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Fine fescues (Festuca spp.) are cool-season grasses used in low-maintenance turf areas. Mesotrione is a PRE and early-POST herbicide used during establishment of most cool-season turfgrasses, excluding fine fescues. Currently, efforts are being made to breed for increased tolerance to mesotrione in fine fescues to enhance weed control during establishment. This study was conducted to evaluate the association of foliar and root uptake of [14C]mesotrione with the tolerance of three lines each of Chewings fescue [Festuca rubra ssp. commutata Gaudin; syn. F. rubra ssp. fallax (Thuill.) Nyman], hard fescue [Festuca trachyphylla (Hack.) Hack.], and strong creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L. ssp. rubra) lines. From a rate-titration experiment, the hierarchical rank of species for mesotrione tolerance from highest to lowest was: hard > Chewings > strong creeping red fescue. The hierarchical rank of species for foliar uptake from highest to lowest was: Chewings > strong creeping red > hard fescue. Translocation of foliar-absorbed 14C was not associated with differential tolerance levels of the three species. Root absorption was comparable among species, but differences between lines were detected within the species. The most susceptible lines of Chewings and strong creeping red fescue exhibited greater root uptake than lines with greater tolerance. Hard fescue translocated the least amount of root-absorbed radioactivity to shoots, while Chewings and strong creeping red fescues were comparable.
Clinical practice offers the opportunity for the clinician to be a scientist-practitioner in the workplace. This, in turn, facilitates building practice-based evidence. But this can only occur if the effects of the interventions are objectively and systematically evaluated. To this end, single-case methodology is a valuable tool to implement an intervention in a scientifically rigorous manner and gather data on treatment effectiveness. It is possible to incorporate single-case methods into routine clinical practice by using a few simple strategies. This paper examines the ways in which single-case methodology departs from (a) routine clinical practice and (b) the familiar between-groups research design, such as the randomised controlled trial. It presents five practical strategies that will bridge the gap between routine clinical practice and single-case methodology. The Model for Assessing Treatment Effect is described as providing context for and a framework to self-evaluate the scientific rigour in clinical practice and benchmark service delivery.
The advent of intense synchrotron radiation sources for X-ray diffraction has made many otherwise difficult experiments feasible. The increased intensity will not he fully utilized, however, unless there are farther developments in detector technology. Improvement in detector characteristics will, of course, aid those using laboratory sources as well. For instance, construction of low noise, high, quantum efficiency detectors will reduce integration times and enable one to detect weak signals.
Background: There is little empirical research into lay definitions of frailty. Objectives: (1) To explore the definitions of frailty among older men, and (2) to explore if these definitions match commonly used clinical definitions of frailty. Methods: Analysis of open-ended questions to survey data from a prospective cohort study of older airmen. The definitions of frailty were elicited, and grouped according to themes. Results: 147 men responded (mean age: 93). There was considerable heterogeneity in older men’s’ definitions of frailty, and no theme of frailty was predominant. The most common theme was impairment in activities of daily living. Older men’s’ definition of frailty was not consistent with any commonly used medical theory of frailty. Conclusions: Most older men think frailty is important, but their definitions are not consistent. Frailty may be a heterogeneous experience, which different people experience differently.
To categorize the home food environment and dietary intake of young children (5–7 years old) from racially/ethnically diverse households using objectively collected data.
In-home observations in Minneapolis/Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA.
Families with 5–7-year-old children who identified as Black, White, Hmong, Latino, Native American or Somali.
There were many significant differences by race/ethnicity for child dietary intake and for the home food environment, with specific patterns emerging by race/ethnicity. For example, Somali children had high Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores, but low daily intakes of fruits and vegetables. Black children had low HEI-2010 scores and a pattern of low intake of healthful foods and high intake of unhealthful foods. White and Latino families had high levels of both healthful and unhealthful home food availability and children with high HEI-2010 scores.
Results indicate that the home food environment of young children varies across racial/ethnic group. Study findings also provide new information regarding the home food environment of young children in previously understudied racial/ethnic groups and indicate that interventions working to improve the home food environment and dietary intake of children may want to consider race/ethnicity.
Introduction: Existing resources to support adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) in transition from school to the ‘adult world’ are variable. This study evaluated an intervention using a coaching approach to support adolescents during this transition phase.
Method: The study design was a parallel-group randomised controlled trial (RCT). Participants (n = 43) aged 14–19 years were randomised to intervention (n = 21) or no-intervention control (n = 21) conditions. The intervention group received six coaching sessions over an average of 22 weeks. Outcome measures evaluated changes reported by the adolescent (satisfaction, emotional functioning and hope) and their parent (participation, behaviour and support needs).
Results: Relative to baseline, there was no significant improvement for those in the intervention group in comparison to the control group on any of the outcome measures.
Conclusion: The results of this RCT do not support coaching as an intervention for adolescents with ABI.
The future does not look very promising. A ‘new catastrophism’, in the words of sociologist John Urry, has come to define a widespread melancholy mood that pervades early twenty- first- century culture. We live in an era of apparently continual disaster and one in which political and religious institutions are frequently regarded with either cynicism or outright hostility. It is difficult to imagine that the decades to come will be peaceful or enlightened. Indeed, narratives defined by an optimistic outlook, in which progress prospers and justice is happily achieved, are vanishingly rare. Contemporary fiction is haunted by survivors roaming thinly populated, denatured future landscapes, such as those explored in Margaret Atwood's MaddAddam trilogy (2003– 13) and Cormac McCarthy's The Road (2006). There is plenty of evidence that human beings are not only defined by a species’ specific gift for narrative but also by a predilection for telling chilling stories that describe our collective, imminent downfall. Pandemic, flood, chemical warfare or sun- scorched earth: these are the ways the world ends, again and again, in fiction and film. Visions of technology- dominated dystopias, such as those in popular sequences aimed at young adult readers, The Hunger Games (2008– 10) and Divergent (2011– 13), in which shadowy bureaucracies limit every freedom, embody one form of ‘ruined’ future. The other extreme is imagined in what Chad Harbach calls ‘post- catastrophe’ fictions – characterized by scarcity, disease and a collapse of the social contract – which take place in ‘an altered world whose chief characteristic is a bewildering lack of technology’. Both dystopian and ‘post- catastrophic’ traditions are prevalent and, strangely, they remain highly marketable.
How would John Ruskin, a thinker and teacher whose work frequently turned to narratives of fall and ruin, respond to such dreams of future ruin? Ruskin – champion of Turner and the Pre- Raphaelites, passionate opponent of laissez- faire capitalism and, in his later years, eco- critic avant la lettre – offered a far- sighted engagement with landscape and culture, considering the legacies of current action for future generations. As a teacher who took on different public, official identities – for example, Slade Professor of Fine Art at Oxford and Master of the Guild of St George – Ruskin addressed his students and communities with urgency regarding the consequences of past error and present ethical failings.
Coupling superconductors to quantum Hall edge states is the subject of intense investigation as part of the ongoing search for non-abelian excitations. Our group has previously observed supercurrents of hundreds of picoamperes in graphene Josephson junctions in the quantum Hall regime. One of the explanations of this phenomenon involves the coupling of an electron edge state on one side of the junction to a hole edge state on the opposite side. In our previous samples, these states are separated by several microns. Here, a narrow trench perpendicular to the contacts creates counterpropagating quantum Hall edge channels tens of nanometres from each other. Transport measurements demonstrate a change in the low-field Fraunhofer interference pattern for trench devices and show a supercurrent in both trench and reference junctions in the quantum Hall regime. The trench junctions show no enhancement of quantum Hall supercurrent and an unexpected supercurrent periodicity with applied field, suggesting the need for further optimization of device parameters.
IN A RATHER ANTAGONISTIC ESSAY, “John Updike's Complacent God,” James Wood (1999) laments what he perceives as the absence of intensity from his subject's fiction. The creator of Rabbit Angstrom, he suggests, shares with his most famous protagonist a fondness for rest and tranquility that precludes both fervent belief and anguished doubt. “The result,” concludes Wood, “is a mild gratitude for reality rather than an irritable searching after metaphysics” (235). This is, to be sure, a curious allegation to level at a writer who is rare among major twentiethcentury authors in his dedication to an openly theological wrestling with questions of devotion, revelation, and ethics. Indeed, a wealth of criticism already engages with the rich range of religious ideas that animate the immense, fifty-year canon of Updike's collected fiction, poetry, memoir, and criticism. An entire edited collection has been dedicated to the subject of Updike's relationship with religion and, to borrow James Yerkes's (1999) subtitle, the writer's “sense of the sacred and the motions of grace.” Marshall Boswell is one of a number of scholars to address the significance of Soren Kierkegaard and Karl Barth, who, he notes, were not only fundamental to saving faith for Updike but “also provided him with a model for his own theological and aesthetic vision” (Boswell 2006, 43). A plethora of other critics have read Updike's work in relation to a variety of concepts and practices associated with belief including, for example, heresy (Duvall 1991; Tate 2008), redemption (Ralph Wood 1988), and sermons (Detweiler 1989). James Wood's apparent antipathy for Updike's fiction might suggest a disapproval of his unusual willingness to profess Christian belief, though the critic is clear that he is not proposing a conversion to atheism as a route to improving the work (235). More telling, however, is Wood's dismissal of what he terms “mild gratitude” as it implies an incomprehension regarding the primacy of thankfulness in Updike's writing and worldview.
Other critics, in contrast, take the writer's appreciative eye much more seriously.
Introduction: Introduction: Transitions in care (TiC) interventions have been proposed to improve the management and outcomes of patients in emergency departments (ED). The objective of this review was to examine the effectiveness of ED-based TiC interventions to improve outcomes for adult patients presenting to an ED with acute atrial fibrillation or flutter (AFF). Methods: Methods: A comprehensive search of eight electronic databases and various grey literature sources was conducted. Comparative studies assessing the effectiveness of interventions to improve TiC for patients presenting to the ED with acute AFF were eligible. Two independent reviewers completed study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction. When applicable, relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model and heterogeneity was reported among studies using I-square (I2) statistics. Results: Results: From 744 citations, seven studies were included, consisting of three randomized controlled trials (RCT), three before-after (B/A) studies, and one cohort study. Study quality ranged from unclear to low for the RCTs according to the risk of bias tool, moderate in the BA trials according to the BA quality assessment tool, and high quality of the cohort study according to the Newcastle Ottawa scale. The majority of interventions were set within-ED (n=5), including three clinical pathways/management guidelines and two within-ED observation units. Post-ED interventions (n=2) included patient education and general practitioner referral. Four studies reported a decreased overall hospital length of stay (LoS) for AFF patients undergoing TiC interventions compared to control, ranging from 26.4 to 53 hours; however, incomplete and non-standardized outcome reporting precluded meta-analysis. An increase in conversion to normal sinus rhythm among TiC intervention patients was noted, which may be related to increased utilization of electrical cardioversion among the RCTs (RR=2.16; 95% CI: 1.42, 3.30; I2=%), B/A studies (RR=2.69, 95% CI: 2.17, 3.33), and cohort study (RR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.56). Conclusion: Conclusions: Within-ED TiC interventions may reduce hospital LoS and increase use of electrical cardioversion. However, no clear recommendations to implement such interventions in EDs can be generated from this systematic review and more efforts are required to improve TiC for patients with AFF.
be an elliptic curve over a field
. There is a functor
from the category of finitely presented torsion-free left
-modules to the category of abelian varieties isogenous to a power of
, and a functor
in the opposite direction. We prove necessary and sufficient conditions on
for these functors to be equivalences of categories. We also prove a partial generalization in which
is replaced by a suitable higher-dimensional abelian variety over
The Zika virus was largely unknown to many health care systems before the outbreak of 2015. The unique public health threat posed by the Zika virus and the evolving understanding of its pathology required continuous communication between a health care delivery system and a local public health department. By leveraging an existing relationship, NYC Health+Hospitals worked closely with New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene to ensure that Zika-related processes and procedures within NYC Health+Hospitals facilities aligned with the most current Zika virus guidance. Support given by the public health department included prenatal clinical and laboratory support and the sharing of data on NYC Health+Hospitals Zika virus screening and testing rates, thus enabling this health care delivery system to make informed decisions and practices. The close coordination, collaboration, and communication between the health care delivery system and the local public health department examined in this article demonstrate the importance of working together to combat a complex public health emergency and how this relationship can serve as a guide for other jurisdictions to optimize collaboration between external partners during major outbreaks, emerging threats, and disasters that affect public health. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:689-691)