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Less is known about the relationship between conduct disorder (CD), callous–unemotional (CU) traits, and positive and negative parenting in youth compared to early childhood. We combined traditional univariate analyses with a novel machine learning classifier (Angle-based Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization) to classify youth (N = 756; 9–18 years) into typically developing (TD) or CD groups with or without elevated CU traits (CD/HCU, CD/LCU, respectively) using youth- and parent-reports of parenting behavior. At the group level, both CD/HCU and CD/LCU were associated with high negative and low positive parenting relative to TD. However, only positive parenting differed between the CD/HCU and CD/LCU groups. In classification analyses, performance was best when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD groups and poorest when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. Positive and negative parenting were both relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD, negative parenting was most relevant when distinguishing between CD/LCU and TD, and positive parenting was most relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. These findings suggest that while positive parenting distinguishes between CD/HCU and CD/LCU, negative parenting is associated with both CD subtypes. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple parenting behaviors in CD with varying levels of CU traits in late childhood/adolescence.
Increased adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance are associated with increased risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases (CM). Such deleterious phenotypes have been shown to be associated with a low gene-richness microbiota that can partly be restored by a short-term dietary intervention (energy-restricted high-protein diet, low glycemic index, enrichment with fibers) in parallel to an improvement of CM profile. In this study, we aimed at increasing fiber intake in quantity and diversity through a two-month consumption of bread enriched with a mix of selected fibers and evaluated the impact of this dietary intervention on gut microbiota gene richness and CM risk profile in subjects at risk of developing CM.
Materials and methods
In a randomized double blind cross-over design, thirty-nine subjects with CM risk profile (18–70 years old, BMI: 25–35 kg/m2, waist circumference > 80 cm for women and > 96 cm for men, fiber intake < 20g/day, low fiber diversity) consumed daily for 8 weeks 150 g of standard bread vs. 150 g of bread enriched with a 7-selected fibers mix (5.55 g vs. 16.35 g of fiber respectively; 4-week washout). Gut microbiota and CM risk factors’ analyzes were conducted before and after intervention. Stool samples were analyzed by shotgun metagenomics; microbial genes and metagenomics species (MSP) profiles were generated by mapping reads on a reference genes catalog (1529 MSP).
The included dyslipidemic subjects with CM risk profile presented a lower microbiota gene richness compared to reference healthy cohorts. The two-month consumption of fiber-rich bread did not alter microbiota gene richness but modified microbiota composition with a significant decrease of Bacteroides vulgatus (q = 1.7e-4) and a significant increase of Parabacteroides distasonis (q = 2.8e-6), Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans (q = 5e-5) and Clostridiales (q = 3.8e-2). We observed in parallel a significant decrease in total cholesterol (- 0.26 mmol/L; - 5%; p = 0.021), LDL-cholesterol (- 0.2 mmol/L; - 6%, p = 0.0061) and an improvement of insulin sensibility estimated by HOMA index (3.23–2.54 mUI/L; - 21%; p = 0.0079).These effects were even significantly more pronounced for subjects presenting the higher waist circumference. Anthropometric parameters were not altered.
The enrichment of the diet with a mix of selected fibers for 2 months altered microbiota composition by modifying the relative abundance of specific gut bacterial species, in parallel to a significant improvement of cholesterol and insulin sensitivity parameters. Increasing the quantity and diversity of dietary fiber intake could be used as an efficient tool to favorably impact CM profile.
This chapter draws on the conceptual framework developed in our previous work (Rogers & Pilgrim, 2005). The aim is bring together a sociological understanding of mental health in the context of primary care mental health (see also Chapter 1). Until recently, such an understanding of mental health in primary care would have simply extended a traditional focus on psychiatry. However, in a post-asylum world in many high-income countries, new service arrangements have placed primary care more centre stage. Moreover, these service arrangements are part of a wider reorientation in Western civil society regarding mental health problems (Pilgrim & Rogers, 1994). Not only are ‘common mental health problems’ now given greater political salience than in the past, but those previously warehoused in the psychiatric system are, for the bulk of their lives, now ‘managed’ in primary care. Matters of ‘social inclusion’ pertaining to the latter group are addressed in community, not hospital settings, potentially making primary care workers more pertinent in their role than in the past and maybe even in relation to their secondary care colleagues.
The newly emergent field of primary care mental health
In this chapter, primary care (as a field of activity) and the individual are viewed as inextricably linked. In referring to the work of Mauss (1934) and Bourdieu (1977), we explore primary care as a new and distinctive ‘field’ of activity, exchange and ‘habitus’, a set of dispositions that generate practices and perceptions of the way in which people encounter primary care. Primary care presents technologies and relationships. Patients respond to its ministrations and their actions; thoughts and feelings are thus governed and shaped by these new practices (or they are resisted and rejected). The actions and dispositions of individuals are influenced by material circumstances and their social position within wider society. Their group membership is important, given the variable and unequal relationship that exists between social groups. This complex intersection of individual experience and action with social processes is now explored further.
The changing status and role of general practitioners and service users
While primary care has managed common distress for a long time, little theoretical attention has been paid to it as a primary provider of mental healthcare in its totality, for all-comers. This is because, until relatively recently, general practice functioned as a referral and support system for the putatively more expert secondary care, or ‘specialist’, mental healthcare system.
Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) is a neurologic event with symptom resolution within 24 hours. Early specialist assessment of TIA reduces risk of stroke and death. National United Kingdom (UK) guidelines recommend patients with TIA are seen in specialist clinics within 24 hours (high risk) or seven days (low risk).
We aimed to develop a complex intervention for patients with low risk TIA presenting to the emergency ambulance service. The intervention is being tested in the TIER feasibility trial, in line with Medical Research Council (MRC) guidance on staged development and evaluation of complex interventions.
We conducted three interrelated activities to produce the TIER intervention:
•Survey of UK Ambulance Services (n = 13) to gather information about TIA pathways already in use
•Scoping review of literature describing prehospital care of patients with TIA
•Synthesis of data and definition of intervention by specialist panel of: paramedics; Emergency Department (ED) and stroke consultants; service users; ambulance service managers.
The panel used results to define the TIER intervention, to include:
1.Protocol for paramedics to assess patients presenting with TIA and identify and refer low risk patients for prompt (< 7day) specialist review at TIA clinic
2.Patient Group Directive and information pack to allow paramedic administration of aspirin to patients left at home with referral to TIA clinic
3.Referral process via ambulance control room
4.Training package for paramedics
5.Agreement with TIA clinic service provider including rapid review of referred patients
We followed MRC guidance to develop a clinical intervention for assessment and referral of low risk TIA patients attended by emergency ambulance paramedic. We are testing feasibility of implementing and evaluating this intervention in the TIER feasibility trial which may lead to fully powered multicentre randomized controlled trial (RCT) if predefined progression criteria are met.
Although participating in community social programming is associated with positive physical and mental health outcomes for older adults, older men participate less often than women. Men's Sheds is a community programme used primarily by older men that originated in Australia and is well established there. The goal of the current study was to explore men's perceptions of the need for Men's Sheds and issues concerning access to them in Canada, a country with a small but growing Men's Sheds movement. We conducted focus groups with 64 men aged 55 years and older, including Men's Sheds members and men from the community who were unfamiliar with this programme, and analysed the data using the framework analytic approach. The data revealed two primary themes concerning: (a) the need for male-focused community programmes, including the sub-themes reducing isolation, forming friendships and engaging in continued learning; and (b) access to programmes, including the sub-themes points of contact, sustaining attendance and barriers. Findings suggest that in order to reduce the likelihood of isolation and increase opportunities for social engagement, exposure to the concept of male-focused programming should begin before retirement age. In addition, such programmes should be mindful of how they are branded and marketed in order to create spaces that are welcoming to new and diverse members.
Neuroimaging studies have indicated that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with alterations in the structure of specific brain regions in children. However, the temporal and regional specificity of such changes and their behavioural consequences are less known. Here we explore the integrity of regional white matter microstructure in infants with in utero exposure to alcohol, shortly after birth.
Twenty-eight alcohol-exposed and 28 healthy unexposed infants were imaged using diffusion tensor imaging sequences to evaluate white matter integrity using validated tract-based spatial statistics analysis methods. Second, diffusion values were extracted for group comparisons by regions of interest. Differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity were compared between groups and associations with measures from the Dubowitz neonatal neurobehavioural assessment were examined.
Lower AD values (p<0.05) were observed in alcohol-exposed infants in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus compared with non-exposed infants. Altered FA and MD values in alcohol-exposed neonates in the right inferior cerebellar were associated with abnormal neonatal neurobehaviour.
These exploratory data suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with reduced white matter microstructural integrity even early in the neonatal period. The association with clinical measures reinforces the likely clinical significance of this finding. The location of the findings is remarkably consistent with previously reported studies of white matter structural deficits in older children with a diagnosis of foetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
be a non-Archimedean local field, and let
be the group of
-rational points of an inner form of
. We study Hecke algebras for all Bernstein components of
, via restriction from an inner form
For any packet of L-indistinguishable Bernstein components, we exhibit an explicit algebra whose module category is equivalent to the associated category of complex smooth
-representations. This algebra comes from an idempotent in the full Hecke algebra of
, and the idempotent is derived from a type for
. We show that the Hecke algebras for Bernstein components of
are similar to affine Hecke algebras of type
, yet in many cases are not Morita equivalent to any crossed product of an affine Hecke algebra with a finite group.
This paper reviews the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) literature on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing human brain.
A literature search was conducted through the following databases: PubMed, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. Combinations of the following search terms and keywords were used to identify relevant studies: ‘alcohol’, ‘fetal alcohol spectrum disorders’, ‘fetal alcohol syndrome’, ‘FAS’, ‘FASD’, ‘MRI’, ‘DTI’, ‘MRS’, ‘neuroimaging’, ‘children’ and ‘infants’.
A total of 64 relevant articles were identified across all modalities. Overall, studies reported smaller total brain volume as well as smaller volume of both the white and grey matter in specific cortical regions. The most consistently reported structural MRI findings were alterations in the shape and volume of the corpus callosum, as well as smaller volume in the basal ganglia and hippocampi. The most consistent finding from diffusion tensor imaging studies was lower fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies are few to date, but showed altered neurometabolic profiles in the frontal and parietal cortex, thalamus and dentate nuclei. Resting-state functional MRI studies reported reduced functional connectivity between cortical and deep grey matter structures.
There is a critical gap in the literature of MRI studies in alcohol-exposed children under 5 years of age across all MRI modalities. The dynamic nature of brain maturation and appreciation of the effects of alcohol exposure on the developing trajectory of the structural and functional network argue for the prioritisation of studies that include a longitudinal approach to understanding this spectrum of effects and potential therapeutic time points.
To assess and develop consensus among experienced public health nutrition practitioners from high-income countries regarding conceptualisation of capacity building in practice, and to test the content validity of a previously published conceptual framework for capacity building in public health nutrition practice.
A Delphi study involving three iterations of email-delivered questionnaires testing a range of capacity determinants derived from the literature. Consensus was set at >50 % of panellists ranking items as ‘very important’ on a five-point Likert scale across three survey rounds.
Public health nutrition practice in Australia, the UK, Canada and the USA.
Public health nutrition practitioners and academics.
A total of thirty expert panellists (68 % of an initial panel of forty-four participants) completed all three rounds of Delphi questionnaires. Consensus identified determinants of capacity building in practice including partnerships, resourcing, community development, leadership, workforce development, intelligence and quality of project management.
The findings from the study suggest there is broad agreement among public health nutritionists from high-income countries about how they conceptualise capacity building in public health nutrition practice. This agreement suggests considerable content validity for a capacity building conceptual framework proposed by Baillie et al. (Public Health Nutr12, 1031–1038). More research is needed to apply the conceptual framework to the implementation and evaluation of strategies that enhance the practice of capacity building approaches by public health nutrition professionals.