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COVID-19 lockdowns increased the risk of mental health problems, especially for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, despite its importance, little is known about the protective factors for ASD children during the lockdowns.
Based on the Shanghai Autism Early Developmental Cohort, 188 ASD children with two visits before and after the strict Omicron lockdown were included; 85 children were lockdown-free, while 52 and 51 children were under the longer and the shorter durations of strict lockdown, respectively. We tested the association of the lockdown group with the clinical improvement and also the modulation effects of parent/family-related factors on this association by linear regression/mixed-effect models. Within the social brain structures, we examined the voxel-wise interaction between the grey matter volume and the identified modulation effects.
Compared with the lockdown-free group, the ASD children experienced the longer duration of strict lockdown had less clinical improvement (β = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.19–0.79], p = 0.001) and this difference was greatest for social cognition (2.62 [0.94–4.30], p = 0.002). We found that this association was modulated by parental agreeableness in a protective way (−0.11 [−0.17 to −0.05], p = 0.002). This protective effect was enhanced in the ASD children with larger grey matter volumes in the brain's mentalizing network, including the temporal pole, the medial superior frontal gyrus, and the superior temporal gyrus.
This longitudinal neuroimaging cohort study identified that the parental agreeableness interacting with the ASD children's social brain development reduced the negative impact on clinical symptoms during the strict lockdown.
Nowadays, tourism has become an important pillar industry of national economic development. However, among college students majoring in tourism, some patients with mania have violent mood swings, and they are quickly troubled by pressure and anxiety, which brings certain troubles to their academic and career development. It is essential to study the treatment of manic college students in tourism majors.
Subjects and Methods
In the experiment, 60 college students with common mania were selected as the research objects, and 30 were chosen as the experimental group. The treatment training mode of tourism management professionals under social psychology was adopted for half a year. The other 30 college students were used as the control group, and the traditional training mode of tourism management professionals was adopted for six months of treatment training.
The data were assessed using the irritability component of the Stanford Acute Stress Response Questionnaire (SASRQ), with higher scores indicating greater mania. The results showed that most undergraduates in the experimental group tended to be emotionally stable and less affected by stress and anxiety, with a comprehensive score of 10. However, more than half of the students in the control group still had overreaction and mania, and the total score was 19 points.
The results of this study will provide a valuable reference for the treatment of manic college students in tourism majors and provide specific guiding significance for the training of tourism management professionals.
Neocinnamomum plants are evergreen shrubs or small trees belonging to the Neocinnamomeae tribe of the Lauraceae family. Their seeds are rich in fatty acids, and their leaves are often used in traditional Chinese medicine. Presently, only a few studies have been performed on Neocinnamomum plants; therefore, the genome-based phylogeny among Neocinnamomum species has not been determined, which limits the germplasm innovation of this genus. In this study, by the Illumina (next-generation sequencing) and third-generation sequencing technologies, the whole genomes of seven Neocinnamomum species samples were sequenced, their nuclear DNA (nrDNA) sequences were assembled and characterized, and their phylogeny was reconstructed. The results revealed four hypervariable regions (i.e. transcribed spacer regions) in the nrDNA sequences, among which the highest degree of variation was observed in the external transcribed spacer (ETS) region localized behind the 26S gene. A total of 27 insertions/deletions and 184 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, both localized mainly in the ETS and internal transcribed spacer regions, were identified. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the nrDNA sequences using the maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods with Caryodaphnopsis henryi as the outgroup. The ML tree divided the seven Neocinnamomum species into four clades. Clade I consisted of Neocinnamomum caudatum var. macrocarpum and Neocinnamomum caudatum, clade II included Neocinnamomum delavayi and Neocinnamomum mekongense, clade III included Neocinnamomum fargesii and a branch species of N. delavayi and clade IV included Neocinnamomum lecomtei, constituting a monophyletic and basal group. The BI tree shared the same topological structure as the ML tree, and all the support values of the BI tree were one except for that of one Neocinnamomum species (0.98). The results of this study provide new evidence regarding the phylogenetic evolution of the Neocinnamomum plants.
Trilobite moulting behaviour has been extensively investigated. However, exuviae in eodiscid trilobites are poorly known. Here, we report two eodiscid trilobite specimens, Tsunyidiscus niutitangensis and Tsunyidiscus sp., showing Somersault configuration from the Niutitang Formation and Mingxinsi Formation of South China, respectively (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 3). The arrangements of the exoskeletons indicate that the two specimens are the slightly disturbed and undisturbed exuviae. The impression of the lower cephalic unit (LCU) displays the rostral plate in Tsunyidiscus niutitangensis. The exuviae showing the LCU inverted anteriorly under the trunk. The opening of the facial and rostral sutures would have allowed the emergence of the post-ecdysial trilobite with the partial enrolment of exoskeleton. Moreover, our discovery indicates a Somersault configuration which employed the facial and rostral sutures to create an anterior exuvial gape that also exists in eodiscid trilobites besides redlichiid trilobites, corynexochid trilobites and ptychopariid trilobites during the Cambrian.
A multi-agent deep reinforcement learning (DRL)-based model is presented in this study to reconstruct flow fields from noisy data. A combination of reinforcement learning with pixel-wise rewards, physical constraints represented by the momentum equation and the pressure Poisson equation, and the known boundary conditions is used to build a physics-constrained deep reinforcement learning (PCDRL) model that can be trained without the target training data. In the PCDRL model, each agent corresponds to a point in the flow field and learns an optimal strategy for choosing pre-defined actions. The proposed model is efficient considering the visualisation of the action map and the interpretation of the model operation. The performance of the model is tested by using direct numerical simulation-based synthetic noisy data and experimental data obtained by particle image velocimetry. Qualitative and quantitative results show that the model can reconstruct the flow fields and reproduce the statistics and the spectral content with commendable accuracy. Furthermore, the dominant coherent structures of the flow fields can be recovered by the flow fields obtained from the model when they are analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition. This study demonstrates that the combination of DRL-based models and the known physics of the flow fields can potentially help solve complex flow reconstruction problems, which can result in a remarkable reduction in the experimental and computational costs.
Inflammation plays a critical role in the progression of chronic liver diseases, and diet can modulate inflammation. Whether an inflammatory dietary pattern is associated with higher risk of hepatic steatosis or fibrosis remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the associations between inflammatory dietary pattern and the odds of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis.
In this nationwide cross-sectional study, diet was measured using two 24-h dietary recalls. Empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score was derived to assess the inflammatory potential of usual diet, which has been validated to highly predict inflammation markers in the study population. Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) were derived from FibroScan to define steatosis and fibrosis, respectively.
US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
4171 participants aged ≥18 years.
A total of 1436 participants were diagnosed with S1 steatosis (CAP ≥ 274 dB/m), 255 with advanced fibrosis (LSM ≥ 9·7 kPa). Compared with those in the lowest tertile of EDIP-adherence scores, participants in the highest tertile had 74 % higher odds of steatosis (OR: 1·74, 95 % CI (1·26, 2·41)). Such positive association persisted among never drinkers, or participants who were free of hepatitis B and/or C. Similarly, EDIP was positively associated with CAP in multivariate linear model (P < 0·001). We found a non-significant association of EDIP score with advanced fibrosis or LSM (P = 0·837).
Our findings suggest that a diet score that is associated with inflammatory markers is associated with hepatic steatosis. Reducing or avoiding pro-inflammatory diets intake might be an attractive strategy for fatty liver disease prevention.
We present experimental evidence of multifractality and scale-free network topology in a noise-perturbed laminar jet operated in a globally stable regime, prior to the critical point of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation and prior to the saddle-node point of a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. For both types of bifurcation, we find that (i) the degree of multifractality peaks at intermediate noise intensities, (ii) the conditions for peak multifractality produce a complex network whose node degree distribution obeys an inverse power-law scaling with an exponent of $2 < \gamma < 3$, indicating scale-free topology and (iii) the Hurst exponent and the global clustering coefficient can serve as early warning indicators of global instability under specific operating and forcing conditions. By characterising the noise-induced dynamics of a canonical shear flow, we demonstrate that the multifractal and scale-free network dynamics commonly observed in turbulent flows can also be observed in laminar flows under certain stochastic forcing conditions.
Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) is a globally distributed noxious weed that poses a significant challenge for control due to its fast and efficient propagation through the tuber, which is the primary reproductive organ. Gibberellic acid (GA3) has proven to be crucial for tuberization in tuberous plants. Therefore, understanding the relationship between GA3 and tuber development and propagation of C. rotundus will provide valuable information for controlling this weed. This study shows that the GA3 content decreases with tuber development, which corresponds to lower expression of bioactive GA3 synthesis genes (CrGA20ox, two CrGA3ox genes) and two upregulated GA3 catabolism genes (CrGA2ox genes), indicating that GA3 is involved in tuber development. Simultaneously, the expression of two CrDELLA genes and CrGID1 declines with tuber growth and decreased GA3, and yeast two-hybrid assays confirm that the GA3 signaling is DELLA-dependent. Furthermore, exogenous application of GA3 markedly reduces the number and the width of tubers and represses the growth of the tuber chain, further confirming the negative impact that GA3 has on tuber development and propagation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GA3 is involved in tuber development and regulated by the DELLA-dependent pathway in C. rotundus and plays a negative role in tuber development and propagation.
Adsorption of nanoparticles on minerals affects the fate and transport of nanoparticles directly and is of great significance to many fields, including research into ore deposits, geochemistry, the environment and mineral materials. Whereas many previous studies have been conducted under the equilibrium pH and low solid (mineral) to liquid (nanoparticle suspension) ratio conditions, adsorption processes under initial pH and high solid/liquid ratio conditions may represent many important yet underexamined complex scenarios. To fill in this research gap, the adsorption of gold nanoparticles on illite was investigated experimentally at a relatively high solid/liquid ratio of 5 g L–1 and the effects of initial pH, ionic strength, citrate concentration, temperature and illite particle size were evaluated. The adsorbed amount of gold nanoparticles (from <5% to nearly 100%) increased with increasing ionic strength, temperature and citrate concentration and decreased with increasing pH and illite particle size. The presence of illite resulted in the dynamic evolution of the pH of the suspension, which, along with solution chemistry parameters, controlled the electrostatic interaction of illite and gold nanoparticles. The adsorption results, scanning electron microscopy observations and surface properties of illite suggest that the negatively charged gold nanoparticles were adsorbed predominantly on the positive illite edges through electrostatic interaction. The electrostatic attraction between illite and gold nanoparticles appeared to be strong, supported by the minor amount of desorption. These research findings are expected to provide a valuable reference regarding many critical issues in the geosciences as well as for industrial applications.
To be successfully used in daily life situations, exoskeletons should be effective across multimodal scenarios, including walking on various terrains, and transitions between locomotion modes such as walking-to-stop. Correct continuous gait phase estimation is essential for high-level walking assistance control. Despite the impressive advances in gait phase estimation for a variety of locomotion modes, transition gait phase estimation is rarely researched, leading to the jittering of exoskeletons during walking-to-stop transitions. We propose an optimized phase oscillator (PO-opt) that estimates the gait phase correctly during transition gaits in multimodal locomotion, which is beneficial to eliminating the jittering. In the phase plane, a lateral axis extreme difference (LAED) is adopted to classify transition gaits. The threshold of LAED for transition gaits in multimodal locomotion was preliminarily determined by simulation, which was then applied and validated in experiments. Simulation results indicated that a threshold of 15.0 was suitable for transition gaits classification during treadmill walking, free walking, and ramp ascent/descent, while results of the experiment showed that a threshold between 6.5 and 10.5 was applicable for treadmill walking, free walking, and stair ascent/descent. In particular, the jittering elimination rates for 3, 4, and 5 km/h treadmill walking were improved from 29%, 21%, and 4% (PO model) to 100%, respectively, when the threshold of LAED was set at 15.0 in PO-opt model. The results indicated a significant increase in the rate of jittering elimination when the PO-opt model was applied. The model holds great promise in real-world applications for prostheses and other types of exoskeletons.
This paper studies the synchronization control of the blanket remote maintenance robot (BRMR) of the China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR). First, the general state space mathematical model of BRMR was established by using a physical-based method. Second, based on the receding horizon optimization of model predictive control (MPC) and cross-coupling error reduction in cross-coupling control (CCC), the innovative MPC-CCC controller was proposed to realize the single-system and multisystem error convergence and high accuracy transportation of blanket through the high accuracy synchronization control of BRMR. Third, to verify the control effectiveness of the MPC-CCC controller, two types of simulations and experiments were implied compared with the original proportional-integral (PI) controller in Mover. Results showed that simulation and experiments were highly consistent. It is found that the use of an MPC-CCC controller can result in up to a 70% reduction in displacement error and up to a 59% reduction in synchronization error compared to the PI controller. And the accuracy of the MPC-CCC controller satisfies the real requirement of the maintenance process of the blanket. This work provides the theoretical basis and practical experience for the highly stable, safe, and efficient maintenance of blankets in the future.
Placental trophoblastic cells play important roles in placental development and fetal health. However, the mechanism of trophoblastic cell fusion is still not entirely clear. The level of Tspan5 in the embryo culture medium was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fusion of BeWo cells was observed by immunofluorescence. Cell fusion-related factors and EMT-related factors were identified by qRT-PCR and western blotting. Notch protein repressor DAPT was used to verify the role of Tspan5 in BeWo cells. The expression of Tspan5 was significantly increased in embryo culture medium. The fusion of BeWo cells was observed after treatment with forskolin (FSK). Cell fusion-related factors (i.e. β-hCG and syncytin 1/2) and Tspan5 were significantly increased after FSK treatment. In addition, FSK treatment promoted EMT-related protein expression in BeWo cells. Knockdown of Tspan5 inhibited cell fusion and EMT-related protein levels. Notch-1 and Jagged-1 protein levels were significantly upregulated, and the EMT process was activated by overexpression of Tspan5 in FSK-treated BeWo cells. Interestingly, blocking the Notch pathway by the repressor DAPT had the opposite results. These results indicated that Tspan5 could promote the EMT process by activating the Notch pathway, thereby causing cell fusion. These findings contribute to a better understanding of trophoblast cell syncytialization and embryonic development. Tspan5 may be used as a therapeutic target for normal placental development.
The western Mongolian Lake Zone was a Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic volcanic arc where tuffs, lavas, fossiliferous siliciclastics, and carbonates accumulated during the early Cambrian. An uppermost Cambrian Series 2 (upper Stage 4) trilobite assemblage is described here from the Burgasutay Formation representing a continuous lower Cambrian succession at the Seer Ridge of the Great Lake Depression. The new assemblage is dominated by dorypygids and consists of 13 trilobite genera belonging to nine families including Catinouyia heyunensis new species. These fossils comprise the youngest and richest lower Cambrian trilobite assemblage in Mongolia. The composition of the Lake Zone fauna suggests its biogeographic affinity with the Siberian Platform and Altay-Sayan Foldbelt, but the presence of inouyiids also implies a connection of this region with East Gondwana.
In this paper, we apply standard zooarchaeological methods and novel osteological approaches to analyse faunal remains from five Middle–Late Holocene sites in the southern Tibetan Plateau (STP). Framed by direct radiocarbon dates on taxonomically classified bioarchaeological remains and compared with published palaeoclimate data, our findings revealed a three-stage process of agro-pastoral development in the STP ca. 5.5 to 1.0 ka. In the first phase, habitation was restricted to the lower southeastern part of the plateau and human subsistence essentially based on foraging and low-level pig–millet farming. With the onset of colder and drier climatic conditions ca. 3.8 ka, the study area witnessed a growing human presence at higher elevations in its central and western parts, together with a shift towards bovid husbandry and barley cultivation, that is, agricultural practices that originated in west Asia; these were likely introduced to the STP following the eastern margin of the TP and/or arrived by sub-Himalayan transfer. Climate and ecological degradation might have contributed to the decline of local game in favour of cold-and-dry-tolerant pastoral livestock and crops. Our work shows that Middle–Late Holocene climate change, ecological change, human subsistence shifts, and prehistoric cultural transmissions are intimately connected.
The sedimentation of two spherical solid objects in a viscous fluid has been extensively investigated and well understood. However, a pair of flat disks (in three dimensions) settling in the fluid shows more complex hydrodynamic behaviour. The present work aims to improve the understanding of this phenomenon by performing direct numerical simulation and physical experiments. The present results show that the sedimentation processes are significantly influenced by disk shape, characterized by a dimensionless moment of inertia I*, and Reynolds number Re of the leading disk. For the flatter disks with smaller I*, steady falling with enduring contact transits to periodic swinging with intermittent contacts as Re increases. The disks with larger I* tend to fall in a drafting-kissing-tumbling mode at low Re and to remain separated at high Re. Based on I* and Re, a phase diagram is created to classify the two-disk falling into ten distinctive patterns. The planar motion or three-dimensional motion of the disks is determined primarily by Re. Turbulent disturbance flows at a high Re contribute to the chaotic three-dimensional rotation of the disks. The chance for the two disks to contact is increased when I* and Re are reduced.
With the aid of recently proposed word embedding algorithms, the study of semantic relatedness has progressed rapidly. However, word-level representations are still lacking for many natural language processing tasks. Various sense-level embedding learning algorithms have been proposed to address this issue. In this paper, we present a generalized model derived from existing sense retrofitting models. In this generalization, we take into account semantic relations between the senses, relation strength, and semantic strength. Experimental results show that the generalized model outperforms previous approaches on four tasks: semantic relatedness, contextual word similarity, semantic difference, and synonym selection. Based on the generalized sense retrofitting model, we also propose a standardization process on the dimensions with four settings, a neighbor expansion process from the nearest neighbors, and combinations of these two approaches. Finally, we propose a Procrustes analysis approach that inspired from bilingual mapping models for learning representations that outside of the ontology. The experimental results show the advantages of these approaches on semantic relatedness tasks.
The association between time-restricted eating (TRE) and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is less studied. Moreover, whether the association is independent of physical exercise or diet quality or quantity is uncertain. In this nationwide cross-sectional study of 3813 participants, the timing of food intakes was recorded by 24-h recalls; NAFLD was defined through vibration-controlled transient elastography in the absence of other causes of chronic liver disease. OR and 95 % CI were estimated using logistic regression. Participants with daily eating window of ≤ 8 h had lower odds of NAFLD (OR = 0·70, 95 % CI: 0·52, 0·93), compared with those with ≥ 10 h window. Early (05.00–15.00) and late TRE (11.00–21.00) showed inverse associations with NAFLD prevalence without statistical heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity = 0·649) with OR of 0·73 (95 % CI: 0·36, 1·47) and 0·61 (95 % CI: 0·44, 0·84), respectively. Such inverse association seemed stronger in participants with lower energy intake (OR = 0·58, 95 % CI: 0·38, 0·89, Pinteraction = 0·020). There are no statistical differences in the TRE-NAFLD associations according to physical activity (Pinteraction = 0·390) or diet quality (Pinteraction = 0·110). TRE might be associated with lower likelihood of NAFLD. Such inverse association is independent of physical activity and diet quality and appears stronger in individuals consuming lower energy. Given the potential misclassification of TRE based on one- or two-day recall in the analysis, epidemiological studies with validated methods for measuring the habitual timing of dietary intake are warranted.
Childhood maltreatment has been suggested to have an adverse impact on neurodevelopment, including microstructural brain abnormalities. Existing neuroimaging findings remain inconsistent and heterogeneous. We aim to explore the most prominent and robust cortical thickness (CTh) and gray matter volume (GMV) alterations associated with childhood maltreatment. A systematic search on relevant studies was conducted through September 2022. The whole-brain coordinate-based meta-analysis (CBMA) on CTh and GMV studies were conducted using the seed-based d mapping (SDM) software. Meta-regression analysis was subsequently applied to investigate potential associations between clinical variables and structural changes. A total of 45 studies were eligible for inclusion, including 11 datasets on CTh and 39 datasets on GMV, consisting of 2550 participants exposed to childhood maltreatment and 3739 unexposed comparison subjects. Individuals with childhood maltreatment exhibited overlapped deficits in the median cingulate/paracingulate gyri simultaneously revealed by both CTh and GM studies. Regional cortical thinning in the right anterior cingulate/paracingulate gyri and the left middle frontal gyrus, as well as GMV reductions in the left supplementary motor area (SMA) was also identified. No greater regions were found for either CTh or GMV. In addition, several neural morphology changes were associated with the average age of the maltreated individuals. The median cingulate/paracingulate gyri morphology might serve as the most robust neuroimaging feature of childhood maltreatment. The effects of early-life trauma on the human brain predominantly involved in cognitive functions, socio-affective functioning and stress regulation. This current meta-analysis enhanced the understanding of neuropathological changes induced by childhood maltreatment.
Accumulating evidence suggests that positive and negative emotions, as well as emotion regulation, play key roles in human health and disease. Recent work has shown the gut microbiome is important in modulating mental and physical health through the gut–brain axis. Yet, its association with emotions and emotion regulation are understudied. Here we examined whether positive and negative emotions, as well as two emotion regulation strategies (i.e. cognitive reappraisal and suppression), were associated with the gut microbiome composition and functional pathways in healthy women.
Participants were from the Mind-Body Study (N = 206, mean age = 61), a sub-study of the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. In 2013, participants completed measures of emotion-related factors. Two pairs of stool samples were collected, 6 months apart, 3 months after emotion-related factors measures were completed. Analyses examined associations of emotion-related factors with gut microbial diversity, overall microbiome structure, and specific species/pathways and adjusted for relevant covariates.
Alpha diversity was negatively associated with suppression. In multivariate analysis, positive emotions were inversely associated with the relative abundance of Firmicutes bacterium CAG 94 and Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16, while negative emotions were directly correlated with the relative abundance of these same species. At the metabolic pathway level, negative emotions were inversely related to the biosynthesis of pantothenate, coenzyme A, and adenosine.
These findings offer human evidence supporting linkages of emotions and related regulatory processes with the gut microbiome and highlight the importance of incorporating the gut microbiome in our understanding of emotion-related factors and their associations with physical health.