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In this paper, we propose that there is a speech-act structure in the nominal spine, just as there is in the clausal spine. Its function is to encode what we do when we utter a nominal: that is, we name, describe, or track individuals. Thus, speech-act structure establishes a link between the discourse referent and the speech-act situation. The evidence we discuss comes from nominals that lack this speech-act structure, namely impersonal pronouns. We argue that impersonal pronouns have in common that they lack nominal speech-act structure but are not otherwise a natural class: they vary in syntactic structure. Thus, we propose a novel formal typology of impersonal pronouns.
This paper presents the results of the geophysical prospection conducted at the site of Meninx (Jerba) in 2015. This was the first step in a Tunisian-German project (a cooperation between the Institut National du Patrimoine, Tunis, and the Institut für Klassische Archäologie der Ludwig-Maximilans-Universität München), the aim of which is to shed light on the urban history of the most important city on the island of Jerba in antiquity.
Meninx, situated on the SE shore of the island (fig. 1), was the largest city on Jerba during the Roman Empire and eponymous for the island's name in antiquity. The outstanding importance of this seaport derived from the fact that it was one of the main production centers of purple dye in the Mediterranean. With the earliest secure evidence dating to at least the Hellenistic period, Meninx saw a magnificent expansion in the 2nd and 3rd c. A.D. It was inhabited until the 7th c. when the city was finally abandoned.
To understand caregivers’ perceptions of children’s linear growth and to identify the cultural meanings and perceptions of risk associated with poor height attainment.
Three investigators from Bangladesh conducted twelve focus group discussions.
The study was conducted in rural and slum settings in Bangladesh.
Participants included mothers and alternative caregivers (n 81) who were recruited by household screening. No eligible, recruited subjects refused participation.
Caregivers reported limited experience with growth monitoring services from the health system. Caregivers mainly use visual cues and developmental milestones to understand if children are growing properly, and recognize that children normally experience both weight gain and linear growth with age. Mothers expressed concern over children’s malnutrition and short stature, but did not discuss children’s failure to attain a ‘growth potential’ or distinguish inherited short stature from stunting. Caregivers interpret the consequences of poor height attainment as primarily social and economic and cite few health risks.
Linear growth interpretation is determined more by community norms than by guidance from nutrition programming or the health system. Interventions to prevent or reduce linear growth failure may be perceived to have limited value where appropriate linear growth in children is determined by comparison to peers and siblings. Such perceptions may be significant barriers to programmes addressing stunting prevention in settings where many children are stunted. Efforts to raise awareness about the risks of linear growth faltering may need to consider delivering messages to caregivers that emphasize the social and economic consequences of stunting.
The increased use of uninhabited aerial vehicle systems (UAVS), known as drones, in modern warfare, is filled with paradoxes. Drone technology shields soldiers from harm, for example. And yet as legal scholar Paul Kahn has written, this very ethical motivation brings about the troubling military consequence in which one side of a war assumes all or most of the risk of being injured or killed. Scholars often call this an “asymmetric” war, and it is troubling not just because accomplishing a military objective may begin to resemble a video game under these circumstances but also because mutual assumption of risk, for traditional Just War theorists, is a necessary condition for acquiring the right to kill. A soldier acquires the right to kill only in virtue of needing to defend his/herself against harm, according to traditional Just War theory. So without the need to defend themselves against the threat of harm, it can be hard to see what gives individual soldiers the right to kill. Objections abound to the premises of this paradox, but it's hard to shake this import at least: that an ethical obligation like shielding soldiers from harm can have unforeseen, problematic, and even contradictory consequences.
Another paradox of the increasing use of drones in armed conflict is a function of the secrecy of drone strikes. Drones can be launched from thousands of miles away, strike, and then disappear almost instantly, leaving only a heap of rubble where minutes earlier a building, or a person, stood. The element of surprise is an essential military strategy. And yet that very sense of surprise and physical distance from the battlefield – which when presented on a high-definition screen does not necessarily feel so far away for the drone operators – separates the two sides physically and psychologically and opens up space for propagandists to redescribe drone strikes in their own terms, potentially recruiting people to join the ranks of the very armed group that drones strikes attempt to dismantle. It's not just that the secrecy of drone strikes has trade-offs; it's also that the most ethical of intentions in drone warfare – to strike quickly, precisely, and accurately – can lead to unethical consequences.
And thus it was with many things that I’m not going to repeat: commerce, market-determined prices in certain sectors, for certain activities; a proliferation of self-employment.…
And these are the opinions we have had about these things over the years,
never imagining that we would have to learn to live with them for a period
of time that is very difficult to predict, and that depends on many factors.
Fidel Castro, 23 April 1997
During the approximately 30 years in which the exercise of entrepreneurship in a market-oriented setting was effectively prohibited, Cuba actually created a nation of entrepreneurs. Although the intention was to convert Cuba into a “school for socialism,” the reality is that Cuba has also been, in part, a school for market-oriented entrepreneurship. This, indeed, is one of the more surprising and significant paradoxes of the Cuban Revolution. The nature of Cuba’s planned economy itself has inadvertently promoted widespread entrepreneurial values, attitudes, behavior, and savoir-faire, as citizens of necessity have had to buy and sell, truck and barter, hustle and “network” to improvise solutions to their personal economic problems. While entrepreneurial talents have developed broadly among the population, their exercise, until 1993, was restricted to the important but low-level everyday tasks of sustenance and survival, often carried out in the shadow or underground economy or on the black market. But when the space available for entrepreneurial activity was increased with the liberalization of microenterprise beginning in September 1993, the expansion and diversification of microentrepreneurial activity was impressive.
Since its “depenalization” in 1993, the U.S. dollar has become possibly a more significant component of Cuba's money supply than the old peso. What are the alternatives? The euro seems inappropriate, given the inevitability of eventual normalization of relations with the United States. More advantageous would be to restore the Cuban peso, though this would involve unifying the bifurcated economic structure and the dual monetary and exchange rate systems. The Cuban government has yet to announce its plans. This study argues that an appropriate mix of exchange rate, monetary, fiscal, and income or wage and salary policies should support a rehabilitation of the Cuban peso.
Cuba has entered the decade of the 1990s in a state of profound existential crisis. The countries of Eastern Europe, whose economic and political institutions and ideologies were adopted by Cuba, albeit with some modifications, were abandoning those same institutions and ideologies. Cuba's place in the international system had become one of growing isolation: Cuba had become a curiosity from the 1960s rather than the wave of the future, as it once perceived itself. By mid-1990, it appeared almost certain that the generous subsidization of the Cuban economy by the Soviet Union was about to end. Moreover, the Cuban economy was in serious difficulty as a result of some external factors, namely the convertible currency debt crisis and the problems and uncertainties in its relationship with the Soviet Union since 1985, but also as a result of internal institutional incapacities and deformities.
Using the Ethical Perceptions Index, this chapter reviews employees’ varying perceptions of ethical business practices across 22 of the world’s largest economies. The chapter addresses two important research questions: Do perceptions of ethical business practices relate to important organizational outcomes? And, How do we create and sustain ethical business practices? In answering these questions, we draw on an extensive, globally representative sample of employees, and show that organizations operating with higher levels of ethics and integrity are more likely to succeed, both with respect to the way employees feel about their work environment as well as multiple indicators of organizational-level business performance. Finally, we explore the main drivers of ethical business cultures, and demonstrate that organizations that build a climate for diversity and inclusion, communicate transparently, codify and regulate important work processes, and hire and advance managers who act with a high degree of interpersonal justice, will score the highest on the Ethical Perceptions Index. We conclude by offering suggestions for leaders who seek to improve their organization’s ethical standing amongst employees.
Older people have a higher risk of drug-related problems (DRPs). However, little is known about the prevalence of DRPs in community-dwelling people who screened positive for dementia. Our study aimed to determine (1) the prevalence and types of DRPs and (2) the socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with DRPs in people screened positive for dementia in primary care.
The Dementia: life- and person-centered help in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (DelpHi-MV) study is a general practitioner (GP)-based cluster-randomized controlled intervention study to implement and evaluate an innovative concept of collaborative dementia care management in the primary care setting in Germany. Medication reviews of 446 study participants were conducted by pharmacists based on a comprehensive baseline assessment that included a computer-based home medication assessment. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01401582.
A total of 1,077 DRPs were documented. In 414 study participants (93%), at least one DRP was detected by a pharmacist. The most frequent DRPs were administration and compliance problems (60%), drug interactions (17%), and problems with inappropriate drug choice (15%). The number of DRPs was significantly associated with the total number of drugs taken and with a formal diagnosis of a mental or behavioral disorder.
Degree of cognitive impairment (MMSE defined) and formal diagnosis of dementia were not risk factors for an increased number of DRPs. However, the total number of drug taken and the presence of a diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders were associated with an increased total number of DRPs.
We present an in-depth study of metal-poor stars, based high resolution spectra combined with newly released astrometric data from Gaia, with special attention to observational uncertainties. The results are compared to those of other studies, including Gaia benchmark stars. Chemical evolution models are discussed, highlighting few puzzles that are still affecting our understanding of stellar nucleosynthesis and of the evolution of our Galaxy.
A combination of neutron diffraction, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements has been used to clarify the correlations between long- and local-range structural distortions across the spin-state transition in powders of LaCoO3 and La0.5Sr0.5Co0.75Nb0.25O3. The analysis of the diffraction data has revealed that the isotropic thermal parameters of Co–O bond abnormally increase below 100 K in both samples, while the temperature dependence of the average Co–O bond lengths is linear from 10 to 300 K. We also have found that the Co–O bond lengths are larger in La0.5Sr0.5Co0.75Nb0.25O3, as compared with the ones in LaCoO3. The X-ray absorption data showed an anomalous decrease of the Co–O bond lengths only for LaCoO3, in contrast to the bond length values obtained by diffraction. The structural anomalies observed by spectroscopy measurements are discussed in terms of the spin-state transition model.