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Nineteenth-Century American Women's Serial Novels explores the prolific careers of four exemplary novelists - E. D. E. N. Southworth, Ann Stephens, Mary Jane Holmes, and Laura Jean Libbey. These commercially successful writers helped to shape the popular tradition of serial magazine fiction by drawing on readers' tastes along with their cultural concerns. Their astonishing productivity led magazine editors and publishers to return to them repeatedly for more serials to be turned into even more novels, even as they reprinted these fictions under new titles. Dale M. Bauer analyzes how serials deployed the repetition of plots and the traumas representing the sources of women's anxieties and pain. Arguing that these novels provided temporary resolutions to the social, economic, and psychological tensions that readers faced, Bauer explains how this otherwise forgotten archive of fiction now offers an extraordinarily expanded range of women's literary effort from the nineteenth to the twentieth century.
Objectives: To describe multivariate base rates (MBRs) of low scores and reliable change (decline) scores on Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) in college athletes at baseline, as well as to assess MBR differences among demographic and medical history subpopulations. Methods: Data were reported on 15,909 participants (46.5% female) from the NCAA/DoD CARE Consortium. MBRs of ImPACT composite scores were derived using published CARE normative data and reliability metrics. MBRs of sex-corrected low scores were reported at <25th percentile (Low Average), <10th percentile (Borderline), and ≤2nd percentile (Impaired). MBRs of reliable decline scores were reported at the 75%, 90%, 95%, and 99% confidence intervals. We analyzed subgroups by sex, race, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and/or learning disability (ADHD/LD), anxiety/depression, and concussion history using chi-square analyses. Results: Base rates of low scores and reliable decline scores on individual composites approximated the normative distribution. Athletes obtained ≥1 low score with frequencies of 63.4% (Low Average), 32.0% (Borderline), and 9.1% (Impaired). Athletes obtained ≥1 reliable decline score with frequencies of 66.8%, 32.2%, 18%, and 3.8%, respectively. Comparatively few athletes had low scores or reliable decline on ≥2 composite scores. Black/African American athletes and athletes with ADHD/LD had higher rates of low scores, while greater concussion history was associated with lower MBRs (p < .01). MBRs of reliable decline were not associated with demographic or medical factors. Conclusions: Clinical interpretation of low scores and reliable decline on ImPACT depends on the strictness of the low score cutoff, the reliable change criterion, and the number of scores exceeding these cutoffs. Race and ADHD influence the frequency of low scores at all cutoffs cross-sectionally.
In today's engineering projects, interdisciplinary work leads to an increase in interfaces between different departments and domains. As each stakeholder pursues different goals and tasks, a heterogeneous model landscape is required. In each domain, a variety of different model and software implementations provide the essential basis for efficient work. On the interfaces, the risk of model inconsistencies increases. To handle occurring inconsistencies, various approaches have been presented. For model-based systems engineering projects, rule-based methods are considered as the most suitable technique. However, said approaches require a high manual effort in identifying model dependencies and establishing consistency rules. Unfortunately, in particular these steps are not well described and supported. Therefore, this paper presents an easily applicable approach for the identification of model dependencies in interdisciplinary projects. The method is supported by a software implementation and is directly integrated in engineering workflows. A first industrial case study has shown positive effects of the approach and revealed further research goals.
Current scholarship offers conflicting conclusions about whether female candidates have a feminine advantage or a disadvantage. Previous work does not consider whether voters respond similarly to all types of messages that might emphasize feminine stereotypes, such as feminine trait and feminine issue messages. I argue that voters will respond differently to trait-based feminine messages relative to issue-based feminine messages. I test the effects of trait-based and issue-based feminine messages through two survey experiments. The results consistently show that emphasizing feminine traits harms female candidates, whereas emphasizing feminine issues helps female candidates. I use role congruity theory to argue that feminine traits activate feminine stereotypes about women, and feminine issues do not activate these stereotypes. I also show that trait-based and issue-based feminine messages affect Democratic and Republican female candidates in very different ways. These results have implications for the ability of women to win elected office and reverse the pervasive underrepresentation of women in politics.
Objective: Detection of cognitive impairment suggestive of risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression is crucial to the prevention of incipient dementia. This study was performed to determine if performance on a novel object discrimination task improved identification of earlier deficits in older adults at risk for AD. Method: In total, 135 participants from the 1Florida Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center [cognitively normal (CN), Pre-mild cognitive impairment (PreMCI), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and dementia] completed a test of object discrimination and traditional memory measures in the context of a larger neuropsychological and clinical evaluation. Results: The Object Recognition and Discrimination Task (ORDT) revealed significant differences between the PreMCI, aMCI, and dementia groups versus CN individuals. Moreover, relative risk of being classified as PreMCI rather than CN increased as an inverse function of ORDT score. Discussion: Overall, the obtained results suggest that a novel object discrimination task improves the detection of very early AD-related cognitive impairment, increasing the window for therapeutic intervention. (JINS, 2019, 25, 688–698)
Guaiac stool testing has been routinely used as a method to detect gastrointestinal complications in infants with critical congenital heart disease (CHD); however, the sensitivity and specificity have not been established.
A retrospective chart review was performed investigating the presence of heme-positive stools and subsequent gastrointestinal complications as well as time to goal caloric intake and radiograph exposure.
The presence of heme-positive stools was not a statistically significant factor in patients with critical CHD that experienced gastrointestinal complications. Additionally, patients with heme-positive stools did undergo more abdominal X-rays than those with heme-negative stools.
The routine use of guaiac stool testing in infants with critical CHD is not a predictor of possible gastrointestinal complications and leads to more radiograph exposure for the patient. Close clinical monitoring can be used to evaluate feeding tolerance in infants with critical CHD.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a fast-acting intervention for major depressive disorder. Previous studies indicated neurotrophic effects following ECT that might contribute to changes in white matter brain structure. We investigated the influence of ECT in a non-randomized prospective study focusing on white matter changes over time.
Twenty-nine severely depressed patients receiving ECT in addition to inpatient treatment, 69 severely depressed patients with inpatient treatment (NON-ECT) and 52 healthy controls (HC) took part in a non-randomized prospective study. Participants were scanned twice, approximately 6 weeks apart, using diffusion tensor imaging, applying tract-based spatial statistics. Additional correlational analyses were conducted in the ECT subsample to investigate the effects of seizure duration and therapeutic response.
Mean diffusivity (MD) increased after ECT in the right hemisphere, which was an ECT-group-specific effect. Seizure duration was associated with decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) following ECT. Longitudinal changes in ECT were not associated with therapy response. However, within the ECT group only, baseline FA was positively and MD negatively associated with post-ECT symptomatology.
Our data suggest that ECT changes white matter integrity, possibly reflecting increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier, resulting in disturbed communication of fibers. Further, baseline diffusion metrics were associated with therapy response. Coherent fiber structure could be a prerequisite for a generalized seizure and inhibitory brain signaling necessary to successfully inhibit increased seizure activity.
We report on a novel light sensing scheme based on a silicon/fullerene-derivative hetero-junction that allows the realization of optoelectronic devices for the detection of near to mid infrared radiation. Despite the absent absorption of silicon and the fullerene-derivative for wavelengths beyond 1.1 µm and 0.72 µm, respectively, a hetero-junction of these materials absorbs and generates a photo-current due to absorption in the near to mid infrared. This photo-current is caused by an interfacial absorption mechanism .
Besides its scientific relevance, the simple fabrication process of the hetero-junction (e.g. the fullerene-derivative is deposited by spin-coating on Si) as well as its compatibility with the established and rather cheap CMOS technology makes the presented hybrid approach a promising candidate for widespread applications.
Although accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that immune/inflammatory mechanisms are associated with the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD), data about the profile of chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) and chemokine receptors are still scarce. The current study was designed to evaluate the expression of chemokine receptors on lymphocytes of patients with BD in comparison with controls.
Thirty-three patients with type I BD (N = 21 in euthymia; N = 6 in mania/hypomania; N = 6 in depression) and 22 age- and sex-matched controls were subjected to clinical evaluation and peripheral blood draw. The expression of chemokine receptors CCR3, CCR5, CXCR4, and CXCR3 on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes was assessed by flow cytometry.
Patients with BD had decreased percentage of CD4+CXCR3+ (p = 0.024), CD4+CCR3+ (p = 0.042), and CD4+CCR5+ (0.013) lymphocytes in comparison with controls. The percentage of both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes expressing the chemokine receptor CXCR4 was similar in patients with BD and controls. Likewise, the percentages of CD8+CXCR3+, CD8+CCR3+, and CD8+CCR5+ lymphocytes were similar in patients with BD and controls.
Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that immune pathways, especially involving CD4+ lymphocytes, are involved in the physiopathology of BD.
Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (TXRF) has been proved to be well suited for the energy dispersive analysis of light elements, as B, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg,.,. using a special spectrometer. It is equipped with a Ge(HP) detector offering a sufficient detection efficiency from 180 eV upwards. The obtainable detection limits especially of the light elements are mainly influenced by the excitation source, which should provide a large number of photons with an energy near the K-absorption edge of these elements (from 200 eV upwards). Commercially available X-ray tubes do not offer characteristic X-rays in that range. In former experiments a windowless X-ray tube was built to prevent the low energy X-rays from being attenuated in the Be window. Experiments have been performed using Cu as anode material.
Multilayers composed of many thin films of PbTe and Pb1-xSnxTe on BaF2 substrates were grown epitaxially by hot-wall-vapor deposition. In order to investigate the fraction of the total misfit (2.5x10-3 at x=O, 12) accommodated by misfit strain we have performed strain measurements on these superlattices by two different X-ray diffractometer techniques. We also report on substrate induced strain due to different thermal expansion coefficients of films and substrate. For film thicknesses smaller than 300 nm there is clear evidence for almost complete accommodation of lattice mismatch by misfit strain. Below room temperature the substrate induces a tensile strain which is comparable to that of the misfit strain.
Left atrial congestion results from backward failure in dilated cardiomyopathy. We aimed to evaluate feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous atrioseptostomy to create a restrictive atrial septum defect in management of dilated cardiomyopathy.
Methods and results
From June 2009 to December 2016, 27 interventions comprised left atria decompressions in 22 dilated cardiomyopathy patients; 9 females; age: 24 days to 36.9 years; weight: 3–50 kg; NYHA-/Ross class IV (n=16). Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 21.5±9.7% and brain natriuretic peptide was 2291±1992 pg/ml. Dilated cardiomyopathy was classified as chronic (n=9); acute (n=1) myocarditis; idiopathic (n=5); left ventricular non-compaction (n=4); mitochondriopathy, pacemaker induced, and arrhythmogenic (n=3). Atrioseptostomy was concomitantly performed with myocardial biopsies 6.5 days (±11.7) after admission (n=11). Trans-septal puncture was used in 18 patients; foramen ovale dilatation was done in four patients. Mean balloon size was 11 mm (range 7–14 mm); total procedure time was 133±38 minutes. No procedural complications were observed. Mean left atrial pressure decreased from 15.8±6.8 to 12.2±4.8 mmHg (p=0.005), left/right atrial pressure gradient from 9.6±5.6 to 5±3.5 mmHg; brain natriuretic peptide (n=18) decreased from 1968±1606 to 830±1083 pg/ml (p=0.01). One patient unsuitable for heart transplantation died at home despite additionally performed pulmonary artery banding and three further left atrial decompressions; five patients were bridged to transplantation, two died afterwards. Functional recovery occurred in the remaining 14 patients and in six after additional pulmonary artery banding. No patient required assist device.
Percutaneous left atrial decompression is an age-independent, effective palliation treating patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.
Wearable devices are fast evolving to address mobility and autonomy needs of elderly people who would benefit from physical assistance. Recent developments in soft robotics provide important opportunities to develop soft exoskeletons (also called exosuits) to enable both physical assistance and improved usability and acceptance for users. The XoSoft EU project has developed a modular soft lower limb exoskeleton to assist people with low mobility impairments. In this paper, we present the design of a soft modular lower limb exoskeleton to improve person’s mobility, contributing to independence and enhancing quality of life. The novelty of this work is the integration of quasi-passive elements in a soft exoskeleton. The exoskeleton provides mechanical assistance for subjects with low mobility impairments reducing energy requirements between 10% and 20%. Investigation of different control strategies based on gait segmentation and actuation elements is presented. A first hip–knee unilateral prototype is described, developed, and its performance assessed on a post-stroke patient for straight walking. The study presents an analysis of the human–exoskeleton energy patterns by way of the task-based biological power generation. The resultant assistance, in terms of power, was 10.9% ± 2.2% for hip actuation and 9.3% ± 3.5% for knee actuation. The control strategy improved the gait and postural patterns by increasing joint angles and foot clearance at specific phases of the walking cycle.