To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Smoking among adolescents is still a major public health problem and a global concern. Early onset and long-term smoking are associated with physical and psychological health problems.
To identify risk factors and comorbidities for occasional and daily smoking among European adolescents.
In the context of the Europe-wide 'Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE) study we surveyed 12,328 youths at the age of 13 to 17 from 11 countries. We applied questions from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey to determine nicotine consumption as well as other risk behaviors. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Becks Depression Inventory-II, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale,the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory and the Paykel Suicide Scale.
On average 30.9% of adolescents reported daily smoking and the onset of smoking was reported by 35.3% between the age of 12 and 13 already. Multinomial logistic regression model showed significant correlations between adolescent smoking and migration background, living in single parent households, no physical activity, parental smoking and physical fights. Further it revealed significant associations of adolescent smoking with alcohol consumption, illegal drug use, anxiety, conduct problems, hyperactivity, suicidal ideation, self-injury and internet-dependence.
Our data show that adolescent smoking is associated with psychosocial factors, especially family setting and parental behaviors. Further, smoking and psychiatric problems are highly correlated. Therefore, early preventive measures are necessary and essential not only for adolescents but also for their parents.
Bipolar disorder is characterized by depressive and manic episodes, each with its own specific outcomes. To guarantee the best therapy it is important and necessary to assess the episodes of the disease and its exact degree of severity at an early stage.
During a time period of 12 weeks, 9 patients suffering from bipolar disorder were provided with a commercially available smartphone in order to collect behavioral patterns by the phone's internal sensors. These sensors included acceleration, GPS-traces, phone-call behavior and sound. During the trial the patients were also asked to fill out a daily self-assessment questionnaire that included a self-rating. Additionally, to gain ground truth psychological state examinations were performed every three weeks.
The sensor traces are very similar to the diagnosed scores and thus clearly provide an accurate representation of the patient's state. Further, our data suggest a strong empirical evidence that the sensor based data are, on average, a more reliable and objective way of monitoring the mental state and mood than the patient's self-assessment.
The MONARCA system introduces new opportunities for the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. The acquired data allow for identifying changes in the patient's condition at an early stage and therefore support the timely intervention by psychiatrists.
We consider feedback flow control of the linearised complex Ginzburg–Landau system. The particular focus is on any trade-offs present when placing a single sensor and a single actuator. The work is presented in three parts. First, we consider the estimation problem in which a single sensor is used to estimate the entire flow field (without any control). Second, we consider the full information control problem in which the entire flow field is known, but only a single actuator is available for control. By considering the optimal sensor placement and optimal actuator placement while varying the stability of the system, a fundamental trade-off for both problems is made clear. Third, we consider the overall feedback control problem in which only a single sensor is available for measurement; and only a single actuator is available for control. By varying the stability of the system, similar fundamental trade-offs are made clear. We discuss implications for effective feedback control with a single sensor and a single actuator and compare it to previous placement methods.
A masterpiece of rhetoric and an impassioned defence of faith in the face of persecution, this work represents a key work in the Latin patristic canon. Addressing the magistrates of the Roman court, Tertullian submits 'the real facts in the case of the Christians', defending the legitimacy of the new faith while charging its detractors with hypocrisy and worse. Scathing, eloquent and defiant, the Apology demonstrates the importance of classical rhetoric to the identity of the controversial religion and its recent converts. This edition (1917), accompanied by a complete commentary by J. E. B. Mayor and translation by Alexander Souter, has been called 'by the far the best commentary ever published' on the work. Published posthumously from Mayor's extensive Cambridge lecture notes, the commentary is a starting point for anyone seeking a full understanding of the text's critical history. Souter's English translation makes it accessible to experts and non-experts alike.
The effects of hydrogen chloride (HCl) on the growth of silicon nanowires by Chemical Vapour Deposition are investigated. HCl is found to enable the growth of small diameter gold-catalyzed silicon nanowires while reducing the kink occurrence. Specific growth sequences are presented in order to obtain a one-to-one ratio of nanowire growth versus gold colloidal seed. Other growth sequences using HCl are illustrated but achieve mixed results concerning the nanowire structure and the surface state.
We report the growth of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with several catalysts. We performed low temperature photoluminescence (PL) experiments on as-grown SiNWs for the following catalysts: Au, Cu, TiSi, PdSi and PtSi. Nanowires are chemically treated with an aqua regia solution to remove the catalyst droplets, this step is followed by a thermal oxidation process. We compared the PL of as-grown and processed SiNWs for each catalyst.