potential longer-term dietary impact on customers and its impact on the broader community remain unclear.
The Square Kilometre Array will be an amazing instrument for pulsar astronomy. While the full SKA will be sensitive enough to detect all pulsars in the Galaxy visible from Earth, already with SKA1, pulsar searches will discover enough pulsars to increase the currently known population by a factor of four, no doubt including a range of amazing unknown sources. Real time processing is needed to deal with the 60 PB of pulsar search data collected per day, using a signal processing pipeline required to perform more than 10 POps. Here we present the suggested design of the pulsar search engine for the SKA and discuss challenges and solutions to the pulsar search venture.
The majority of fast radio bursts (FRBs) are poorly localised, hindering their potential scientific yield as galactic, intergalactic, and cosmological probes. LOFT-e, a digital backend for the U.K.’s e-MERLIN seven-telescope interferometer will provide commensal search and real-time detection of FRBs, taking full advantage of its field of view (FoV), sensitivity, and observation time. Upon burst detection, LOFT-e will store raw data offline, enabling the sub-arcsecond localisation provided by e-MERLIN and expanding the pool of localised FRBs. The high-time resolution backend will additionally introduce pulsar observing capabilities to e-MERLIN.
PSR B1820–30A is located in the globular cluster NGC 6624 and has the smallest projected distance to the centre of any globular cluster in the sky plane. We observe this millisecond pulsar over more than 25 years and obtain higher-order rotational frequency time derivative measurements through high-precision timing. Modelling these higher-order derivatives as being due to orbital motion, we find that the pulsar is in either a low-eccentricity smaller orbit with a low mass companion or a high-eccentricity larger orbit with a massive companion. The cluster mass properties and the observed properties of other nearby sources indicate that the high-eccentricity solution is more probably. This reveals that the pulsar is orbiting around an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) of mass >7500 M⊙ located at the cluster centre. This contribution is based on previous work published in MNRAS 471, 1258 (2017).
Multi-decade observing campaigns of the globular clusters 47 Tucanae and M15 have led to an outstanding number of discoveries. Here, we report on the latest results of the long-term observations of the pulsars in these two clusters. For most of the pulsars in 47 Tucanae we have measured, among other things, their higher-order spin period derivatives, which have in turn provided stringent constraints on the physical parameters of the cluster, such as its distance and gravitational potential. For M15, we have studied the relativistic spin precession effect in PSR B2127+11C. We have used full-Stokes observations to model the precession effect, and to constrain the system geometry. We find that the visible beam of the pulsar is swiftly moving away from our line of sight and may very soon become undetectable. On the other hand, we expect to see the opposite emission beam sometime between 2041 and 2053.
Can core genetic liabilities for suicidal behavior be indexed using psychological and neural indicators combined? The current work addressed this question by examining phenotypic and genetic associations of two biobehavioral traits, threat sensitivity (THT) and disinhibition (DIS) – operationalized as psychoneurometric variables (i.e., composites of psychological-scale and neurophysiological measures) – with suicidal behaviors in a sample of adult twins.
Participants were 444 identical and fraternal twins recruited from an urban community. THT was assessed using a psychological-scale measure of fear/fearlessness combined with physiological indicators of reactivity to aversive pictures, and DIS was assessed using scale measures of disinhibitory tendencies combined with indicators of brain response from lab performance tasks. Suicidality was assessed using items from structured interview and questionnaire protocols.
THT and DIS each contributed uniquely to prediction of suicidality when assessed psychoneurometrically (i.e., as composites of scale and neurophysiological indicators). In addition, these traits predicted suicidality interactively, with participants high on both reporting the greatest degree of suicidal behaviors. Biometric (twin-modeling) analyses revealed that a high percentage of the predictive association for each psychoneurometric trait (83% for THT, 68% for DIS) was attributable to genetic variance in common with suicidality.
Findings indicate that psychoneurometric assessments of biobehavioral traits index genetic liability for suicidal behavior, and as such, can serve as innovative targets for research on core biological processes contributing to severe psychopathology, including suicidal proclivities and actions.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
While trauma-focused cognitive–behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is the ‘gold standard’ treatment for pediatric post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known about the neural mechanisms by which TF-CBT produces clinical benefit. Here, we test the hypothesis that PTSD symptom reduction during TF-CBT among adolescent girls with PTSD is associated with changes in patterns of brain functional connectivity (FC) with the amygdala during cognitive reappraisal.
Adolescent girls with PTSD related to physical or sexual assault (n = 34) were enrolled in TF-CBT, delivered in an approximately 12-session format, in an open trial. Before and after treatment, they were engaged in a cognitive reappraisal task, probing neural mechanisms of explicit emotion regulation, during 3 T functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Among adolescent girls completing TF-CBT with usable pre- and post-treatment scans (n = 20), improvements in self-reported emotion from pre- to post-treatment were positively related to improvements in PTSD symptoms. Adolescent girls with greater post-treatment symptom reduction were also able to suppress amygdala–insula FC while re-appraising, which was not evident in girls with less symptom reduction. Pre- to post-treatment changes in right amygdala to left insula FC that scaled with PTSD symptom reduction also scaled with improvements in emotion regulation.
These preliminary results suggest the neurocircuitry mechanisms through which TF-CBT produces clinical outcomes, providing putative brain targets for augmenting TF-CBT response.
Giant pulses (GPs), occasional individual pulses with an intensity 100 times the average intensity, have been detected in four pulsars to date. Their origin is not well understood, but studies suggest a connection between the strength of magnetic field at the light cylinder Blc and the existence of GPs. Here, we report on detection of significant Large Amplitude Pulses (LAPs) in two more pulsars with high values of Blc, PSRs J0218+4232 and B1957+20, observed using Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT).
Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) pressurized heavy-water reactors produce 14C by neutron activation of trace quantities of nitrogen in annular gas and reactor components (14N(n,p)14C), and from 17O in the heavy water moderator by (17O(n,α)14C). The radiocarbon produced in the moderator is removed on ion exchange resins incorporated in the water purification systems; however, a much smaller gaseous portion is vented from reactor stacks at activity levels considerably below 1% of permissible derived emission limits. Early measurements of the carbon speciation indicated that >90% of the 14C emitted was in the form of CO2. We conducted surveys of the atmospheric dispersion of 14CO2 at the Chalk River Laboratories and at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. We analyzed air, vegetation, soils and tree rings to add to the historical record of 14C emissions at these sites, and to gain an understanding of the relative importance of the various carbon pools that act as sources/sinks within the total 14C budget. Better model parameters than those currently available for calculating the dose to the critical group can be obtained in this manner. Global dose estimates may require the development of techniques for estimating emissions occurring outside the growing season.
The need for increased quality assurance for radiocarbon measurements performed by the monitoring laboratories at nuclear stations has spurred the introduction of a number of interlaboratory comparisons. We organized two such intercomparisons: the first set, circulated in 1994, consisted of two milk samples, one containing current global levels of 14C, the other containing an added spike of 14C-methylated casein. The second set, circulated in 1995, consisted of two samples of natural vegetation growing on the site of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), containing two different levels of 14C, both well above global background. The response to our invitation to participate in these studies was very encouraging; six laboratories took part in the first intercomparison, eleven in the second. The list included both monitoring laboratories and those whose main function is 14C dating. Understandably, some of the latter preferred not to analyze the higher-activity samples. The results in 3 of the 4 data sets were consistent with a statistical distribution based on the reported errors. This report provides details of two intercomparisons, including the preparation of the samples, which may now be considered potential secondary reference materials, the range of analytical techniques in use at the participating laboratories, and a statistical analysis of the results returned to us.
We study the interaction of a dense giant molecular cloud with the HII region Sagittarius C, and a prominent nonthermal filament (NTF). For this purpose, we mapped the CS(2→1) and (3→2) transitions simultaneously with the IRAM 30m radio telescope, using the on-the-fly observing mode, and covering a 20pc×37pc (8′ × 15′) region. The high spatial resolution, 0.7pc (16″) at 147 GHz, allows for the first time to analyze in detail the morphology and kinematics of the molecular material and its relation to the ionized gas.
During the ORFEUS-SPAS (Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer on the Shuttle Pallet Satellite) mission STS-51, flown in September 1993, we observed the central star of the planetary nebula NGC 6543 in the far ultraviolet (90 nm to 115 nm) wavelength region using the University of California, Berkeley spectrometer with a spectral resolution of 0.03 nm.
ORFEUS (Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer) is a 1 m normal incidence telescope for spectroscopic investigations of cosmic sources in the far and extreme ultraviolet spectral range. The instrument will be integrated into the freeflyer platform ASTRO-SPAS. ORFEUS-SPAS is scheduled with STS ENDEAVOUR in September 1992. We describe the telescope with its two spectrometers and their capabilities i.e. spectral range, resolution and overall sensitivity. The main classes of objects to be observed with the instrument are discussed and two examples of simulated spectra for the white dwarf HZ43 and an O9-star in the LMC are shown.
During the second flight of the ORFEUS-SPAS satellite (Nov./Dec. 96) high resolution (λ/∆λ = 10,000) Echelle-spectra of BD+28° 4211 in the wavelength regime 912–1400 Å have been taken. Deuterium can be clearly identified in the ORFEUSII Echelle-spectra of this star. For the first time it was possible to take spectra of faint, not redshifted objects in the far ultraviolet with a sufficient spectral resolution to study the deuterium column density in the whole spectral range of the Lyman-series down to the Lyman-limit. We obtained a value of log(ND) = 14.7 (±0.3) towards BD+28° 4211. The hydrogen column density has been determined using ORFEUS Echelle- and IUE-spectra of Ly-α (log(NH) = 19.8 (±0.2)). Thus a value of 8 × 10−6 can be obtained for the D/H-ratio on the line-of-sight towards BD+28° 4211.