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The PAtient SAtisfaction with Psychotropic (PASAP) scale is a self-completed questionnaire measuring satisfaction with psychotropic medication. The aim of the study was to describe its development in French and its psychometric properties.
Materials and methods:
Scale construction was based on an extensive search of the literature. The item reduction process required semi-structured interviews of psychiatric outpatients (n = 30). The final version of the PASAP is a 9-item, 5-point Likert-type scale, covering the scope of effectiveness and adherence. To assess the psychometric properties of the scale, French patients with an acute manic episode (n = 314) from a large European observational cohort completed the PASAP scale 3 months after psychotropic treatment initiation/change. Internal validity and reliability were assessed using principal component analysis (PCA). Concurrent validity was assessed using comparisons to physician-rated satisfaction with life, illness severity, mood relapse, compliance and side effects.
Participation rate was 68.4%. PCA was in favour of uni-dimensionality. Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.85 (95%CI 0.83–0.88). All five concurrent measures were significantly associated with the PASAP score.
The PASAP scale showed good psychometric properties in a large bipolar population and thus seems adequate for evaluating treatment satisfaction. Its short length and good acceptability makes it suitable for clinical research.
Diet modifies the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and inconclusive evidence suggests that yogurt may protect against CRC. We analysed the data collected from two separate colonoscopy-based case–control studies. The Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study (TCPS) and Johns Hopkins Biofilm Study included 5446 and 1061 participants, respectively, diagnosed with hyperplastic polyp (HP), sessile serrated polyp, adenomatous polyp (AP) or without any polyps. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to derive OR and 95 % CI to evaluate comparisons between cases and polyp-free controls and case–case comparisons between different polyp types. We evaluated the association between frequency of yogurt intake and probiotic use with the diagnosis of colorectal polyps. In the TCPS, daily yogurt intake v. no/rare intake was associated with decreased odds of HP (OR 0·54; 95 % CI 0·31, 0·95) and weekly yogurt intake was associated with decreased odds of AP among women (OR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·55, 0·98). In the Biofilm Study, both weekly yogurt intake and probiotic use were associated with a non-significant reduction in odds of overall AP (OR 0·75; 95 % CI 0·54, 1·04) and (OR 0·72; 95 % CI 0·49, 1·06) in comparison with no use, respectively. In summary, yogurt intake may be associated with decreased odds of HP and AP and probiotic use may be associated with decreased odds of AP. Further prospective studies are needed to verify these associations.
While the impact of disasters is strongly felt by those directly affected, they also have significant impact on the mental and physical health of rescue/relief workers and volunteers during the response phase of disaster management.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 experts in the field of disaster management from Nepal, inquiring specifically about the impact of the 2015 mega-earthquake on the mental and physical health of rescue/relief workers and volunteers. A thematic approach was used to analyze the results. These were used to assess the applicability of a previously developed conceptual framework which illustrates the hazards and risk factors affecting disaster response workers and the related hazard mitigation approaches.
The findings suggested a relationship between the type of injuries to responders and the type of disaster, type of responder, and vulnerability of location. The conceptual framework derived from literature was verified for its applicability with a slight revision on analysis of experts’ opinion based on particular context and disaster setting. Technical skills of responders, social stigma, governance, and the socio-economic status of the affected nation were identified as critical influencing factors to heath injuries and could be minimized utilizing some specific or collective measures targeted at the aforementioned variables. Some geographic and weather-specific risks may be challenging to overcome.
To prevent or minimize the hazards for disaster relief workers, it is vital to understand the variables that contribute to injuries. Risk minimization strategies should address these critical factors.
Disasters cause severe disruption to socio-economic, infrastructural, and environmental aspects of community and nation. While the impact of disasters is strongly felt by those directly affected, they also have significant impacts on the mental and physical health of relief/recovery workers and volunteers. Variations in the nature and scale of disasters necessitate different approaches to risk management and hazard reduction during the response and recovery phases.
Published articles (2010-2017) on the quantitative and quantitative relationship between disasters and the physical and mental health of relief/recovery workers and volunteers were systematically collected and reviewed. A total of 162 relevant studies were identified. Physical injuries and mental health impacts were categorized into immediate, short-term, and chronic conditions. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to explore the health risks and injuries encountered by disaster relief workers and volunteers, and to identify the factors contributing to these and relating mitigation strategies.
There were relatively few studies into this issue. However, the majority of the scrutinized articles highlighted the dependence of nature and scope of injuries with the disaster type and the types of responders, while the living and working environment and socio-economic standing also had significant influence on health outcomes.
A conceptual framework derived from the literature review clearly illustrated several critical elements that directly or indirectly cause damage to physical and mental health of disaster responders. Pre-disaster and post-disaster risk mitigation approaches may be employed to reduce the vulnerability of both volunteers and workers while understanding the identified stressors and their relationships.
Khatri KC J, Fitzgerald G, Poudyal Chhetri MB. Health risks in disaster responders: a conceptual framework. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):209–216
The Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax (Linnaeus, 1758) is a medium-sized, ‘Near Threatened’ steppe bird, whose Iberian population has been alarmingly declining over recent decades. Although this population loss has been mainly attributed to agricultural intensification, there is no information on Little Bustard adult mortality levels and their drivers. Based on a joint effort combining all the tracking data on adult Little Bustards collected over a period of 12 years by all research teams working with the species in Iberia, we found that annual anthropogenic mortality is likely to have a critical impact on the species, with values almost as high as the mortality attributed to predation. Collision with power lines was found to be the main anthropogenic threat to the adult population (3.4–3.8%/year), followed by illegal killing (2.4–3%/year), which had a higher impact than initially foreseen. Our work shows how poorly understood and previously unknown threats are affecting the survival of the most important Little Bustard population in Europe.
Assessment of Tar Spot Complex (TSC) severity in maize breeding experiments is conducted visually and may sometimes result in inconsistencies due to human interpretation. Disease scoring using remote sensing technologies may help bring more precision to the phenotyping process. An experiment for assessment of grain yield losses due to TSC was conducted at the Aguafria Experimental Station of the International Center for Wheat and Maize Improvement – CIMMYT in Mexico. Twenty-five maize genotypes were planted in spring of 2016 under a fungicide treatment to control TSC development and no fungicide treatment in a square lattice design with three replications. Four flights were carried out using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with a multispectral (550, 660, 735, 790 nm) and a thermal camera, simultaneously with the visual disease scorings and the yield was measured after harvesting. The preliminary results of the study indicated that the use of remote sensing in disease resistance phenotyping may be as effective as visual disease scoring since both correlate highly with the grain yield. Structural and chlorophyll vegetation indices (VIs) proved to be a good alternative for the estimation of yield losses caused by TSC in experimental field conditions, which may be potentially used for screening for resistance to this disease in maize genotypes, hypothetically reducing the need for visual disease scoring in the field.
The attribution of past glacier length fluctuations to changes in climate requires characterizing glacier mass-balance variability. Observational records, which are relatively short, are consistent with random fluctuations uncorrelated in time, plus an anthropogenic trend. However, longer records of other climate variables suggest that, in fact, there is a degree of temporal persistence associated with internal (i.e. unforced) climate variability, and that it varies with location and climate. Therefore, it is likely that persistence does exist for mass balance, but records are too short to confirm its presence, or establish its magnitude, with conventional statistical tests. Extending the previous work, we explore the impact of potential climatic persistence on glacier length fluctuations. We use a numerical model and a newly developed analytical model to establish that persistence, even of a degree so small as to be effectively undetectable in the longest mass-balance records, can significantly enhance the resulting glacier length fluctuations. This has a big impact on glacier-excursion probabilities: what was an extremely unlikely event (<1%) can become virtually certain (>99%), when persistence is incorporated. Since the actual degree of climatic persistence that applies to any given glacier is hard to establish, these results complicate the attribution of past glacier changes.
To evaluate the greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) of diets in Dutch girls, boys, women and men and to explore associations with diet composition.
Descriptive analyses for the total population as well as stratified for gender, age and dietary environmental load.
Dutch children and adults aged 7–69 years (n 3818).
The GHGE of daily diets was on average 3·2 kg CO2-equivalents (CO2e) for girls, 3·6 kg CO2e for boys, 3·7 kg CO2e for women and 4·8 kg CO2e for men. Meat and cheese contributed about 40 % and drinks (including milk and alcoholic drinks) 20 % to daily GHGE. Considerable differences in environmental loads of diets existed within age and gender groups. Persons with higher-GHGE diets consumed more (in quantity of foods and especially drinks) than their counterparts of a similar sex and age with low-GHGE diets. Major differences between high- and low-GHGE diets were in meat, cheese and dairy consumption as well as in soft drinks (girls, boys and women) and alcoholic drinks (men). Of those, differences in meat consumption determined the differences in GHGE most. Diets with higher GHGE were associated with higher saturated fat intake and lower fibre intake
GHGE of daily diets in the Netherlands is between 3 and 5 kg CO2e, with considerable differences between individuals. Meat, dairy and drinks contribute most to GHGE. The insights of the study may be used in developing (age- and gender-specific) food-based dietary guidelines that take into account both health and sustainability aspects.
In order to understand the fundamental parameters governing glacier advance and retreat, and also the spectral properties of fluctuations in glacier length in response to noisy weather, we examine outputs of a numerical flowline model solving the shallow-ice equations with sliding. The numerical results reveal a surprising simplicity: the time evolution and spectral shape of glacier excursions depend on a single parameter, a time constant determined by the geometrical properties of the glacier. Furthermore, the numerical results reveal that perturbations in mass balance over the glacier surface set in motion a sequence of events that can be roughly described as occurring in three overlapping stages: (1) changes in interior thickness drive (2) changes in terminus flux, which in turn drive (3) changes in glacier length. A simple, third-order linear differential equation, which extends previous models in the literature, successfully captures these important features of the glacier flow. This three-stage linear model is readily invertible to recover climate history. It provides clear physical insight and analytical expressions for some important metrics of glacier behavior, such as variance, sensitivity and excursion probabilities. Finally, it facilitates uncertainty analysis. The linear model can also be adapted for arbitrary catchment geometry, and is applied to Nigardsbreen, Norway.