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Presenting a fresh look at process control, this new text demonstrates state-space approach shown in parallel with the traditional approach to explain the strategies used in industry today. Modern time-domain and traditional transform-domain methods are integrated throughout and explain the advantages and limitations of each approach; the fundamental theoretical concepts and methods of process control are applied to practical problems. To ensure understanding of the mathematical calculations involved, MATLAB® is included for numeric calculations and MAPLE for symbolic calculations, with the math behind every method carefully explained so that students develop a clear understanding of how and why the software tools work. Written for a one-semester course with optional advanced-level material, features include solved examples, cases that include a number of chemical reactor examples, chapter summaries, key terms, and concepts, as well as over 240 end-of-chapter problems, focused computational exercises and solutions for instructors.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of eugenol on growth, viability, antrum formation and mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) in bovine secondary follicles cultured in vitro. To this end, bovine ovaries were collected from a local slaughterhouse and in the laboratory the follicles were isolated from the ovarian cortex. The follicles were then cultured in TCM-199+ alone or supplemented with different concentrations of eugenol (0.5, 5.0 and 50.0 μM). Follicular diameters and antrum formation were evaluated on days 0, 6, 12 and 18. Viability analysis was performed using calcein and ethidium homodimer. Real-time PCR was used to quantify mRNA levels for SOD, CAT, GPX1 and PRDX6 in cultured follicles. Follicular diameters and mRNA levels in follicles cultured in vitro were compared using analysis of variance and Kruskal–Wallis tests, while follicular survival and antrum formation were compared using the chi-squared test (P < 0.05). The results showed that secondary follicles cultured with eugenol maintained similar morphology and viability to follicles cultured in the control group. A progressive increase in follicular diameter was observed between days 0 and 12 for all treatments, except for follicles cultured with 50 µM eugenol. Eugenol (5.0 and 50.0 μM) increased mRNA levels for GPX1 in cultured follicles, but 0.5 μM eugenol reduced mRNA levels for SOD. The addition of eugenol did not influence mRNA expression for CAT and PRDX6. In conclusion, eugenol supplementation reduces mRNA levels for SOD and increases mRNA levels of GPX1 in bovine secondary follicles cultured in vitro.
In this research communication we evaluate the impact of the addition of prebiotic components (inulin, polydextrose, and modified starch, 40 g/l) as fat substitutes on the physicochemical characteristics, probiotic survival, and sensory acceptance of probiotic (Lacticaseibacillus casei 01, 108 CFU/ml) Greek yogurts during storage (7 °C, 28 d). All formulations had probiotic counts higher than 107 CFU/ml during storage and simulated gastrointestinal conditions (SGIC). The prebiotic components increased the probiotic survival to the enteric phase of the SGIC, with inulin producing the most pronounced effect. Inulin addition resulted in products with lower pH values and consistency and higher titratable acidity during storage, with negative impact on the sensory acceptance (flavor, texture, and overall impression) at the end of the storage period. Modified starch addition impacted negatively on the acceptance of the products (appearance, flavor, texture, and overall impression). Polydextrose addition resulted in products with lower consistency, but similar sensory acceptance to the full-fat yogurt. It can be concluded that it is possible to prepare potentially synbiotic Greek yogurts by desorption technique using L. casei as probiotic culture and inulin, polydextrose or modified starch as prebiotic components, with the utilization of polydextrose being advisable.
This research communication presents an automatic method for the counting of somatic cells in buffalo milk, which includes the application of a fuzzy clustering method and image processing techniques (somatic cell count with fuzzy clustering and image processing|, SCCFCI). Somatic cell count (SCC) in milk is the main biomarker for assessing milk quality and it is traditionally performed by exhaustive methods consisting of the visual observation of cells in milk smears through a microscope, which generates uncertainties associated with human interpretation. Unlike other similar works, the proposed method applies the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) method as a preprocessing step in order to separate the images (objects) of the cells into clusters according to the color intensity. This contributes signficantly to the performance of the subsequent processing steps (thresholding, segmentation and recognition/identification). Two methods of thresholding were evaluated and the Watershed Transform was used for the identification and separation of nearby cells. A detailed statistical analysis of the results showed that the SCCFCI method is able to provide results which are consistent with those obtained by conventional counting. This method therefore represents a viable alternative for quality control in buffalo milk production.
The study characterized the structure of juveniles and sub-adults of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and F. paulensis in the Cananéia-Iguape estuarine lagoon system and its adjacent coastal area by evaluating the period of juvenile recruitment, sex ratio, growth, longevity, natural mortality, and development time until the late juvenile phase. Samples were collected from July 2012 to June 2014. Shrimps were identified by species and sex, and measured (carapace length – CL mm); 889 individuals of F. brasiliensis and 848 of F. paulensis were analysed. Females were more abundant than males for both species. The growth parameters of F. brasiliensis were: CL∞ = 45.5 mm, k = 1.8 year−1 for males and CL∞ = 55.2 mm, k = 1.6 year−1 for females; longevity of 2.52 years (males) and 2.88 years (females); and natural mortality of 1.71 (males) and 1.55 (females). For F. paulensis, the following values were observed: CL∞ = 40.7 mm, k = 2.3 year−1 for males and CL∞ = 56.5 mm, k = 1.9 year−1 for females; longevity of 2.04 years (males) and 2.37 years (females); and natural mortality of 2.39 (males) and 2.05 (females). The juvenile recruitment of both species peaked in January 2014. The development time until late juvenile phase was ~7 months (F. brasiliensis) and ~5 months (F. paulensis). Even though the highest abundance of juveniles did not occur in the closed season, fishing is forbidden in the estuarine area and the migration towards the adult population occurred close to or even during the closed season.
Deaf people communicate naturally using visual-spatial languages, called sign languages (SL). Although SLs are recognized as a language in many countries, the problems faced by Deaf people for accessing information remain. As a result, they have difficulties exercising their citizenship and access information in SLs, which usually leads to linguistic and knowledge acquisition delays. Some scientific works have been developed to address these problems related to the machine translation of spoken languages to sign languages. However, the existing machine translation platforms have some limitations, especially in syntactic and lexical nature. Thus, this work aims to develop a mechanism for machine translation to Libras, the Brazilian Sign Language, with syntactic-semantic adequacy. It consists of an automatic translation component for Libras based on syntactic-semantic translation rules and a formal syntactic-semantic rule description language. As proof of concept of the proposed approach, we created a specific grammar for Libras translation exploring these aspects and integrating these elements into VLibras Suite, a service for machine translation of digital content in Brazilian Portuguese (BP) to Libras. We performed several tests using this modified version of VLibras to measure the level of comprehension of the output generated by the new translator mechanism. In the computational experiments, as well as in the actual tests with Deaf and hearing users, the proposed approach was able to improve the results of the current VLibras version.
To better understand COVID-19 transmission among healthcare workers (HCW), we investigated occupational and non-occupational risk factors associated with cumulative COVID-19 incidence among a Massachusetts HCW cohort.
Design, setting, and participants:
The retrospective cohort study included adult HCWs in a single healthcare system from March 9 to June 3, 2020.
Participants’ SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal RT-PCR results and demographics were de-identified and extracted from an established occupational health, COVID-19 database at the healthcare system. HCWs from each particular job grouping had been categorized into frontline/non-frontline workers. Incidence rate ratio (IRR) and odds ratio were used to compare subgroups after excluding HCWs involved in early infection clusters before universal masking. A sensitivity analysis was performed comparing jobs with the greatest potential occupational risks with others.
152 out of 5177 (2.94%) HCWs were diagnosed with COVID-19. Affected HCWs resided in areas with higher community attack rates (median: 1755.2 vs. 1412.4 cases per 100,000, P<0.001)(multivariate-adjusted IRR: 1.89, 95%CI: 1.03–3.44 comparing 5th to 1st quintile of community rates). After multivariate adjustment, African Americans and Hispanics had higher incidence than non-Hispanic white HCWs (IRR: 2.78, 95%CI: 1.78–4.33; and IRR: 2.41, 95%CI: 1.42–4.07, respectively). After adjusting for race and residential rates, frontline HCWs had a higher IRR (1.73, 95%CI: 1.16–2.54) compared to non-frontline HCWs overall, but not within specific job categories, nor when comparing the highest risk jobs to others.
After universal masking was instituted, the strongest risk factors associated with HCWs’ COVID-19 infection were residential community infection rate and race.
Lack of knowledge about iodine has been suggested as a risk factor for iodine deficiency in pregnant women but no studies have addressed this issue in Portugal. So, the aim of this study was to investigate iodine knowledge among Portuguese pregnant women and its association with iodine status.
IoMum, a prospective observational study, included 485 pregnant women recruited at Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de S. João, Porto, between the 10th and 13th gestational weeks. Partial scores for knowledge on iodine importance, on iodine food sources or on iodised salt were obtained through the application of a structured questionnaire. Then, a total iodine knowledge score was calculated and grouped in low, medium and high knowledge categories. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in spot urine samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.
54% of pregnant women correctly recognized iodine as important to neurocognitive development, 32% were unable to identify any iodine rich food and 71% presented lack of knowledge regarding iodised salt. 61% of women had a medium total score of iodine knowledge. Knowledge on iodine importance during pregnancy was positively associated with iodine supplementation and also with UIC. Nevertheless, median UIC in women that correctly recognized the importance of iodine was below the cut-off for adequacy in pregnancy (150 µg/L).
In conclusion, knowledge on iodine importance associated positively with iodine status. Despite this, recognizing iodine importance during pregnancy may not be sufficient to ensure iodine adequacy. Literacy promoting actions are urgently needed to improve iodine status in pregnancy.
Sex selection through sperm sorting offers advantages in regards selection pressure in high-producing livestock. However, the sex-sorting process results in sperm membrane and DNA damage that ultimately decrease fertility. We hypothesized that given the role of protamines in DNA packaging, protamine deficiency could account, at least partially, for the DNA damage observed following sperm sex sorting. To test this, we compared protamine status between unsexed and sexed spermatozoa from two bulls using the fluorochrome chromomycin A3 (CMA3) and flow cytometry. Then, we assessed embryo development following in vitro fertilization (IVF) using the same sperm treatments. Overall, sperm protamination was not different between sexed and unsexed semen. However, one of the two bulls displayed higher rates of protamine deficiency for both unsexed and sexed semen (P < 0.05). Moreover, unsexed semen from this bull yielded lower blastocyst (P < 0.05) and blastocyst hatching rates than unsexed sperm from the other bull. CMA3-positive staining was negatively correlated with cleavage (R2 85.1, P = 0.003) and blastocyst hatching (R2 87.6, P = 0.006) rates in unsexed semen. In conclusion, while the sex-sorting process had no effect on sperm protamine content, we observed a bull effect for sperm protamination, which correlated to embryo development rates following IVF.
The temporal and spatial variability of oceanographic properties in Potter Cove was analysed for the 2010–17 summer periods. This was linked with meteorological parameters and sea ice. The water column structure presented significant differences in turbidity between two areas (away from and closer to the Fourcade Glacier). The recent retreat has been transforming it into a land terminating glacier. Therefore, correlations obtained between oceanographic properties near the glacier and meteorological parameters reveal that atmospheric conditions are the main forcing of the Potter system, in agreement with previous studies. Also, high turbidity values within deeper waters in 2013 and 2014 were probably related to resuspended glacial sediment input into the cove. Interannual variability observed in the local parameters was connected to ENSO and SAM, reflecting a larger connection with ENSO, mainly in longer timescales. Colder waters during the 2010 and 2016 El Niño phases could be related to lower air temperature. In summer 2010 during a negative SAM phase, colder, more saline and low turbid waters were observed. Alternatively, in 2012 during La Niña and positive SAM, warmer, fresher and more turbid conditions were found with high vertical stratification. Finally, during 2015 (positive SAM), warmer and low salinity waters were observed.
The role of milk and dairy products in supplying iodine to pregnant women is unknown in Portugal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between milk and dairy product consumption and the iodine status of pregnant women in the IoMum cohort of the Oporto region. Pregnant women were recruited between 10 and 13 weeks of gestation, when they provided a spot urine sample and information on lifestyle and intake of iodine-rich foods. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by inductively coupled plasma MS. A total of 468 pregnant women (269 iodine supplement users and 199 non-supplement users) were considered eligible for analysis. Milk (but not yogurt or cheese) intake was positively associated with UIC, in the whole population (P = 0·02) and in the non-supplement users (P = 0·002), but not in the supplement users (P = 0·29). In non-supplement users, adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that milk consumption <3 times/month was associated with a five times increased risk of having UIC < 50 µg/l when compared with milk consumption ≥2 times/d (OR 5·4; 95 % CI 1·55, 18·78; P = 0·008). The highest UIC was observed in supplement users who reported consuming milk once per d (160 µg/l). Milk, but not yogurt or cheese, was positively associated with iodine status of pregnant women. Despite the observed positive association, daily milk consumption may not be sufficient to ensure adequate iodine intake in this population.
This study describes the embryonic development of Moenkhausia oligolepis in laboratory conditions. After fertilization, the embryos were collected every 10 min up to 2 h, then every 20 min up to 4 h, and afterwards every 30 min until hatching. The fertilized eggs of M. oligolepis measured approximately 0.85 ± 0.5 mm and had an adhesive surface. Embryonic development lasted 14 h at 25ºC through the zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, neurula, and segmentation phases. Hatching occurred in embryos around the 30-somites stage. The present results contribute only the second description of embryonic development to a species from the Moenkhausia genus, being also the first for this species. Such data are of paramount importance considering the current conflicting state of this genus phylogenetic classification and may help taxonomic studies. Understanding the biology of a species that is easily managed in laboratory conditions and has an ornamental appeal may assist studies in its reproduction to both supply the aquarium market and help the species conservation in nature. Moreover, these data enable the use of M. oligolepis as a model species in biotechnological applications, such as the germ cell transplantation approach.
To evaluate the use of biofeedback intervention in the levels of depression. The main hypothesis tested if the use of biofeedback improves depression levels compared to the control group.
A randomised clinical trial. The final sample was composed of 36 participants (18 in the experimental group, receiving 6 training, once a week, with biofeedback; and 18 in the control group, who received conventional treatment in the service).Outcome measures were assessed in two stages: pre-test and post-test. The research used the following instruments: demographic survey data, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0.0 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The factors and variables were presented in terms of descriptive and inferential statistics. Fisher’s exact test (p < 0.05) was used to verify the existence of an association between the counting variables. The multinomial logistic regression model was adopted, and the Logit link function was used, as the software RStudio version 3.6.2.
The factors that remained in the final model were group, sex, partner, atypical antidepressant, benzodiazepines, mood stabiliser, antiepileptic and antihistamine, according to the levels of depression based on the BDI. The group that did not receive biofeedback intervention had 16 times more chances of increasing the depression levels compared to participants in the experimental group.
The use of biofeedback reduces depression, thus, representing a complementary alternative for the treatment of moderate and severe depression, and dysthymia.
Few studies are focused on sugar consumption around the first 1000 d of life. Thus, this work modelled the pathways linking the consumption of sugary drinks in pregnancy and maternal pre-gestational BMI to early child’s exposure to products with high sugar content and to BMI z-score in the second year of life.
BRISA cohort, São Luís, Brazil was used from the baseline to the follow-up at the second year of life.
A theoretical model was constructed to analyse associations between variables from prenatal period (socio-economic status, age, frequency of sugary drinks consumption during pregnancy and pre-gestational BMI), birth weight, exclusive breast-feeding and two outcomes: higher calories from products with added sugar as a percentage of the total daily energy intake and BMI z-score at follow-up at the first 2 years of life, using structural equation modelling.
Data of pregnant women (n 1136) and their offspring.
Higher pre-gestational BMI (standardised coefficient (SC) = 0·100; P = 0·008) and higher frequency of sugary drinks consumption during pregnancy (SC = 0·134; P < 0·001) resulted in high percentage of daily calories from products with added sugar in the second year of child, although no yet effect was observed on offspring weight at that time.
Maternal obesity and sugary drinks consumption in pregnancy increased the risk of early exposure (before to 2 years) and high exposure of child to added sugar, showing perpetuation of the unhealthy dietary behaviours in the first 1000 d of life.
Three holes were drilled to the bed of Rutford Ice Stream, through ice up to 2154 m thick, to investigate the basal processes and conditions associated with fast ice flow and the glacial history of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. A narrative of the drilling, measuring and sampling activities, as well as some preliminary results and initial interpretations of subglacial conditions, is given. These were the deepest subglacial access holes ever drilled using the hot-water drilling method. Samples of bed and englacial sediments were recovered, and a number of instruments were installed in the ice column and the bed. The ice–bed interface was found to be unfrozen, with an existing, well-developed subglacial hydrological system at high pressure, within ~1% of the ice overburden. The bed itself comprises soft, water-saturated sediments, consistent with previous geophysical interpretations. Englacial sediment quantity varies significantly between two locations ~2 km apart, and possibly over even shorter (~20 m) distances. Difficulties and unusual observations encountered while connecting to the subglacial hydrological system in one hole possibly resulted from the presence of a large clast embedded in the bottom of the ice.
Although training in psychotherapy is an integral part of psychiatry training, standards in psychotherapy training have wide variation across and within countries. Post-graduate psychiatry training has been conducted in Nepal for over two decades, but little is known about its psychotherapy training provisions. An online survey was conducted with early career psychiatrists in Nepal. The findings show that the majority recognised psychotherapy training as important and were eager to pursue further training. However, two-thirds had no access to psychotherapy training opportunities. These results highlight the need to improve access to training in different psychotherapy modalities in Nepal.
Inaccuracy and information measures based on cumulative residual entropy are quite useful and have attracted considerable attention in many fields including reliability theory. Using a point process martingale approach and a compensator version of Kumar and Taneja's generalized inaccuracy measure of two nonnegative continuous random variables, we define here an inaccuracy measure between two coherent systems when the lifetimes of their common components are observed. We then extend the results to the situation when the components in the systems are subject to failure according to a double stochastic Poisson process.