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A field study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 to determine foliar efficacy of halauxifen-methyl, 2,4-D, or dicamba applied alone and in combination with glyphosate at preplant burndown timing. Experiments were conducted near Painter, VA; Rocky Mount, NC; Jackson, NC; and Gates, NC. Control of horseweed, henbit, purple deadnettle, cutleaf evening primrose, curly dock, purple cudweed, and common chickweed were evaluated. Halauxifen-methyl applied at 5 g ae ha−1 controlled small and large horseweed 89% and 79%, respectively, and was similar to control by dicamba applied at 280 g ae ha−1. Both rates of 2,4-D—533 g ae ha−1(low rate [LR]) or 1,066 g ae ha−1 (high rate [HR])—were less effective than halauxifen-methyl and dicamba for controlling horseweed. Halauxifen-methyl was the only auxin herbicide to control henbit (90%) and purple deadnettle (99%). Cutleaf evening primrose was controlled 74% to 85%, 51%, and 4% by 2,4-D, dicamba, and halauxifen-methyl, respectively. Dicamba and 2,4-D controlled curly dock 59% to 70% and were more effective than halauxifen-methyl (5%). Auxin herbicides applied alone controlled purple cudweed and common chickweed 21% or less. With the exception of cutleaf evening primrose (35%) and curly dock (37%), glyphosate alone provided 95% or greater control of all weeds evaluated. These experiments demonstrate halauxifen-methyl effectively (≥79%) controls horseweed, henbit, and purple deadnettle, whereas common chickweed, curly dock, cutleaf evening primrose, and purple cudweed control by the herbicide is inadequate (≤7%).
To utilise a community-based participatory approach in the design and implementation of an intervention targeting diet-related health problems on Navajo Nation.
A dual strategy approach of community needs/assets assessment and engagement of cross-sectorial partners in programme design with systematic cyclical feedback for programme modifications.
Navajo Nation, USA.
Navajo families with individuals meeting criteria for programme enrolment. Participant enrolment increased with iterative cycles.
The Navajo Fruit and Vegetable Prescription (FVRx) Programme.
A broad, community-driven and culturally relevant programme design has resulted in a programme able to maintain core programmatic principles, while also allowing for flexible adaptation to changing needs.
Reconstructing the provenance of siliciclastic marine sediment is important for understanding sediment pathways and constraining palaeoclimate and erosion records. However, physical fractionation of different size fractions can occur during sediment transport, potentially biasing records derived from bulk sediment. In this study, records of radiogenic Sr and Nd isotopic composition and K/Al ratio of the separated clay fraction, as well as bulk grain size, are presented, measured from deep-sea sediments recovered from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Sites U1456 and U1457 in the Arabian Sea. These new records are compared with published bulk sediment records to investigate the influence of sediment transport on these proxies and to constrain provenance evolution and its relationship to climate variability since middle Miocene time. Correlations between grain size and the bulk sediment isotopic composition confirm that transport processes are influencing the bulk sediment record. This relationship, although present, is not as strong in the clay-fraction isotopic records. Heterogeneity of bulk sediment likely drives differences between bulk and clay records, thought to be largely controlled by sediment transport processes. The isotopic records reveal variations in provenance that correlate with climatic change at 8–7 Ma, as well as an increase in overall provenance variability beginning at c. 3.5 Ma, likely linked to monsoon strength and glacial–interglacial cycles. The clay-fraction records highlight the potential value of measuring proxy records from multiple size fractions to help constrain provenance records as well as investigate sediment transport and/or weathering and erosion processes recorded in deep-sea sediment archives.
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a risk for stroke. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society advises patients who are CHADS65 positive should be started on oral anticoagulation (OAC). Our local emergency department (ED) review showed that only 16% of CHADS65 positive patients were started on OAC and that 2% of our patients were diagnosed with stroke within 90 days. We implemented a new pathway for initiation of OAC in the ED (the SAFE pathway). Aim Statement: We report the effectiveness and safety of the SAFE pathway for initiation of OAC in patients treated for AF in the ED. Measures & Design: A multidisciplinary group of physicians and pharmacist developed the SAFE pathway for patients who are discharged home from the ED with a diagnosis of AF. Step 1: contraindications to OAC, Step 2: CHADS65 score, Step 3: OAC dosing if indicated. The pathway triggers referral to AF clinic, family physician letter and follow up call from the ED pharmacist. Patients are followed for 90 days by a structured medical record review and a structured telephone interview. We record persistence with OAC, stroke, TIA, systemic arterial embolism and major bleeding (ISTH criteria). Patient outcomes are fed back to the treating ED physician. Evaluation/ Results: The SAFE pathway was introduced in two EDs in June 2018. In total, 177 patients have had the pathway applied. The median age was 70 (interquartile range (IQR) 61-78), 48% male, median CHADS2 score 2 (IQR 0-2). 19/177 patients (11%) had a contraindication to initiating OAC. 122 patients (69%) had no contraindication to OAC and were CHADS65 positive. Of these 122 patients, 109 were given a prescription for OAC (96 the correct dose, 9 too high a dose and 4 too low a dose). 6 patients declined OAC and the physician did not want to start OAC for 7 patients. 73/122 were contacted by phone at 90 days, 15 could not be reached and 34 have not completed 90 days of follow up since their ED visit. Of the 73 who were reached by phone after 90 days, 65 were still taking an anticoagulant. To date, 1 patient who declined OAC (CHADS2 score of 2) had a stroke within 90 days and one patient prescribed OAC had a gastrointestinal bleed. Discussion/Impact: The SAFE pathway appears safe and effective although we continue to evaluate and improve the process.
Emerging research highlights the importance of the timing of the onset of a depressive episode. This study examines the risk factors and psychiatric features of participants who experienced their first major depressive episode as children, teenagers or adults. This study is unique in that it emphasises the importance of examining onset of an episode during critical developmental periods.
Participants were 372 depressed outpatients who were either treated with psychotherapy (IPT or CBT) or medication as part of two separate randomised clinical trials. Participants completed a number of assessment measures including clinician ratings of DSM diagnoses. Personality was also assessed using Cloninger's (e.g., 1994) Temperament and Character Inventory.
Participants with childhood onset and teenage-onset depression had a higher number of co-morbid diagnoses and more DSM III/IV personality disorder diagnoses than those with adult-onset depression. Specifically, more participants with childhood or teenage onset depression had diagnoses of avoidant and borderline personality disorder. Women who had childhood onset depression were over three times more likely to have attempted suicide compared to other participants. Participants with childhood onset depression were also more likely to report being threatened with abuse, have experienced psychological abuse and reported more abuse incidents. Age of onset was also associated with a number of differences in temperament and character.
This research emphasises the significance of understanding the age of onset of a depressive episode. Depressive episodes that begin in childhood/adolescence are associated with higher co-morbidity and greater personality dysfunction.
Recent epidemiology studies have reported the prevalence of adult ADHD to be approximately 4%, however approved treatments are limited.
Primary objectives were to confirm the clinically-effective and safe dosage range of MPH-LA in adults with ADHD and evaluate the 6-month maintenance of effect.
Treatment Period (TP) 1: Patients were randomized to double-blind placebo, MPH-LA 40, 60, or 80 mg/day for 9- weeks (3-week titration, 6-week fixed-dose) to evaluate change in DSM-IV ADHD-RS and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) total score in TP1. TP2: 5-week titration to individual optimal dose. TP3: Patients were randomized to their optimal dose or placebo for 6-months double-blind withdrawal period to evaluate percentage of treatment failures during TP3.
Improvement from baseline in total score on the DSM-IV ADHD-RS and SDS was significantly greater than placebo for all MPH-LA dose levels (table). Patients treated with MPH-LA had significantly lower treatment failure rates (21.34%) compared to placebo in TP3 (49.6%; odds-ratio (95%CI=0.3 (0.2, 0.4); p< 0.0001). The safety results were consistent with the established safety profile for MPH-LA.
[Improvement by week 9: DSM-IV ADHD-RS and SDS].
N=Full Analysis Set for TP1 (All randomized patients receiving one dose of study drug in TP1)
MPH-LA administered at 40-80mg/day demonstrated superior ADHD symptom control and reduction in functional impairment compared to placebo and demonstrated maintenance of effect over 6 months. No unexpected adverse events were observed.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
The reported lifetime prevalence of depression in adolescents has increased drastically in recent decades. Depression in this population can be particularly damaging and can frequently have a long-lasting adverse impact. The common treatment approach includes psychological therapy and/or anti-depressant medication. However, the efficacy of these approaches, both singularly and combined, is far from conclusive. Recently, there have been an increased number of studies investigating the effect of exercise and physical activity on adolescent depression, however, despite this increased attention, there are no recent reviews and meta-analyses synthesising such studies.
The review examines the treatment effect of exercise on depression symptoms for adolescents aged 13–17 years of age.
A systematic search of seven electronic databases identified relevant randomised controlled trials. Screening, data extraction and trial methodological quality were undertaken by two independent researchers. Standardized mean differences were used for pooling post-intervention depressive symptom scores.
Eleven trials met the inclusion criteria, eight of which provided the necessary data for calculation of standardized effect size. Exercise showed a statistically significant moderate overall effect on depressive symptom reduction. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted and will be presented.
Exercise and physical activity appear to improve depression symptoms in adolescents, especially in clinical samples, suggesting that exercise may be a useful treatment strategy for adolescents with depression.
Despite the positive findings, large clinical trials that adequately minimise bias are required for firmer conclusions on the effectiveness of exercise as an antidepressant treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Multiple lines of evidence suggest the presence of altered neuroimmune processes in patients with schizophrenia (Sz) and severe mood disorders. Recent studies using a novel free water diffusion tensor imaging (FW DTI) approach, proposed as a putative biomarker of neuroinflammation, atrophy, or edema, have shown significantly increased FW in patients with Sz. However no studies to date have investigated the longitudinal stability of FW alterations during the early course of psychosis, nor have studies focused separately on FE psychosis patients with Sz or bipolar disorder (BD) with psychotic features.
The current study included 188 participants who underwent diffusion magnetic resonance imaging scanning at baseline. Sixty-four participants underwent follow-up rescanning after 12 months. DTI-based alterations in patients were calculated using voxelwise tract-based spatial statistics and region of interest analyses.
Patients with FE psychosis, both Sz and BD, exhibited increased FW at illness onset which remained unchanged over the 12-month follow-up period. Preliminary analyses suggested that antipsychotic medication exposure was associated with higher FW in gray matter that reached significance in the BD group. Higher FW in white matter correlated with negative symptom severity.
Our results support the presence of elevated FW at the onset of psychosis in both Sz and BD, which remains stable during the early course of the illness, with no evidence of either progression or remission.
In this age of global warming, the automotive industry is seeking to minimize the energy required to manufacture and operate its products without sacrificing performance and safety or increasing cost. Toward this end, whether cars and trucks are powered by internal-combustion engines or batteries, lowering vehicle weight is a major contributor to reducing energy consumption by increasing fuel efficiency. “The industry is driven by fuel efficiency,” said David Matlock of the Colorado School of Mines, who has helped develop advanced high-strength steels (AHSSs) used in autos.
In this article, we review some of the recent developments in instrumentation and methods that have led to the rise of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) in the life sciences community, and consider how researchers in the materials community might benefit from these advances. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is compared with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) for cryogenic imaging in both biological and materials science applications. We discuss the developments in detector technologies that have in part powered the development of cryo-EM and anticipate exciting areas for productive overlap between life science and materials science cryo-EM applications.