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The history of waste records a relationship that has altered over time, resulting in various literal and symbolic manifestations. Waste Studies crosses conventional disciplines to offer ethical frameworks which pay attention to, understand, and act on bodily, cultural, and societal waste. With examples from novelists Toni Morrison and Wolfgang Hilbig, this chapter illustrates a number of aspects of waste in literature: waste as material agent; waste as metaphor; and narratives structured as waste, with little hope for clarity. The strategy of slow practice through narrative construction can prove a means to inculcate an ecological sensitivity and awareness we carry with us beyond the act of reading. While waste categories often are used to dismiss, deny, and reject certain humans, other-than-human agents, and material items, waste has also been used as a means to provoke compassion and ethical engagement by which we can develop a compassionate commonality with wasted beings to act for them, for us, and for the world. Waste Studies argues that the humanities can vibrantly and dynamically work to improve all of our lives in a concrete and material way.
Early life exposure to famine was associated with adulthood metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and NAFLD was also affected by cardiometabolic traits. However, the role of cardiometabolic traits in the associations from famine exposure to NAFLD was largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether the relationship between early life famine exposure and adulthood NAFLD risk was mediated by cardiometabolic traits. Overall, 7,578 subjects aged 56.0 ± 3.7 years in the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort were included and classified into late-exposed (1952-1954), middle-exposed (1954-1956), early-childhood-exposed (1956-1958), fetal-exposed (1959-1961), and nonexposed (1962-1966, reference) group according to the birth year. NAFLD was diagnosed by experienced physicians via abdominal B-type ultrasound inspection. Mediation analysis was used to evaluate the mediating effects of cardiometabolic traits. Compared with those nonexposed, after multivariable adjustment, participants in fetal-exposed group (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.08-1.73) had 37% higher risk to develop NAFLD, and the overall childhood-exposed group had marginally significant association with NAFLD (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 0.99-1.94). Stratification analysis found the famine-NAFLD associations more evident in women and those born in areas severely affected by famine. Mediation analysis showed that cardiometabolic traits such as TC, TyG index, γ-GT, ALP, and ALT mediated 6.7%-22.2% of the relation from famine exposure to higher NAFLD risk. Early life exposure to famine was related to increased adulthood NAFLD risk, and this relationship was partly mediated by cardiometabolic traits.
Psychological models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and prolonged grief disorder (PGD) make predictions about the role of unhelpful coping strategies in maintaining difficulties by blocking self-correction of negative appraisals and memory integration following stressful life events like bereavement. However, few studies have tested these predictions directly.
We used counterfactually based causal mediation to assess whether unhelpful coping strategies mediated the relationship between (1) loss-related memory characteristics and/or (2) negative grief-related appraisals and symptoms of PGD, PTSD and depression using a three-wave longitudinal sample (N = 275). Appraisals and memory characteristics were measured at time point 1, unhelpful coping strategies at T2, and symptom variables at T3. Additionally, multiple mediation analyses within a structural equation modelling (SEM) framework assessed which types of coping strategies differentially mediated symptoms of PGD, PTSD and depression.
Coping strategies mediated the relationship between negative appraisals and memory characteristics and symptoms of PGD, PTSD and depression after adjusting for demographics and loss characteristics. Sensitivity analyses suggested that these results were most robust for PGD, followed by PTSD and then depression. Multiple mediation analyses suggested that all four subscales (avoidance, proximity seeking, loss rumination and injustice rumination) individually mediated the effect of memory characteristics and appraisals on PGD.
These results suggest that core predictions of the cognitive model for PTSD and the cognitive behavioural model of PGD are useful in predicting symptoms of post-loss mental health problems in the first 12–18 months after loss. Targeting unhelpful coping strategies is likely to reduce symptoms of PGD, PTSD and depression.
The international community realizes the possible benefits and contributions of mediation as a means of settling international investment disputes, most notably, its unique trait to deal with sensitive claims relating to national regulatory authority. Discussions to introduce and facilitate mediation in addition to or in lieu of present ISDS proceedings are taking place in various fora at the moment including UNCITRAL and ICSID. These discussions are not intended to replace the ISDS regime with a non-binding mechanism. Rather, the purpose is to supplement the existing system with the addition of a new avenue, where the disputing parties can pursue an amicable resolution. The focal point in the current discussions is how to introduce mediation into international investment agreements in a more structured and systematized manner. Various experiments are being undertaken at the moment. Traditionally, Asian countries have been regarded as being more receptive of the harmonious resolution of disputes and less litigious in settling disputes. This traditional legal culture stands in line with the recent focus on mediation as a means of settling international disputes and, in particular, international investment disputes. Mediation is one of the ISDS reform subjects where Asian countries can contribute their experience and legal culture.
We aimed to examine the temporal relationships between traumatic events (TE), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and non-affective psychotic disorders (NAPD).
A prospective cohort study of 1 965 214 individuals born in Sweden between 1971 and 1990 examining the independent effects of interpersonal and non-interpersonal TE on incidence of PTSD and NAPD using data from linked register data (Psychiatry-Sweden). Mediation analyses tested the hypothesis that PTSD lies on a causal pathway between interpersonal trauma and NAPD.
Increasing doses of interpersonal and non-interpersonal TE were independently associated with increased risk of NAPD [linear-trend incidence rate ratios (IRR)adjusted = 2.17 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02–2.33] and IRRadjusted = 1.27 (95% CI 1.23–1.31), respectively]. These attenuated to a relatively small degree in 5-year time-lagged models. A similar pattern of results was observed for PTSD [linear-trend IRRadjusted = 3.43 (95% CI 3.21–3.66) and IRRadjusted = 1.45 (95% CI 1.39–1.50)]. PTSD was associated with increased risk of NAPD [IRRadjusted = 8.06 (95% CI 7.23–8.99)], which was substantially attenuated in 5-year time-lagged analyses [IRRadjusted = 4.62 (95% CI 3.65–5.87)]. There was little evidence that PTSD diagnosis mediated the relationship between interpersonal TE and NAPD [IRRadjusted = 0.92 (percentile CI 0.80–1.07)].
Despite the limitations to causal inference inherent in observational designs, the large effect-sizes observed between trauma, PTSD and NAPD in this study, consistent across sensitivity analyses, suggest that trauma may be a component cause of psychotic disorders. However, PTSD diagnosis might not be a good proxy for the likely complex psychological mechanisms mediating this association.
Dante’s vision presents the letters of Scripture as the speech of God. In Dante’s text, speaking (favellare) is presented as sparking (sfavillare), which makes it a kind of writing, a communication through a contingent, combustible, material medium. Speech, as the immediate communication of intention, is unmasked by Dante, long before Derrida, as grounded in the mediations of writing, with all the latter’s materiality and contingency. Dante explores the implications of the medium of writing as itself supremely significant, thereby opening a vista reaching all the way to modern and contemporary art. Dante’s text, in effect, performs the miracle of making the invisible God to be seen by deconstructing the sign as signifying a definable intention and opening signification infinitely, instead, to the immediate and infinite presence of the medium. This highlights the immediacy of the divine presence in writing. Its written medium is key to achieving the immediacy that characterizes Dante’s vision and makes it God’s “speech.” Speaking, as a sort of sparking, makes divine revelation in the Word of Scripture, as seen by human understanding, the revelation of an unpredictable indeterminacy. The spectacle of written letters of Scripture as sparking in heaven concretely presents what nevertheless remains an incommunicable transcendence of all that can be intentionally articulated in finite, human language. Randomness and absolute contingency are the hallmarks of a speech that is not merely human and guided by definable intentions, but a communication of the transcendent.
General-population studies investigating the biological correlates of anhedonia/amotivation might be informative for treatment breakthroughs for a number of clinical conditions. Reduced gut-microbial diversity might lead to an anhedonic/amotivational syndrome (“sickness behaviour”). However, how gut-microbial diversity contribute to this clinical phenotype is a key gap in knowledge. We hypothesised the endocannabinoid system would be at play.
We tested the hypothesis that the endocannabinoid system mediates the association between gut-microbial diversity and anhedonia/amotivation
Secondary data analysis on 786 volunteer twins (TwinsUK). Measures of gut-microbiome, faecal endocannabinoid metabolites, and anhedonia/amotivation were collected over five years. To test our hypothesis we used a multilevel mediation model using alpha diversity as predictor, faecal levels of the endocannabinoid palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) as mediator, and anhedonia/amotivation as outcome. Analyses were adjusted for obesity, diet, antidepressants, and sociodemographic covariates.
Mean age was 65.2±7.6; 27% were obese and 4.7% were on antidepressants. Alpha diversity was significantly associated with anhedonia/amotivation (β=-0.37; 95%CI: -0.71 to -0.03; P=0.03). Faecal PEA levels mediated this association: the indirect effect was significant (β=-0.13; 95%CI: -0.24 to -0.01; P=0.03), as was the total effect (β=-0.38; 95%CI: -0.72 to -0.04; P=0.03). The direct effect of alpha diversity on anhedonia/amotivation was attenuated fully
We provided the first evidence showing that the association between gut-microbial features and anhedonia/amotivation is mediated by the endocannabinoid system. These findings shed light on a new therapeutic target in an area of unmet clinical need.
The first brief essay argues that although the body of Richard Wright's works, his legacy, retains a special relevance in multiple discourses about human and civil rights, systemic racism, and transnational efforts to address global social injustice, it is dangerous, both in traditional scholarship and in non-academic commentary, to incarcerate his works within a single ideology or within the framework of current ideologies that give special credibility to #BlackLivesMatter. Indeed, such a framing of legacies may lead critics to be complicit in producing confusion and error which serve to undermine the primal strength of Wright's legacy: the exceptional value of asking questions that provoke pragmatic responses rather than seemingly definitive answers. We ought not abandon the dialectics of the concrete and the dialogic of the imaginary as we argue for the value of Wright's legacy in temporal evolutions. The essay draws special attention to the vexed efforts of Christopher J. Lebron to explain the origins of #BlackLivesMatter. Dealing adequately with Wright's legacy involves a willingness to engage the problematic of what Roseann Liu and Savannah Shange propose is thick solidarity, the willingness to respect the layering of " interpersonal empathy with historical analysis, political acumen, and a willingness to be led by those most directly impacted as the subjects and the objects of history. The second essay tentatively concludes that we continue to examine and re-examine Wright's legacy inside of and outside of #BlackLivesMatter. Richard Wright’s class-conscious writings of the 1930s-1940s makes use of Marxism to help us think through the relationship between the individual and the social totality; race and class; “black lives” and “all lives.” In what sense is Bigger Thomas a “native son”? How do the hands in “I Have Seen Black Hands” relate to the laboring hands of the rest of the working class? Wright’s revolutionary communist standpoint, mediating between the particular and the general, what is and what can be, requires us to think dialectically past the limitations of a reformist politics of redistribution and inclusion.
This chapter goes back in history to explore the roots of Norway and Sweden’s postulated peace traditions and some key features of the two states’ mediation efforts during and after the Cold War. With particular attention paid to Norway’s attempt to take national ownership of the peace nation narrative in the 1990s and the 2000s, the chapter discusses why Sweden and Norway both found peacemaking an attractive tool for national image building, and demonstrates how the quest for a peace nation identity sparked competition and friction between the two states. The chapter uses examples from Guatemala, the Middle East and Sri Lanka to illustrate the possibilities and limitations of Nordic mediation, and argues that although the mediation successes have been relatively few, the peace nation narrative is hard to challenge since its overarching telos is to be the good, spread the good, and fulfill the good.
Moral injury has been found to be prevalent among healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 public health crisis.
The present study examines the relationship between spirituality, moral injury, and mental health among physicians and nurses in mainland China during the COVID-19 pandemic.
An online cross-sectional study was conducted involving 3006 physicians and nurses in mainland China, where the COVID-19 pandemic has caused high rates of hospital admission and death. The Moral Injury Symptoms Scale-Health Professional was administered, along with measures of mental health and spirituality. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used to examine the mediating and moderating role of moral injury in the relationship between spirituality and mental health.
Spirituality was positively correlated with moral injury (β = 2.41, P < 0.01), depressive symptoms (β = 0.74, P < 0.01) and anxiety symptoms (β = 0.65, P < 0.01) after controlling sociodemographic variables. Moral injury significantly mediated the relationship between spirituality and both depression and anxiety, explaining 60% (0.46/0.76) of the total association between spirituality and depression and 58% (0.38/0.65) of the association with anxiety. No moderating effect of moral injury was found on the spirituality–mental health relationship.
Although they were the findings of a cross-sectional study, these results suggest that concern over transgressing moral values during the pandemic may have been a driving factor for negative mental health symptoms among Chinese health professionals for whom spirituality was somewhat important. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine the causal nature of these relationships.
Over the last eighty years there has been a global rise in 'peace communication' practice, the use of interpersonal and mass communication interventions to mediate between peoples engaged in political conflict. In this study, Yael Warshel assesses Israeli and Palestinian versions of Sesame Street, which targeted negative inter-group attitudes and stereotypes. Merging communication, peace and conflict studies, social psychology, anthropology, political science, education, Middle Eastern and childhood studies, this book provides a template to think about how audiences receive, interpret, use and are influenced by peace communication. By picking apart the text and subtext of the kind of media these specific audiences of children consume, Warshel examines how they interpret peace communication interventions, are socialized into Palestinians, Jewish Israelis and Arab/Palestinian Israelis, the political opinions they express and the violence they reproduce. She questions whether peace communication practices have any relevant structural impact on their audiences, critiques such interventions and offers recommendations for improving future communication interventions into political conflict worldwide.
The chapter begins by outlining three stages of China’s judicial reform journey. The first stage, marked by the Western-oriented reforms launched in the late 1970s, featured judicial activism within uncertain boundaries. The second stage is often depicted as constituting a U-turn. This relatively brief stage was characterised by the revival of the mediation system and redistribution of power within the political–legal system. Finally, the third stage comprises the grand changes introduced since the 4th Plenum of the 18th Party Congress. The chapter then turns to the major reform measures introduced in the current round of reforms and uses empirical data to evaluate the extent to which they constitute a deviation from the previous reform path. Although the greater judicial transparency, personnel reforms, soft-centralisation of the judicial organs and ongoing supervision reform seen during this round have effected a fundamental overhaul of judicial power, they remain influenced by deeply embedded political constraints. The final section of the chapter summarises the Chinese characteristics of the pursuit of rule of law in a one-party state, including the ongoing populist turn, selective adoption of Western experiences, development of a distinct dispute resolution system, cycles of decentralisation and centralisation, and persistent party leadership.
In this article, we consider an often overlooked model that combines mediation and moderation to explain how a third variable can relate to a risk factor–psychopathology relationship. We refer to it as moderation and mediation in a three-variable system. We describe how this model is relevant to studying vulnerability factors and how it may advance developmental psychopathology research. To illustrate the value of this approach, we provide several examples where this model may be applicable, such as the relationships among parental externalizing pathology, harsh parenting, and offspring psychopathology as well as between neuroticism, stressful life events, and depression. We discuss possible reasons why this model has not gained traction and attempt to clarify and dispel those concerns. We provide guidance and recommendations for when to consider this model for a given data set and point toward existing resources for testing this model that have been developed by statisticians and other methodologists. Lastly, we describe important caveats, limitations, and considerations for making this approach most useful for developmental research. Overall, our goal in presenting this information to developmental psychopathology researchers is to encourage testing moderation and mediation in a three-variable system with the aim of advancing analytic strategies for studying vulnerability factors.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with cognitive and functional difficulties, persistent beyond mood episodes. Cognitive remediation (CR) is a psychological therapy targeting cognitive and functioning difficulties. Recent evidence suggests that CR may enhance long-term functioning but transfer mechanisms on functional outcomes have not been explored. We aim to investigate whether and how cognitive gains after CR transfer to functional improvement.
We considered data from a randomized controlled trial comparing CR (n = 40) to treatment-as-usual (TAU; n = 40) in euthymic people with BD. Treatment outcomes included individual cognitive domains and global cognition, psychosocial functioning, and goal attainment. Regression-based mediation and moderation modelling were used to assess whether and how post-treatment cognitive changes translate into functional improvement at follow-up, three months after treatment end.
Cognitive gains after CR transferred to functional changes three months later: improvement in post-treatment global cognition partially mediated the effect of CR on psychosocial functioning (standardized indirect effect: −0.23, 95% CI −0.51 to −0.04). Goal attainment was not significantly mediated by changes in cognition, but post-treatment cognitive performance moderated the effect of CR on the GAS at follow-up (interaction effect: 0.78, 95% CI 0.08–1.55).
Our findings suggest that cognitive improvements contribute to functional improvement but transfer mechanisms differ between psychosocial functioning and idiosyncratic recovery goals. Cognition accounted for only a proportion of the total CR effect on functional outcomes. Future studies should consider other variables, such as metacognition, that may drive the transfer of CR effects to functional outcomes.
How are we to make truthful statements, depictions or communications about a changing world? A fact is not an actuality but a statement about actuality; data are not given but captured and communicated; communication modifies the actuality it describes. We have many tools at our disposal – journalistic and essayistic, photographic, scientific – with which to name and depict things that are too big, too small, too fast or too slow for human perception. This chapter suggests that they share two fundamental procedures: abstraction and anecdote. The former culls large-scale dynamics from massive collections of data; the latter seizes on unique instances of the confluence of forces. Can an investigation of truth-practices in stories, reports, diagrams and images give us tools to redirect the changes we know we are experiencing but for which the means of expression seem suddenly ineffectual?
With the Asquithian Liberals ejected from office, Lloyd George's new government remained in denial over the severity of Britain's economic problem in the United States. Bonar Law's new responsibilities as Chancellor alerted him to the seriousness of the crisis, but he took no meaningful action. German and American moves for peace came soon after Lloyd George's ascent to power, but the new government simply sought to manoeuvre around them. British intelligence continued to serve Lloyd George poorly, sending him decrypts that again misled Lloyd George into believing that Germany and the United States were secretly collaborating. British intelligence also decrypted the infamous Zimmermann Telegram, but decided not to share it with the government. Arthur Balfour, the new Foreign Secretary, remained extremely anxious about Britain's economic position. He used a British intelligence officer in the United States, William Wiseman, to quietly keep alive the prospect of American mediation with House. House sought new negotiations between Germany and Britain via Wiseman and the German Ambassador. Germany announced a declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare, ending House's negotiations.
Over the first year of the war, Britain moved from a position of financial power over the United States to a position of increasing economic dependency. Responsibility for managing this shift fell first to Chancellor David Lloyd George, who showed little interest in the Treasury's operations during the war, and then to Reginald McKenna, who became increasingly seized of the problem. American Colonel Edward House moved to try to mediate the war, taking a trip to Europe. Finding that it was still far too early to mediate the conflict, House set his sights much lower. He looked merely to convince the powers that, when it came time to end the war, the United States should serve as the necessary neutral clearing-house through which the negotiations would be completed. At the same time, British intelligence organization MI1(b) worked to solve the American diplomatic codebooks, succeeding not long after House returned to the United States.
Grey gave a great push to convince his colleagues to consult the French government about activating the House-Grey Memorandum, only to be outmanoeuvred. With this diplomatic alternative set aside, the military successfully pressured the government to assent to a major summer offensive on the Somme. The military also sought to replace the strategy agreed a few months earlier with an economic fantasy: the military was now looking to win the war with an offensive in 1917 instead of in 1916, but refused to accept that Britain would face serious financial problems in continuing the Allies' massive US supplies through a 1917 campaign. Despite fierce resistance within the Cabinet, the House of Commons forced the acceptance of the military's position. The British government suffered a financial scare when McKenna warned that their assets deployable in the United States faced exhaustion by autumn. McKenna was wrong about the timing: Britain had more assets than he thought, enough to last them into early 1917. But the scare resulted in a serious reconsideration of the House-Grey Memorandum when House and Wilson pushed for an autumn implementation of the agreement. The memorandum's proponents were unintentionally undermined by Wilson’s speech to the US League to Enforce Peace.
Wilson broke off diplomatic relations with Germany but began new peace efforts via Austria-Hungary. The new Austro-Hungarian Emperor Karl shared Wilson's desperation to open general peace negotiations. With the British down to their final tranche of American assets and yet refusing to cut their American spending, the Allies steadily grew more vulnerable to US pressure. Wilson pursued peace possibilities with Austria-Hungary, beginning indirect negotiations with the British leadership, who thought that an Austro-Hungarian separate peace might be on offer. These indirect negotiations led Lloyd George to make a reckless confession to the US Ambassador to London, Walter Page: Lloyd George confessed that he had secretly been reading Page's instructions from Washington. Page magnanimously kept this confession a secret. At the same time, British intelligence manouevred to make the best use of the Zimmermann Telegram. When Wilson received it, it had a dramatic effect on his diplomacy. Before, Wilson had consistently moved speedily and creatively to promote negotiations between London and Vienna. Afterward, he took a very hard line towards the Austro-Hungarians and broke off these peace negotiations despite large Austro-Hungarian concessions. Soon thereafter, the United States joined the First World War and provided massive financing to the Allies.