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This book is among the most thorough and comprehensive analysis of the causes of religious discrimination to date, complete with detailed illustrations and anecdotes. Jonathan Fox examines the causes of government-based religious discrimination (GRD) against 771 minorities in 183 countries over the course of twenty-five years, while offering possible reasons for why some minorities are discriminated against more than others. Fox illustrates the complexities inherent in the causes of GRD, which can emerge from secular ideologies, religious monopolies, anti-cult policies, security concerns and more. Western democracies tend to discriminate more than Christian-majority countries in the developing world, whether they are democratic or not. While the causes of GRD are ubiquitous, they play out in vastly different ways across world regions and religious traditions. This book serves as a method for better understanding this particular form of discrimination, so that we may have the tools to better combat it and foster compassion across people of different religions and cultures.
Starting from coupled Boltzmann–Enskog (BE) kinetic equations for a two-particle system consisting of hard spheres, a hyperbolic two-fluid model for binary, hard-sphere mixtures is derived with separate mean velocities and energies for each phase. In addition to spatial transport, the BE kinetic equations account for particle–particle collisions, using an elastic hard-sphere collision model, and the Archimedes (buoyancy) force due to spatial gradients of the pressure in each phase, as well as other forces involving spatial gradients (e.g. lift). In the derivation, the particles in a given phase have identical mass and volume, and have no internal degrees of freedom (i.e. the particles are adiabatic). The ‘hard-sphere-fluid’ phase is obtained in the limit where the particle diameter in one phase tends to zero with fixed phase density so that the number of fluid particles tends to infinity. The moment system resulting from the two BE kinetic equations is closed at second order by invoking the anisotropic Gaussian closure. The resulting two-fluid model for a binary, hard-sphere mixture therefore consists (for each phase
) of transport equations for the mass
, mean momentum
is the velocity) and a symmetric, second-order, kinetic energy tensor
. The trace of the fluctuating energy tensor
is the phase temperature (or granular temperature). Thus,
is the total kinetic energy, the sum over
of which is the total kinetic energy of the system, a conserved quantity. From the analysis, it is found that the BE finite-size correction leads to exact phase pressure (or stress) tensors that depend on the mean-slip velocity
, as well as the phase temperatures for both phases. These pressure tensors also appear in the momentum-exchange terms in the mean momentum equations that produce the Archimedes force, as well as drag contributions due to fluid compressibility and a lift force due to mean fluid-velocity gradients. The closed BE energy flux tensors show a similar dependence on the mean-slip velocity. The characteristic polynomial of the flux matrix from the one-dimensional model is computed symbolically and depends on five parameters: the particle volume fractions
, the phase density ratio
, the phase temperature ratio
and the mean-slip Mach number
. By applying Sturm’s Theorem to the characteristic polynomial, it is demonstrated that the model is hyperbolic over a wide range of these parameters, in particular, for the physically most relevant values.
Children reared in institutions experience profound deprivation that is associated with both heightened levels of psychopathology and deficits in executive functioning (EF). It is unclear whether deficits in EF among institutionally-reared children serve as a vulnerability factor that increases risk for later psychopathology. It is also unclear whether this putative association between EF and psychopathology is transdiagnostic (i.e. cuts across domains of psychopathology), or specific to a given syndrome. Thus, we examined whether global deficits in EF mediate the association between severe childhood neglect and general v. specific psychopathology in adolescence.
The sample consisted of 188 children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a longitudinal study examining the brain and behavioral development of children reared in Romanian institutions and a comparison group of never-institutionalized children. EF was assessed at age 8, 12, and 16 using a well-validated measure of neuropsychological functioning. Psychopathology was measured as general (P) and specific internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) factors at age 12 and 16.
Institutionally-reared children had lower global EF and higher general psychopathology (P) at all ages compared to never-institutionalized children. Longitudinal path analysis revealed that the effect of institutionalization on P at age 16 operated indirectly through poorer EF from ages 8 to 12. No indirect effects involving EF were observed for INT or EXT at age 16.
We conclude that stable, global deficits in EF serve as a cognitive endophenotype that increases transdiagnostic vulnerability to psychopathology in adolescence among those who have experienced profound early neglect.
We explore the potential of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, a skills-based intervention that provides participants with sustainable tools for adaptive responses to stress and negative mood, for the large group of young people with depression or anxiety who only partially or briefly respond to currently available first-line interventions.
Declaration of interest
T.B. is the co-author of a book on mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and has received fees and honoraria for teaching MBCT workshops. W.K. is Director of the University of Oxford Mindfulness Centre. He donates all speaker fees to the not-for-profit Oxford Mindfulness Foundation. J.F. has been paid to deliver mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) programmes in the workplace and has delivered MBIs to elite performers at his own expense.